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Paediatric pathology,

Michael A Skinnider, David D W Twa, Jordan W Squair, Norman D Rosenblum, Christine D Lukac
CONTEXT: MD/PhD programmes provide structured paths for physician-scientist training. However, considerable proportions of graduates of these programmes do not pursue careers in research consistent with their training. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors associated with sustained involvement in research after completion of all postgraduate training. METHODS: Anonymised data from a national survey of Canadian MD/PhD programme graduates who had completed all physician-scientist training (n = 70) were analysed...
March 13, 2018: Medical Education
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, David Gómez-Andrés, Juan Andrés Martín-Gonzalo, Irene Rodríguez-Andonaegui, Javier López-López, Samuel Ignacio Pascual-Pascual, Estrella Rausell
The Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) are a group of heterogeneous disorders with a wide spectrum of underlying neural pathology, and hence HSP patients express a variety of gait abnormalities. Classification of these phenotypes may help in monitoring disease progression and personalizing therapies. This is currently managed by measuring values of some kinematic and spatio-temporal parameters at certain moments during the gait cycle, either in the doctor´s surgery room or after very precise measurements produced by instrumental gait analysis (IGA)...
2018: PloS One
Anik Saha, Omar Breik, Ian Simpson, Ricky Kumar
The diagnosis of osteomas in the paediatric population can pose a challenge to pathologists in excluding malignant bony tumours. We present the case of a 10-year old male presenting with a large left mandibular radiopaque lesion. This paper discusses the case of a central osteoma with osteoblastoma-like features, literature review, differential diagnosis of radiopaque lesions of the maxilla and mandible as well as a detailed discussion of the pathology of the lesion. Although similar lesions have been described in the sino-orbital region, this is believed to be the first report of this pathological entity in the mandible...
March 5, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Mario Lima, Sara Ugolini, Niel Di Salvo, Michele Libri, Tommaso Gargano, Giovanni Ruggeri
Paediatric foreign body aspiration can be related to a high morbidity/mortality rate, especially in young children, and pneumothorax can be a severe associated issue. We describe a case of a 13-year-old girl with recurrent pneumothorax in bilateral bullous lung, twice previously treated at our institution by robotassisted bullectomy, and once again showing same signs and symptoms. At conventional thoracoscopy an inorganic foreign body was found to be located pointing upwards the apex. We believe this may have acted as a contributory cause in the persistence of the clinical picture, despite the surgical removal of the underlying pathology...
December 15, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Oyebanji Anthony Olajuyin, Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Atilade Waheed Adegbiji, Atoyebi Solomon Oyenibi, Opeyemi Ayodeji Faboya
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with episodic illnesses, multi-systemic affectations and end-organs damages. Otolaryngological related complications are not unexpected. Studies on the overall Otolaryngological pathologies in children with SCD relative to their non-SCD counterparts are scanty in Nigeria. We hypothesized that children with SCD are likely to have more otological burdens than their non-SCD counterparts. Thus, we embarked on this study to describe and compare the overall ear diseases burdens seen in children with sickle cell disease relative to their non-SCD counterparts...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Andrea Brusaferro, Edoardo Farinelli, Letizia Zenzeri, Rita Cozzali, Susanna Esposito
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is one of the most common health complaints in both children and adults. Although RAP is considered a functional disorder rather than an organic disease, affected children and their families can still experience anxiety and concerns that can interfere with school, sports, and regular daily activities and lead to frequent attendances at pediatric emergency departments or pediatric gastroenterology clinics. Our review shows experts do not agree on a universally proven management that will work on every child presenting with functional abdominal pain (FAP)...
March 2, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Alexandru Ulici, Daniel-Catalin Florea, Madalina Carp, Alin Ladaru, Iulia Tevanov
INTRODUCTION: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign intraosseous lesion filled with blood that can determine a blowout distension of the bone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sclerotherapy by percutaneous intralesional administration of ethanol 96% for the treatment of this pathology in paediatric patients. METHOD: The retrospective study includes 17 paediatric patients with ABC who were treated by repeated intracystic injection with ethanol 96%, 1 ml/kg, in our clinic between December 2015 and July 2017...
February 28, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Adam M H Young, Joseph Donnelly, Xiuyun Liu, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Melvin Carew, Manuel Cabeleira, Danilo Cardim, Matthew R Garnett, Helen M Fernandes, Christina Haubrich, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson, Shruti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography (CT) of the brain can allow rapid assessment of intracranial pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Frequently in paediatric TBI, CT imaging can fail to display the classical features of severe brain injury with raised intracranial pressure. The objective of this study was to determine early CT brain features that influence intracranial or systemic physiological trends following paediatric TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients (mean age, 10 years; range, 0...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Petter Bjornstad, Kim C Donaghue, David M Maahs
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. Although cardiovascular disease complications are rare until adulthood, pathology and early markers can manifest in adolescence. Whereas advances have been made in the management of microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes, similar progress in reducing macrovascular complications has not been made. The reasons for the absence of progress remain incompletely understood, but most likely relate to the long time needed for cardiovascular disease to manifest clinically and hence for risk factor management to show a clinical benefit, thus allowing inertia to prevail for diagnosis and particularly for targeting risk factors...
