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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784673/formation-of-the-sacrum-requires-down-regulation-of-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-sacral-intervertebral-discs
#1
Raffaella Bonavita, Kathleen Vincent, Robert Pinelli, Chitra Lekha Dahia
In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling...
May 21, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784445/hand-hygiene-adherence-in-relation-to-influenza-season-during-6-consecutive-years
#2
Rosamaria Fulchini, Philipp Kohler, Christian R Kahlert, Werner C Albrich, Rolf Kuhn, Matthias Hoffmann, Matthias Schlegel
Hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important measure in reducing the burden of healthcare-acquired infections. Based on 12,740 HH opportunities observed during 6 consecutive years at our tertiary care center, HH adherence among healthcare workers (HCWs) was significantly better during influenza season compared to non-influenza periods, after controlling for important covariables (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.30). This finding suggests that HH awareness is increased during influenza periods, which could have implications for HCW education...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783759/band-structures-and-transport-properties-of-high-performance-half-heusler-thermoelectric-materials-by-first-principles
#3
REVIEW
Teng Fang, Xinbing Zhao, Tiejun Zhu
Half-Heusler (HH) compounds, with a valence electron count of 8 or 18, have gained popularity as promising high-temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials due to their excellent electrical properties, robust mechanical capabilities, and good high-temperature thermal stability. With the help of first-principles calculations, great progress has been made in half-Heusler thermoelectric materials. In this review, we summarize some representative theoretical work on band structures and transport properties of HH compounds...
May 19, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782186/excessive-erythrocytosis-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-andean-highlanders
#4
Noemí Corante, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Rómulo Figueroa-Mujíca, José Luis Macarlupú, Gustavo Vizcardo-Galindo, Grzegorz Bilo, Gianfranco Parati, Jorge L Gamboa, Fabiola León-Velarde, Francisco C Villafuerte
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. Life under high-altitude (HA) hypoxic conditions is believed to provide highlanders with a natural protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases compared with sea-level inhabitants. However, some HA dwellers become intolerant to chronic hypoxia and develop a progressive incapacitating syndrome known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS), characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥21 g/dL in men, Hb ≥19 g/dL in women). Evidence from HA studies suggests that, in addition to CMS typical signs and symptoms, these highlanders may also suffer from metabolic and cardiovascular disorders...
May 21, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778551/differences-of-risk-factors-and-clinical-presentations-in-male-and-female-taiwanese-individuals-with-barrett-s-esophagus
#5
Shou-Wu Lee, Han-Chung Lien, Chi-Sen Chang, Chung-Hsin Chang, Chung-Wang Ko, Hong-Zen Yeh
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a disorder more often found in obese men. Differences between the two genders are not known in the Asian countries. Here, we studied their gender differences in the Taiwanese population in terms of risk factors and clinical presentations. METHODS: Data from Taichung Veteran General Hospital were prospectively collected during an approximately two year-period (October 2012 to December 2014). Patients all underwent endoscopic surveillance, and BE was diagnosed based on the typical pattern of intestinal metaplasia...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777201/novel-smoothened-inhibitors-for-therapeutic-targeting-of-na%C3%A3-ve-and-drug-resistant-hedgehog-pathway-driven-cancers
#6
Qing-Rou Li, Hui Zhao, Xue-Sai Zhang, Henk Lang, Ker Yu
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) smoothened (SMO) is a key signaling component of the sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway and a clinically validated target for cancer treatment. The FDA-approved SMO inhibitors GDC-0449/Vismodegib and LDE225/Sonidegib demonstrated clinical antitumor efficacy. Nevertheless, relatively high percentage of treated patients would eventually develop acquired cross resistance to both drugs. Here, based on published structure and activity of GDC-0449 inhibitor class, we replaced its amide core with benzimidazole which retained bulk of the SMO-targeting activity as measured in our Hh/SMO/Gli1-reporter system...
