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Pediatric pathology

Emanuel Rivera-Rosado, David Beaton-Comulada, Eric Hernandez-Ortiz, Pablo V Marrero-Ortiz
Fibrous dysplasia is a benign developmental disorder of bone in which fibrous connective tissue containing abnormal bone with irregular trabeculae replaces normal cancellous bone. It may affect 1 (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic). Polyostotic disease is the less common of the 2, occurring in only 20 to 25% of fibrous dysplasia patients and tending to affect those who are younger than 10 years of age; patients having this form tend to experience bone enlargement beyond normal skeletal maturation, which can cause pain, progressive damage, and increased risk of pathological fracture...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Andrés Retamal C, Giancarlo Schiappacasse F, Lizbet Pérez M, Pablo Alvayay Q, Isabel Schild W
Pediatric cancer is the second cause of death in children older than 5 years in our country, after trauma. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a hybrid technique that involves radiation, which has been used for some time in adults and is being progressively imple mented in children. This technique allows morphological and functional assessments of the body with applications in neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. Its main role in oncology is in the evaluation and control of lymphomas, sarcomas and neuroblastomas, among others...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Dustin A Bruening, Kota Z Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Kinematic multi-segment foot models have been increasingly used to study foot function. The addition of kinetics to these models may enhance their utility; however, this been hindered by limitations in measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) under individual foot segments. PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of partitioning segment GRFs from a single force platform on foot joint kinetics. METHODS: Two potential partitioning methods were applied to a previously published three-segment kinetic foot model...
March 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jaime Fernández-Sarmiento, Joseph A Carcillo, Claudia M Salinas, Edgar F Galvis, Paula A López, Andrés Jagua-Gualdrón
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate adherence to the sepsis bundle before and after an educational strategy and its impact on hospital stay. DESIGN: A prospective, analytic, before-and-after study of children with severe sepsis and septic shock who presented to the emergency department. SETTING: Carried out from January to December 2014 in the emergency department of a quaternary care hospital. PATIENTS: Of a total of 19,836 children who presented to the emergency department, 4,383 had an infectious pathology, with 203 of these showing severe sepsis and septic shock (124 pre intervention, and 79 post intervention)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Andy Tsai, Patrick R Johnston, Jeannette M Perez-Rossello, Micheál A Breen, Paul K Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The distal tibia is a common location for the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML). Prior radiologic-pathologic studies have suggested a tendency for medial, as opposed to lateral, cortical injury with the CML, but there has been no formal study of the geographic distribution of this strong indicator of abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study compares medial versus lateral cortical involvement of distal tibial CMLs in a clinical cohort of infants with suspected abuse...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Paul J Choi, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs, Emre Yilmaz
Owing to its rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (HNRMS) has seldom been discussed in the literature. As most of the data is based only on the retrospective experiences of tertiary healthcare centers, there are difficulties in formulating a standard treatment protocol. Moreover, the disease is poorly understood at its pathological, genetic, and molecular levels. For instance, 20% of all histological assessment is inaccurate; even an experienced pathologist can confuse rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and lymphoma...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Carolyn J Baglole, Feng Liang, Hussein Traboulsi, Angela Rico de Souza, Christian Giordano, Josephine T Tauer, Frank Rauch, Basil J Petrof
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in type I collagen genes. Respiratory complications have been largely attributed to spine and ribcage deformities. We hypothesized that direct involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma and/or diaphragm by the disease may occur. METHODS: In Col1a1Jrt/+ mice, a model of severe dominant OI, mean linear intercept length (Lm) was used to assess distal airspace size. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) phenotype of diaphragm muscle fibers, as well as contractile properties, were determined...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
George A Taylor
Perceptual errors are common contributors to missed diagnoses in the clinical practice of radiology. While the physical attributes of an image such as image resolution, signal-to-noise characteristics, and anatomic complexity are major causes of poor conspicuity of pathologic lesions, there are major interrelated cognitive contributors to visual errors. The first is satisfaction of search (SOS), where the detection of an abnormality results in premature termination of further search. Another form of incomplete search pattern is visual isolation, where a radiologist's search pattern is truncated to the main areas of an image, while little or no attention is given to peripheral areas...
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
Cheng Sun, Maria I Kontaridis
The heart is one of the first organs to form and function during embryonic development. It is comprised of multiple cell lineages, each integral for proper cardiac development, and include cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, epicardial cells and neural crest cells. The molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac development and morphogenesis are dependent on signaling crosstalk between multiple lineages through paracrine interactions, cell-ECM interactions, and cell-cell interactions, which together, help facilitate survival, growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration of cardiac tissue...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Tagore Sunkara, Megan E Caughey, Andrea Culliford, Vinaya Gaduputi
Defined as the tunneling of one bowel segment into an adjacent bowel segment, intussusception is typically observed in pediatric populations. Here, we present the case of a 78-year-old man who, in a series of unlikely events, developed colonic intussusception due to a benign lead point pathology. Intussusception of the colon is an uncommon occurrence in adults. However, adult colonic intussusception, observed in the absence of a malignant lead point pathology, represents a true clinical anomaly.
