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Tadamoto Isogai, Rob van der Kammen, Onno B Bleijerveld, Soenita S Goerdayal, Elisabetta Argenzio, A F Maarten Altelaar, Metello Innocenti
Formin mDia2 is a cytoskeleton-regulatory protein that switches reversibly between a closed, auto-inhibited and an open, active conformation. Although the open conformation of mDia2 induces actin assembly thereby controlling many cellular processes, mDia2 possesses also actin-independent and conformation-insensitive scaffolding roles related to microtubules and p53, respectively. Thus, we hypothesise that mDia2 may have other unappreciated functions and regulatory modes. Here we identify and validate proteasome and Ubiquitin as mDia2-interacting partners using SILAC-based quantitative proteomics and biochemistry, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Matthias Lehmann, Philipp Maier, Matthias Grüne, Markus Hügel
The molecular design of crowded hexasubstituted star mesogens based on a benzene core and alternating substitution with oligo(phenylenevinylene) arms and aryl units generates free space between the conjugated arm scaffolds. Various arylcarboxy building blocks, decorated with alkoxy chains have been incorporated in the void by mixing, hydrogen bonding or covalent bonds to the aryl groups. The mesogens assemble in columnar stacks ranging from soft crystals to rectangular and hexagonal columnar liquid crystals, revealed by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray scattering and modelling...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Claire Levrier, Martin C Sadowski, Anja Rockstroh, Brian Gabrielli, Maria Kavallaris, Melanie Lehman, Rohan A Davis, Colleen C Nelson
The lack of a cure for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) highlights the urgent need for more efficient drugs to fight this disease. Here, we report the mechanism of action of the natural product 6α-acetoxyanopterine (6-AA) in prostate cancer cells. At low nanomolar doses, this potent cytotoxic alkaloid from the Australian endemic tree Anopterus macleayanus induced a strong accumulation of LNCaP and PC-3 (prostate cancer) cells as well as HeLa (cervical cancer) cells in mitosis, severe mitotic spindle defects and asymmetric cell divisions, ultimately leading to mitotic catastrophe accompanied by cell death through apoptosis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Katsuaki Hirano, Masahiro Kurosaki, Satoshi Nihei, Hiroki Hasegawa, Suguru Shinoda, Mitsuru Haruki, Nobutaka Hirano
The cellulosome is a supramolecular multienzyme complex comprised of a wide variety of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and scaffold proteins. The cellulosomal enzymes that bind to the scaffold proteins synergistically degrade crystalline cellulose. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome from 40 cellulosomal components and the full-length scaffoldin protein that binds to nine enzyme molecules. These components were each synthesized using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system and purified...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alondra Escudero-Castellanos, Blanca E Ocampo-García, Ma Victoria Domínguez-García, Jaime Flores-Estrada, Miriam V Flores-Merino
Hydrogels are suitable materials to promote cell proliferation and tissue support because of their hydrophilic nature, porous structure and sticky properties. However, hydrogel synthesis involves the addition of additives that can increase the risk of inducing cytotoxicity. Sterilization is a critical process for hydrogel clinical use as a proper scaffold for tissue engineering. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (PEG-CH) and multi-arm PEG hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization and sterilized by gamma irradiation or disinfected using 70 % ethanol...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Faeze Pournaqi, Armaghan Ghiaee, Saeid Vakilian, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Tissue engineering is a promising emerged method trying to reconstruct lost tissues that using synthetic and biomaterials and their combination with cells. The purpose of this study is increase osteoinductivity of polyethersulfone (PES) by using polyaniline (PANi). In this study, after fabrication of PES and composited PES-PANi scaffolds by electrospinning, scaffolds were characterized morphologically and mechanically. Then osteoinductivity of scaffolds was investigated by osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on the PES and PES-PANI in comparison to the tissue culture polystyrene as a control...