May 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777011/fox-proteins-are-modular-competency-factors-for-facial-cartilage-and-tooth-specification
#7
Pengfei Xu, Bartosz Balczerski, Amanda Ciozda, Kristin Louie, Veronika Oralova, Ann Huysseune, J Gage Crump
Facial form depends on the precise positioning of cartilage, bone, and tooth fields in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. How complex signaling information is integrated to specify these cell types remains a mystery. We find that modular expression of Forkhead-domain transcription factors (Fox) in the zebrafish face arises through integration of Hh, Fgf, Bmp, Edn1, and Jagged-Notch pathways. Whereas loss of C-class Fox proteins results in reduced upper facial cartilages, loss of F-class Fox proteins results in distal jaw truncations and absent midline cartilages and teeth...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775628/-cost-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-improve-hand-hygiene-in-healthcare-workers-in-middle-income-hospital-settings-a-model-based-analysis
#8
Nantasit Luangasanatip, Maliwan Hongsuwan, Yoel Lubell, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Pramot Srisamang, Nicholas Pj Day, Nicholas Graves, Ben S Cooper
BACKGROUND: Multimodal interventions are effective in increasing hand hygiene (HH) compliance amongst healthcare workers, but it is not known whether such interventions are cost-effective outside high-income countries. AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multimodal hospital interventions to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance in a middle-income country. METHOD: We adopted a conservative approach by developing a model to determine whether reductions in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (MRSA-BSI) alone would make HH interventions cost-effective in intensive care units (ICUs)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772821/a-preliminary-analysis-of-wind-retrieval-based-on-gf-3-wave-mode-data
#9
Lei Wang, Bing Han, Xinzhe Yuan, Bin Lei, Chibiao Ding, Yulin Yao, Qi Chen
This paper presents an analysis of measurements of the normalized radar cross-(NRCS) in Wave Mode for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3(GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Based on 2779 images from GF-3 quad-polarization SAR in Wave Mode and collocated wind vectors from ERA-Interim, this experiment verifies the feasibility of using ocean surface wind fields and VV-polarized NRCS to perform normalized calibration. The method uses well-validated empirical C-band geophysical model function (CMOD4) to estimate the calibration constant for each beam...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768953/baseline-performance-of-the-ischaemic-button-model-for-induction-of-adhesions-in-laboratory-rats
#10
Elwin Hh Mommers, Liu Hong, Audrey Jongen, Nicole D Bouvy
The ischaemic button model is frequently used for the induction of adhesions in laboratory rats. Male rats are often used because of the common belief that the peritesticular (intra-abdominal) fat in males facilitates adhesion formation, although this theory is not evidence based. Comparing the model's performance in both sexes is an important aspect of refining animal experiments. The aim of this study is to compare baseline performance of the modified ischaemic button model in both male and female rats. Follow-up was 1 week and noted endpoints were intra-abdominal adhesion formation and differences in welfare assessment...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753498/a-multimodal-intervention-to-improve-hand-hygiene-compliance-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#11
Abdul Mannan Laskar, Deepashree R, Prasanna Bhat, Biju Pottakkat, Sunil Narayan, Apurba Sankar Sastry, R Sneha
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major threat to patient safety worldwide. HAIs are mainly transmitted via the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs), and HCW compliance with hand hygiene (HH) practices is reportedly low. Therefore, multimodal interventions are needed to develop effective HH improvement strategies. In this study, we assessed the effect of multimodal interventions on improvement of HH compliance. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2 intensive care units from August 2016 to October 2016...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752488/open-resection-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-for-intractable-epilepsy-revisited-using-intraoperative-mri
#12
Libby van Tonder, Sasha Burn, Anand Iyer, Jo Blair, Mohammed Didi, Michael Carter, Timothy Martland, Conor Mallucci
INTRODUCTION: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions which cause drug-resistant epilepsy with associated behavioural, psychiatric and endocrine issues. With the development of new minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of HH, there is a need to reappraise the effectiveness and safety of each approach. We review the outcomes of HH patients treated surgically, utilizing intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI), by a team of Alder Hey NHS Foundation Trust tumour and epilepsy neurosurgeons since 2011...
May 11, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751055/temporal-and-spatial-changes-in-glial-cells-during-chronic-hypobaric-hypoxia-role-in-neurodegeneration
#13
A Dheer, V Jain, N Kushwah, R Kumar, D Prasad, S B Singh
Ascend to high altitude results in a drastic change in the environmental conditions an individual is exposed to. As the altitude increases there is a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen leading to a unique condition known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH). Brain is highly vulnerable to hypoxia and it has been well established that hypobaric hypoxia leads to neurodegeneration in different brain regions. However, the response of glial cells during hypobaric hypoxia needs to be explored yet. The present study was aimed to understand the role of glial cells viz...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750062/mask-humidity-during-cpap-influence-of-ambient-temperature-heated-humidification-and-heated-tubing
#14
Georg Nilius, Ulrike Domanski, Maik Schroeder, Holger Woehrle, Andrea Graml, Karl-Josef Franke
Purpose: Mucosal drying during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is problematic for many patients. This study assessed the influence of ambient relative humidity (rH) and air temperature (T) in winter and summer on mask humidity during CPAP, with and without mask leak, and with or without heated humidification ± heated tubing. Methods: CPAP (8 and 12 cmH2 O) without humidification (no humidity [nH]), with heated humidification controlled by ambient temperature and humidity (heated humidity [HH]) and HH plus heated tubing climate line (CL), with and without leakage, were compared in 18 subjects with OSA during summer and winter...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744335/detection-of-a-lipid-peroxidation-induced-dna-adduct-across-liver-disease-stages
#15
Heidi Coia, Ning Ma, Aiwu Ruth He, Bhaskar Kallakury, Deborah L Berry, Eva Permaul, Kepher H Makambi, Ying Fu, Fung-Lung Chung
Background: Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation can increase cellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when associated with the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which can develop following the progression of steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Using a monoclonal antibody for cyclic γ-hydroxy-1, N2 -propanodeoxyguanosine (γ-OHPdG), a promutagenic DNA adduct formed endogenously by LPO, we examined its formation across liver disease stages to understand it's potential role in HCC development...