January 4, 2018: Curēus
Matthew J Thompson, John C Shapton, Stephanie E Punt, Christopher N Johnson, Ernest U Conrad
BACKGROUND: The quantitative accuracy of MRI in predicting the intraosseous extent of primary sarcoma of bone has not been definitively confirmed, although MRI is widely accepted as an accurate tool to plan limb salvage resections. Because inaccuracies in MRI determination of tumor extent could affect the ability of a tumor surgeon to achieve negative margins and avoid local recurrence, we thought it important to assess the accuracy of MR-determined tumor extent to the actual extent observed pathologically from resected specimens in pediatric patients treated for primary sarcomas of bone...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Ahmed Abushahin, Abdulla Zarroug, Magda Wagdi, Ibrahim Janahi
Wheezing and cough are common case scenarios that pediatricians encountered in their office practices. Although a bronchogenic cyst is an uncommon condition, it is essential to be considered in the differential diagnosis of a chronic cough and wheezing among young children who fail to respond to appropriate medical treatment. A 28-month-old girl was referred to our pediatric pulmonology clinic with persistent symptoms of a cough and wheeze unresponsive to standard asthma therapy. This presentation prompted us to undertake a detailed diagnostic evaluation...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Spinal tuberculosis [TB] is a common infectious disease prevalent in developing countries and a rising disaster in developed countries. The association of tuberculosis with spondylolisthesis is rarely reported in literature. The aim of our review is to analyse the clinical features and radiologic characteristics of TB spondylolisthesis along with providing a concise update on its surgical management, based on current literature. METHODS: A systematic review is performed after conducting a thorough search in the PubMed database...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Pietro Fiaschi, Filippo Badaloni, Bernarda Cagetti, Luca Bruzzone, Gianluca Marucci, Anna Dellachà, Marco Pavanello, Giuseppe Ganci, Riccardo Padolecchia, Valtero Valsania
Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor was recently added in the World Health Organization classification of Central Nervous System tumors. Although pretty rare, it is more common in the pediatric population, but occasional cases have been reported in adult patients. Despite this tumor has been recognized as a distinct pathological entity, its biological behavior remains unclear. It is considered an indolent neoplasm, even if considerable morbidity has been reported. Because of this reason, further characterization and collection of evidence is crucial...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Fiachra E Rowan, Biju Benjamin, Jurek R Pietrak, Fares S Haddad
BACKGROUND: Prevention of dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) begins with patient preoperative assessment and planning. METHODS: We performed a literature search to assess historical perspectives and current strategies to prevent dislocation after primary THA. The search yielded 3458 articles, and 154 articles are presented. RESULTS: Extremes of age, body mass index >30 kg/m2 , lumbosacral pathology, surgeon experience, and femoral head size influence dislocation rates after THA...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Miriam Steinberg, Joseph P Gaut, Stanley Paul Hmiel, Aadil Kakajiwala
Monoclonal gammopathies are a rare diagnosis in pediatric patients. A 19-year-old female patient with past medical history of hypogammaglobulinemia and natural killer cell deficiency and stage III follicular lymphoma, in remission, presented with a right-sided pneumonia, noted to have acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Complement C3 and C4 levels were normal. Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
José E Velázquez Vega, Daniel J Brat
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Jason S Hauptman, Robert Bollo, Rama Damerla, Brian Gibbs, Cecilia Lo, Aviva Katz, Stephanie Greene
Myelomeningocele and gastroschisis, on their own, are both relatively common entities encountered in pediatric surgical care. Coexistence of these pathologies, however, is exceedingly rare. The authors report on 2 patients who presented with myelomeningocele and gastroschisis at birth. They obtained blood for whole-exome analysis for one of the patients and identified 3 mutations that could be related to the underlying anomalies: homozygous mutations in FAM171B and ABCA1 and a hemizygous (X-linked) mutation in COL4A5...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
R Beverly Raney, Carola As Arndt, David M Parham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Azam Qureshi, Haoxing Chen, Osamah Saeedi, Mona A Kaleem, Gianna Stoleru, Jordan Margo, Sachin Kalarn, Janet L Alexander
PURPOSE: In this novel study, we demonstrate a standardized imaging and measurement protocol of anterior segment (AS) structures with reliability analysis using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and ImageJ software. METHODS: Ten pediatric and young adult patients undergoing examination under anesthesia for AS pathology were imaged using UBM. Four trained observers analyzed 20 images using ImageJ. Forty-five structural parameters were measured. Those that relied on the trabecular-iris angle (TIA) as a reference landmark were labeled TIA-dependent (TD) and all others were labeled non-TIA dependent (NTD)...
March 7, 2018: International Ophthalmology
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