October 14, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Raf Donders, Kathleen Sanen, Rik Paesen, Eli Slenders, Wilfried Gyselaers, Piet Stinissen, Marcel Ameloot, Niels Hellings
In situ detection of MSCs remains difficult and warrants additional methods to aid with their characterization in vivo. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (TPM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) could fill this gap. Both techniques enable the detection of cells and extracellular structures, based on intrinsic properties of the specific tissue and intracellular molecules under optical irradiation. TPM imaging and SHG imaging have been used for label-free monitoring of stem cells differentiation, assessment of their behavior in biocompatible scaffolds, and even cell tracking in vivo...
2016: Stem Cells International
Haruki Nagae, Wataru Hato, Kento Kawakita, Hayato Tsurugi, Kazushi Mashima
Dinuclear titanium dialkyl complexes bridged by two μ-arylimido ligands, [CpTi(CH₂SiMe₃)(μ-NAr)]₂ (2), activated an ortho-phenyl C-H bond of an μ-arylimido ligand to form a 4-membered titanacycle. Subsequent insertion reaction of 1-(trimethylsilyl)propyne into a metal-carbon bond of the 4-membered titanacycle yielded the corresponding 6-membered titanacycle. Further ortho-C-H bond activation of the other μ-arylimido ligand and an insertion reaction proceeded to give dinuclear titanium complexes 3 with two 6-membered titanacycles...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xiaowen Chang, Weiping Li, Haining Chen, Liqun Zhu, Huicong Liu, Huifang Geng, Sisi Xiang, Jiaming Liu, Xiaoli Zheng, Ying-Long Yang, Shihe Yang
Carbon-based hole transport materials (HTM)-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to their relatively high stability have attracted intense attention. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) is still low, especially for the simplest paintable carbon-based PSCs (C-PSCs), whose performance is greatly limited by the poor contact at perovskite/carbon interface. To enhance interface contact, it is important to fabricate an even-surface perovskite layer in porous scaffold, which is usually unfeasible due to rough crystal precursor...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sean W Reilly, Robert H Mach
A facile Pd-catalyzed methodology providing an efficient synthetic route to biologically relevant arylpiperazines under aerobic conditions is reported. Electron donating and sterically hindered aryl chlorides were aminated to afford yields up to 97%, with examples using piperazine as solvent, illustrating an ecofriendly, cost-effective synthesis of these privileged structures.
October 13, 2016: Organic Letters
Rajiv T Sawant, Marc Y Stevens, Christian Sköld, Luke R Odell
A novel metal-free microwave-assisted branching cascades strategy for the efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinazolinone-embedded polyheterocyclic scaffolds is reported. Starting from in situ generated key N-acyliminium ion precursors, 12 distinct and skeletally diverse polycyclic frameworks were accessed in a single step/pot via adjustment of the nucleophile(s) and reaction conditions. Postcascade functionalization of these compounds was also demonstrated, proving the utility of this method in accessing structurally diverse chemical entities...
October 11, 2016: Organic Letters
Nawaf Al-Maharik, Peer Kirsch, Alexandra M Z Slawin, David B Cordes, David O'Hagan
This paper explores the synthesis of a series of prototype negative dielectric liquid crystalline (LC) compounds which contain fluorinated cyclohexane motifs. The series are analogues and differ only in that they contain between one to four fluorine atoms. The stereochemistry is such that all of the fluorines/C-F bonds are on one face of the cyclohexane ring. This follows from the recent recognition that cyclohexanes with fluorines orientated in one direction, perpendicular to the ring have a strong molecular dipole, a characteristic that might be an advantage in the design of negative dielectric materials...