February 20, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Tashunka Taylor-Miller, Peter J Simm
BACKGROUND: Growth is one of the fundamental processes of adolescent development. Careful history and examination, and relevant tar-geted investigations, can streamline the referral process, highlighting the important role of primary healthcare clinicians. OBJECTIVE: This article will provide a guide for clinicians to categorise growth patterns in adolescents, and recognise patients who may have a growth disorder. It will assist clinicians in considering appropriate investigations, and provide guidance for when to refer the adolescent to appropriate paediatric specialists...
December 2017: Australian Family Physician
Maria R Dahm, Andrew Georgiou, Johanna I Westbrook, David Greenfield, Andrea R Horvath, Denis Wakefield, Ling Li, Ken Hillman, Patrick Bolton, Anthony Brown, Graham Jones, Robert Herkes, Robert Lindeman, Michael Legg, Meredith Makeham, Daniel Moses, Dauda Badmus, Craig Campbell, Rae-Anne Hardie, Julie Li, Euan McCaughey, Gorkem Sezgin, Judith Thomas, Nasir Wabe
INTRODUCTION: The failure to follow-up pathology and medical imaging test results poses patient-safety risks which threaten the effectiveness, quality and safety of patient care. The objective of this project is to: (1) improve the effectiveness and safety of test-result management through the establishment of clear governance processes of communication, responsibility and accountability; (2) harness health information technology (IT) to inform and monitor test-result management; (3) enhance the contribution of consumers to the establishment of safe and effective test-result management systems...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Celine Lewis, Melissa Hill, Owen J Arthurs, John C Hutchinson, Lyn S Chitty, Neil Sebire
OBJECTIVE: To assess health professionals' and coroners' attitudes towards non-minimally and minimally invasive autopsy in the perinatal and paediatric setting. METHODS: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twenty-five health professionals (including perinatal/paediatric pathologists and anatomical pathology technologists, obstetricians, fetal medicine consultants and bereavement midwives, intensive care consultants and family liaison nurses, a consultant neonatologist and a paediatric radiologist) and four coroners participated...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Massimiliano Visocchi, Francesco Signorelli, Chenlong Liao, Mario Rigante, Gaetano Paludetti, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Alessandro Olivi
OBJECTIVE: For many years, the microsurgical transoral approach (TOA) has been accepted as the "gold standard" for the surgical treatment of a variety of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathologies affecting the craniovertebral junction. In the present study, we try to investigate both experimental and clinical fronts of such a challenging surgery, starting from the updated literature experience. TOA is actually presented as an "old-fashioned" surgical technique dealing with possible bacterial contamination, the need of postoperative nose gastric tube feeding for a week, the possible nasopharyngeal incompetence, and the postoperative tongue swelling...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
Antigoni Deri, Kate English
This review article will guide the reader through the basics of echocardiographic assessment of congenital left to right shunts in both paediatric and adult age groups. After reading this article the reader will understand the pathology and clinical presentation of atrial septal defects (ASDs), ventricular septal defects (VSDs), atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In times gone by the stethoscope was the primary diagnostic tool used to diagnose these lesions, but in today's clinicians those skills have been usurped by the superiority of the trans-thoracic echo probe...
February 5, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Francesco Cenni, Simon-Henri Schless, Lynn Bar-On, Erwin Aertbeliën, Herman Bruyninckx, Britta Hanssen, Kaat Desloovere
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 3D freehand Ultrasonography is a medical imaging technique that can be used to measure muscle and tendon morphological and structural properties, including volume, lengths and echo-intensity. These properties are clinically relevant in neurological disorders such as spastic cerebral palsy to monitor disease progression and evaluate the effect of treatment. This study presents a methodology for extracting these parameters along with a clinical reliability analysis for the data acquisition and processing...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Derick N M Osakunor, Mark E J Woolhouse, Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people worldwide, most of whom are children. Research and control strategies directed at preschool-aged children (PSAC), i.e., ≤5 years old, have lagged behind those in older children and adults. With the recent WHO revision of the schistosomiasis treatment guidelines to include PSAC, and the recognition of gaps in our current knowledge on the disease and its treatment in this age group, there is now a concerted effort to address these shortcomings. Global and national schistosome control strategies are yet to include PSAC in treatment schedules...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kumanan Wilson, Daniel R Duque, Malia Sq Murphy, Steven Hawken, Anne Pham-Huy, Jeffrey Kwong, Shelley L Deeks, Beth K Potter, Natasha S Crowcroft, Dennis E Bulman, Pranesh Chakraborty, Julian Little
T-cell receptor excision circle levels are a surrogate marker of T-cell production and immune system function. We sought to determine whether non-pathological infant T-cell receptor excision circle levels were associated with adverse events following immunization. A self-controlled case series design was applied on a sample of 231,693 children who completed newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in Ontario, Canada between August 2013 and December 2015. Exposures included routinely administered pediatric vaccines up to 15 months of age...
February 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Manuel da Silva Pinheiro, Catherine Dobson, Nicholas M Clarke, Michael Fagan
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) is one of the most poorly understood diseases in paediatric orthopaedics. One common trait of LCP is the marked morphological difference between healthy and pathological hips, early deviations of which (i.e. prior to disease onset) have been suggested to lead to the overload and collapse of the epiphysis. Here, the impact of common variations in geometry is investigated with a finite element model of a juvenile femur under single leg standing and landing. Here, the impact of typical variations in geometry is investigated with a finite element model of a juvenile femur under single leg standing and landing...
February 8, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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