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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#1
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303375/structure-optimization-to-improve-the-delivery-efficiency-and-cell-selectivity-of-a-tumor-targeting-cell-penetrating-peptide
#2
Xue-Wei Cao, Xu-Zhong Yang, Xuan Du, Long-Yun Fu, Tao-Zhu Zhang, Han-Wen Shan, Jian Zhao, Fu-Jun Wang
Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is used for the delivery of biomacromolecules across the cell membrane and is limited in cancer therapy due to the lack of cell selectivity. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been widely used in clinical targeted therapy for tumors. Here we reported a novel tumor targeting cell-penetrating peptide (TCPP), EHB (ELBD-C6H) with 20-fold and 3000-fold greater transmembrane ability and tumor cell selectivity than our previously reported S3-HBD and classic CPP TAT, respectively...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302188/migraine-in-young-females-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-still-a-challenge
#3
Doina Georgescu, Daniela Reisz, Camelia Vidita Gurban, Liviu Andrei Georgescu, Ioana Ionita, Oana Elena Ancusa, Daniel Lighezan
Migraine without aura is frequently reported in female patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but knowledge about the relationship between these two conditions is still lacking. This study was aimed to explore the particularities of migraine without aura in young female patients with IBS in order to establish a possible link between them. From a cohort of young female patients hospitalized with IBS in the Internal Medicine Department, 30 joined this pilot study, and they were assigned into two groups on the basis of presence or absence of migraine...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298527/a-narrative-review-of-the-clinical-application-of-pressure-reactiviy-indices-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit
#4
Stephen Copplestone, Jessie Welbourne
Pressure reactivity indices are used in clinical research as a surrogate marker of the ability of the cerebrovasculature to maintain cerebral autoregulation. The use of pressure reactivity indices in patients with neurological injury represents a potential to move away from population-based physiological targets used in guidelines to individualized physiological targets. The aim of this review is to describe the underlying principles and development of pressure reactivity indices, alongside a critique of how they have been used in clinical research, including their limitations...
January 4, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274374/the-effect-of-subcellular-localization-on-the-efficiency-of-egfr-targeted-vhh-photosensitizer-conjugates
#5
Sanne A M van Lith, Dirk van den Brand, Rike Wallbrecher, Lina Wübbeke, Sander M J van Duijnhoven, Petri I Mäkinen, Janneke S Hoogstad-van Evert, Leon Massuger, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Roland Brock, William P J Leenders
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging method to treat light-accessible malignancies. To increase specificity and allow dose reduction, conjugates of photosensitizers (PS) with antibodies against tumor-associated antigens have been developed for photoimmunotherapy (PIT). However, so far it is unclear whether cellular internalization of these conjugates after binding affects PIT efficacy. The use of low molecular weight llama single domain antibodies (VHHs, nanobodies) for PIT is preferred above full size antibodies because of better tumor penetration...
December 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248561/downstream-processing-from-melt-granulation-towards-tablets-in-depth-analysis-of-a-continuous-twin-screw-melt-granulation-process-using-polymeric-binders
#6
W Grymonpré, G Verstraete, V Vanhoorne, J P Remon, T De Beer, C Vervaet
The concept of twin-screw melt granulation (TSMG) has steadily (re)-gained interest in pharmaceutical formulation development as an intermediate step during tablet manufacturing. However, to be considered as a viable processing option for solid oral dosage forms there is a need to understand all critical sources of variability which could affect this granulation technique. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the continuous TSMG process in order to expose the critical process parameters (CPP) and elucidate the impact of process and formulation parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQA) of granules and tablets during continuous TSMG...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243449/are-we-ready-for-automated-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure
#7
Katia Donadello, Leonardo Gottin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218940/-studying-on-purification-technology-of-resina-draconis-phenol-extracts-based-on-design-space-method
#8
Jian Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yu-An Bi, Gui-Hong Xu, Wen-Zhe Huang, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
The "design space" method was used to optimize the purification process of Resina Draconis phenol extracts by using the concept of "quality derived from design" (QbD). The content and transfer rate of laurin B and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and yield of extract were selected as the critical quality attributes (CQA). Plackett-Burman design showed that the critical process parameters (CPP) were concentration of alkali, the amount of alkali and the temperature of alkali dissolution. Then the Box-Behnken design was used to establish the mathematical model between CQA and CPP...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214239/protonation-enhances-the-inherent-helix-forming-propensity-of-phlip
#9
Chitrak Gupta, Blake Mertz
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can be potentially used in targeted delivery of therapeutic cargoes. However, their conformation in solution is poorly understood. We employed molecular dynamics simulations to probe the structural fluctuations of an anionic CPP, pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP), in solution to determine the effects of modifications to selected residues on the structure of pHLIP. Two types of modifications were tested: (1) protonation of aspartic acid residues and (2) point mutations known to affect the acid sensitivity of pHLIP...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201841/the-combined-use-of-cardiac-output-and-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-to-maintain-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-and-minimize-complications-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Jin Shup So, Jung-Ho Yun
Objective: To show the effect of dual monitoring including cardiac output (CO) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patiens. We hypothesized that meticulous treatment using dual monitoring is effective to sustain maintain minimal intensive care unit (ICU) complications and maintain optimal ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for severe TBI patiens. Methods: We included severe TBI, below Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 and head abbreviation injury scale (AIS) >4 and performed decompressive craniectomy at trauma ICU of our hospital...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191047/stealth-lipid-polymer-hybrid-nanoparticles-loaded-with-rutin-for-effective-brain-delivery-comparative-study-with-the-gold-standard-tween-80-optimization-characterization-and-biodistribution
#11
Rania A H Ishak, Nada M Mostafa, Amany O Kamel
The blood-brain barrier is considered the leading physiological obstacle hindering the transport of neurotherapeutics to brain cells. The application of nanotechnology coupled with surfactant coating is one of the efficacious tactics overcoming this barrier. The aim of this study was to develop lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs), composed of a polymeric core and a phospholipid shell entangled, for the first time, with PEG-based surfactants (SAA) viz. TPGS or Solutol HS 15 in comparison with the gold standard Tween 80, aiming to enhance brain delivery and escape opsonization...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180981/cerebral-microdialysis-monitoring-to-improve-individualized-neurointensive-care-therapy-an-update-of-recent-clinical-data
#12
REVIEW
Laurent Carteron, Pierre Bouzat, Mauro Oddo
Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions-such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic control and oxygen therapy-in the individual patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172443/membrane-crossing-and-membranotropic-activity-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-dangerous-liaisons
#13
Astrid Walrant, Sébastien Cardon, Fabienne Burlina, Sandrine Sagan
Living organisms have to maintain a stable balance in molecules and ions in the changing environment in which they are living, a process known as homeostasis. At the level of cells, the plasma membrane has a major role in homeostasis, since this hydrophobic film prevents passive diffusion of large and hydrophilic molecules between the extracellular and intracellular milieu. Living organisms have evolved with highly sophisticated transport systems to control exchanges across this barrier: import of nutrients and fuel essential for their survival; recognition of chemical or physical messengers allowing information interchanges with surrounding cells...