October 7, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Marcela Martin-Del-Campo, Raul Rosales-Ibañez, Keila Alvarado, Jose G Sampedro, Christian A Garcia-Sepulveda, Sanjukta Deb, Julio San Román, Luis Rojo
Strontium folate (SrFO) is a recently developed bone promoting agent with interest in medical and pharmaceutical fields due to its improved features in comparison to current strontium based therapies for osteoporosis and other bone diseases. In this work SrFO derivative was synthesized and loaded into biohybrid scaffolds obtained through lyophilisation of semi-interpenetrating networks of chitosan polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and beta tri-calcium phosphate (βTCP) fabricated using free radical polymerization...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Karin V Greco, Lydia Francis, Honglei Huang, Rutger Ploeg, Aldo R Boccaccini, Tahera Ansari
As biocompatible matrices, porcine dermal scaffolds have limited application in tissue engineering due to rapid degradation following implantation. This study compared the physical, chemical, and biomechanical changes that occurred when genipin and quercetin were used to crosslink dermal scaffolds and to determine whether quercetin could be used as an alternative to genipin. Physicochemical changes in the collagen were assessed using spectroscopic methods (XRD and NMR analysis). Crosslinking reaction was evaluated by quantification of amino acids and the degree of this reaction by ninhydrin assay...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Peng Zhang, Hui Liu, Xiaocheng Li, Suzhen Ma, Shuai Men, Heng Wei, Jingjing Cui, Hongning Wang
The harm of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to public health mainly by the consumption of contaminated agricultural products or water stresses an urgent need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of S. typhimurium. In this work, an intelligently designed sensor system took creative advantage of triple trigger sequences-regenerated strand displacement amplification and self-protective hairpin template-generated-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) for the first time. In the presence of live S...
September 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kiran Bajaj, Rajeev Sakhuja, Girinath G Pillai
An efficient methodology for cysteine-free ligation at a tryptophan (Trp) site is described. A chemically active scaffold, β-hydroxy-α-azidotryptophan, has been synthesized and explored towards the synthesis of a series of β-hydroxytryptophan appended native peptides in good yields via one-pot reductive traceless ligation of β-O-peptidyl-α-azidotryptophan involving an O → N peptidyl transfer strategy. Pre-organized conformational analysis and reaction energy pathway based theoretical studies further supported the experimental findings on the chemical structure stability of ligated products...
October 12, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Carina Muoth, Adrian Wichser, Marco Monopoli, Manuel Correia, Nicky Ehrlich, Katrin Loeschner, Audrey Gallud, Melanie Kucki, Liliane Diener, Pius Manser, Wolfram Jochum, Peter Wick, Tina Buerki-Thurnherr
There is increasing evidence that certain nanoparticles (NPs) can overcome the placental barrier, raising concerns on potential adverse effects on the growing fetus. But even in the absence of placental transfer, NPs may pose a risk to proper fetal development if they interfere with the viability and functionality of the placental tissue. The effects of NPs on the human placenta are not well studied or understood, and predictive in vitro placenta models to achieve mechanistic insights on NP-placenta interactions are essentially lacking...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Nicole E Brown, Nevin A Lambert, John R Hepler
RGS14 is a multifunctional scaffolding protein possessing two distinct G protein interaction sites including a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain that acts as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) to deactivate Gαi/o-GTP proteins, and a G protein regulatory (GPR) motif that binds inactive Gαi1/3-GDP proteins independent of Gβγ. GPR interactions with Gαi recruit RGS14 to the plasma membrane to interact with Gαi-linked GPCRs and regulate Gαi signaling. While RGS14 actions on Gα proteins are well characterized, consequent effects on Gβγ signaling remain unknown...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Sophie De-Botton, Ronit Romm, Guillaume Bensoussan, Maria Hitrik, Sanaa Musa, Dmitri Gelman
The manuscript describes the synthesis and coordination chemistry of a novel diphosphine pincer ligand based on a p-hydroquinone-functionalized dibenzobarrelene scaffold. The p-hydroquinone fragment of the ligand is oxidatively and coordinatively non-innocent and may render new reactivity to the metal center due to implied reversible redox behavior, tautomeric interconversion and metal-hydroxyl/alkoxide coordination switch of the pendant hydroxyl side-arm. Palladium, platinum and iridium complexes were prepared and characterized...
October 12, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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