April 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743300/histidine-168-is-crucial-for-%C3%AE-ph-dependent-gating-of-the-human-voltage-gated-proton-channel-hh-v-1
#16
Vladimir V Cherny, Deri Morgan, Sarah Thomas, Susan M E Smith, Thomas E DeCoursey
We recently identified a voltage-gated proton channel gene in the snail Helisoma trivolvis , HtHV 1, and determined its electrophysiological properties. Consistent with early studies of proton currents in snail neurons, HtHV 1 opens rapidly, but it unexpectedly exhibits uniquely defective sensitivity to intracellular pH (pHi ). The H+ conductance ( g H )- V relationship in the voltage-gated proton channel (HV 1) from other species shifts 40 mV when either pHi or pHo (extracellular pH) is changed by 1 unit. This property, called ΔpH-dependent gating, is crucial to the functions of HV 1 in many species and in numerous human tissues...
May 9, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743178/phenotypic-analysis-of-hemochromatosis-subtypes-reveals-variations-in-severity-of-iron-overload-and-clinical-disease
#17
Kam Sandhu, Kaledas Flintoff, Mark D Chatfield, Jeannette L Dixon, Louise E Ramm, Grant A Ramm, Lawrie W Powell, V Nathan Subramaniam, Daniel F Wallace
The clinical progression of HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and its phenotypic variability has been well studied. Less is known about the natural history of non-HFE HH caused by mutations in the HJV , HAMP or TFR2 genes. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotypic and clinical presentations of hepcidin-deficient forms of HH. A literature review of all published cases of genetically confirmed HJV, HAMP and TFR2 HH was performed. Phenotypic and clinical data from a total of 156 subjects with non-HFE HH was extracted from 53 publications and compared with data from 984 subjects with HFE -p...
May 9, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740900/adjusting-oral-oxybutynin-medication-for-hyperhidrosis-to-reflect-seasonal-temperature-variations
#18
Javier Del Boz, José Francisco Millán-Cayetano, Pablo García-Montero, Cristina García-Harana, Francisco Rivas-Ruiz, Magdalena de Troya-Martín
Most studies of oral oxybutynin (OOx) for the treatment of hyperhidrosis (HH) have assumed a stable treatment protocol, without taking into account adverse effects (AE) or seasonal variations in temperature. The objective is to evaluate adjusting the dose of OOx according to the time of year. Prospective study of patients who began OOx for HH between 2007 and 2017, and maintained treatment for at least 1 year, with a progressively increasing dose was performed. All patients were recommended to vary the dose of medication according to the time of year...
May 8, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739729/congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-evolution-to-sulfonylurea-responsive-diabetes-later-in-life-due-to-a-novel-homozygous-p-l171f-abcc8-mutation
#19
Emregül Işık, Huseyin Demirbilek, Jayne A L Houghton, Sian Ellard, Sarah E Flanagan, Khalid Hussain
BACKGROUND: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants and children. Recessive inactivating mutations in the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes account for approximately 50 % of all CHI cases. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) in infancy and diabetes in later life have been reported in subjects with HNF1A , HNF4A and ABCC8 mutations. CASE REPORT: Herein, we present a child who was diagnosed with CHI at birth, then developed diabetes mellitus at the age of 9 years due to a novel homozygous missense, p...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739714/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-novel-dimethylpyridazine-derivatives-as-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-inhibitors
#20
Chenglin Wang, Mingfei Zhu, Xiuhong Lu, Hong Wang, Weili Zhao, Xiongwen Zhang, Xiaochun Dong
We report herein the design and synthesis of a series of structural modified dimethylpyridazine compounds as novel hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors. The bicyclic phthalazine core and 4-methylamino-piperidine moiety of Taladegib were replaced with dimethylpyridazine and different azacycle building blocks, respectively. The in vitro Gli-luciferase assay results demonstrate that the new scaffold still retained potent inhibitory potency. Piperidin-4-amine moiety was found to be the best linker between pharmacophores dimethylpyridazine and fluorine substituted benzoyl group...
May 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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