November 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149389/autoregulation-in-paediatric-tbi-current-evidence-and-implications-for-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Joseph E Donnelly, Adam M H Young, Ken Brady
BACKGROUND: Children who survive acute traumatic brain injury are at risk of death from subsequent brain swelling and secondary injury. Strict physiologic management in the ICU after traumatic brain injury is believed to be key to survival, and cerebral perfusion pressure is a prominent aspect of post brain injury care. However, optimal cerebral perfusion pressure targets for children are not known. Autoregulation monitoring has been used to delineate individualized optimal perfusion pressures for patients with traumatic brain injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132572/secondary-gains-advances-in-neurotrauma-management
#15
REVIEW
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
Neurotrauma is a leading cause of death and is associated with many secondary injuries. A balance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) is required to ensure adequate cerebral blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure. Evaluation and management in the emergency department entails initial stabilization and resuscitation while assessing neurologic status. ICP management follows a tiered approach. Intubation requires consideration of preoxygenation, head of bed elevation, first pass success, and adequate analgesia and sedation...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123382/in-vivo-study-of-doxorubicin-loaded-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-ph-sensitive-liposomes-biocompatibility-bio-distribution-and-pharmacodynamics-in-balb-c-nude-mice-bearing-human-breast-tumors
#16
Yuan Ding, Wei Cui, Dan Sun, Gui-Ling Wang, Yu Hei, Shuai Meng, Jian-Hua Chen, Ying Xie, Zhi-Qiang Wang
In vivo evaluation of drug delivery vectors is essential for clinical translation. In BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast cancer tumors, we investigated the biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-modified pH-sensitive liposomes (CPPL) (referred to as CPPL(DOX)) with an optimal CPP density of 4%. In CPPL, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative formed by conjugating PEG with stearate via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-stearate) was inserted into the surface of liposomes, and CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate to simultaneously achieve long circulation time in blood and improve the selectivity and efficacy of CPP for tumor targeting...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084196/multimodality-neuromonitoring-in-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Adam M H Young, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Joseph Donnelly, Peter Smielewski, Shruti Agarwal, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson
Each year, the annual hospitalization rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children in the United States are 57.7 per 100K in the <5 years of age and 23.1 per 100K in the 5-14 years age group. Despite this, little is known about the pathophysiology of TBI in children and how to manage it most effectively. Historically, TBI management has been guided by clinical examination. This has been assisted progressively by clinical imaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and finally a software that can calculate optimal brain physiology...
December 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078873/improving-the-efficacy-of-liposome-mediated-vascular-gene-therapy-via-lipid-surface-modifications
#18
Richard K Fisher, Samuel I Mattern-Schain, Michael D Best, Stacy S Kirkpatrick, Michael B Freeman, Oscar H Grandas, Deidra J H Mountain
BACKGROUND: We have previously defined mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia that could be targets for molecular therapeutics aimed at vascular pathology. However, biocompatible nanocarriers are needed for effective delivery. Cationic liposomes (CLPs) have been demonstrated as effective nanocarriers in vitro. However, in vivo success has been hampered by cytotoxicity. Recently, neutral PEGylated liposomes (PLPs) have been modified with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to enhance cellular uptake...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984668/brain-heart-interactions-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Ayman El-Menyar, Abhishek Goyal, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani, William Frishman
The cardiovascular manifestations associated with nontraumatic head disorders are commonly known. Similar manifestations have been reported in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the underlying mechanisms and impact on the patient's clinical outcomes are not well explored. The neurocardiac axis theory and neurogenic stunned myocardium phenomenon could partly explain the brain-heart link and interactions and can thus pave the way to a better understanding and management of TBI. Several observational retrospective studies have shown a promising role for beta-adrenergic blockers in patients with TBI in reducing the overall TBI-related mortality...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973669/transcranial-doppler-waveforms-during-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-counterpulsation-for-vasospasm-detection-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#20
Nicholas A Morris, Nathan Manning, Randolph S Marshall, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen, Sachin Agarwal, David J Roh, J Michael Schmidt, Soojin Park
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a standard screening tool for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prevention of vasospasm-induced delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage depends on optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, which can be challenged by neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy. Intra-aortic balloon pumps have been utilized to augment cerebral perfusion, but they change the transcranial Doppler waveform, altering its interpretability for vasospasm screening...
July 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
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