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Kathryn E Drzewiecki, Juilee N Malavade, Ijaz Ahmed, Christopher J Lowe, David I Shreiber
As a biomaterial, collagen has been used throughout tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Collagen is native to the body, is highly biocompatible, and naturally promotes cell adhesion and regeneration. However, collagen fibers and the inherent weak mechanical properties of collagen hydrogels interfere with further development of collagen as a bio-ink. Herein, we demonstrate the use of a modified type-I collagen, collagen methacrylamide (CMA), as a fibril-forming bio-ink for free-form fabrication of scaffolds...
December 2017: Technology
Monica Sanna, Giovanna Sicilia, Ali Alazzo, Nishant Singh, Francesca Musumeci, Silvia Schenone, Keith A Spriggs, Jonathan C Burley, Martin C Garnett, Vincenzo Taresco, Cameron Alexander
A miniaturized assay was optimized to evaluate the enhanced apparent water solubility of pyrazolo[3,4- d ]pyrimidine derivatives used extensively as anticancer drug scaffolds. The applied amount of drugs used in the reported strategy ranged from 5 to 10 μg per formulation which were dispensed by an inkjet 2D printer directly into a 96-well plate. The selected polymer/drug formulations with high water solubility demonstrated improved cytotoxicity against a human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (A549) compared to the free drugs...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Katsuaki Kobayashi, Take-Aki Koizumi, Debashis Ghosh, Takashi Kajiwara, Susumu Kitagawa, Koji Tanaka
A RhCp* (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complex bearing an NAD+ /NADH-functionalized ligand, [RhCp*(pbn)Cl]Cl ([1]Cl, pbn = (2-(2-pyridyl)benzo[b]-1,5-naphthyridine)), was synthesized. The cyclic voltammogram of [1]Cl in CH3 CN shows two reversible redox waves at E1/2 = -0.58 and -1.53 V (vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE)), which correspond to the RhIII /RhI and pbn/pbn˙- redox couples, respectively. The addition of acetic acid to the solution afforded the proton-coupled two-electron reduction of [1]Cl at -0...
March 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nicanor I Moldovan
Biofabrication of tissue analogues is aspiring to become a disruptive technology capable to solve standing biomedical problems, from generation of improved tissue models for drug testing to alleviation of the shortage of organs for transplantation. Arguably, the most powerful tool of this revolution is bioprinting, understood as the assembling of cells with biomaterials in three-dimensional structures. It is less appreciated, however, that bioprinting is not a uniform methodology, but comprises a variety of approaches...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Silvia Lopa, Carlotta Mondadori, Valerio Luca Mainardi, Giuseppe Talò, Marco Costantini, Christian Candrian, Wojciech Święszkowski, Matteo Moretti
Cartilage defects can impair the most elementary daily activities and, if not properly treated, can lead to the complete loss of articular function. The limitations of standard treatments for cartilage repair have triggered the development of stem cell-based therapies. In this scenario, the development of efficient cell differentiation protocols and the design of proper biomaterial-based supports to deliver cells to the injury site need to be addressed through basic and applied research to fully exploit the potential of stem cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
Riku Takahashi, Tao Lin Sun, Yoshiyuki Saruwatari, Takayuki Kurokawa, Daniel R King, Jian Ping Gong
Reinforcing hydrogels with a rigid scaffold is a promising method to greatly expand the mechanical and physical properties of hydrogels. One of the challenges of creating hydrogel composites is the significant stress that occurs due to swelling mismatch between the water-swollen hydrogel matrix and the rigid skeleton in aqueous media. This stress can cause physical deformation (wrinkling, buckling, or fracture), preventing the fabrication of robust composites. Here, a simple yet versatile method is introduced to create "macroscale" hydrogel composites, by utilizing a rigid reinforcing phase that can relieve stress-induced deformation...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hui Qu, Bao-Dong Xie, Jian Wu, Bo Lv, Jun-Bo Chuai, Jian-Zhong Li, Jun Cai, Hua Wu, Shu-Lin Jiang, Xiao-Ping Leng, Kai Kang
Background: Engineered heart tissues (EHTs) present a promising alternative to current materials for surgical ventricular restoration (SVR); however, the clinical application remains limited by inadequate vascularization postimplantation. Moreover, a suitable and economic animal model for primary screening is another important issue. Methods: Recently, we used 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride chemistry (EDC) to initiate a strengthened, cytokine-conjugated collagenous platform with a controlled degradation speed...
2018: Stem Cells International
Zhen He, Harry Shrives, José A Fernández-Salas, Alberto Abengózar, Jessica Neufeld, Kevin Yang, Alex P Pulis, David John Procter
Functionalized benzothiophenes are important scaffolds found in molecules with wide ranging biological activity and in organic materials. We describe an efficient, metal-free synthesis of C2 arylated, allylated and propargylated benzothiophenes. The reaction utilizes synthetically unexplored yet readily accessible benzothiophene S-oxides and phenols, allyl- or propargyl silanes in a unique cascade sequence. An interrupted Pummerer reaction between benzothiophene S-oxides and the coupling partners yields sulfonium salts that lack aromaticity and therefore allow facile [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Mohammad-Hossein Beigi, Atefeh Atefi, Hamid-Reza Ghanaei, Sheyda Labbaf, Fatemeh Ejeian, Mohammad-Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
In the current study the effect of superimposing platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on different culture mediums in a three-dimensional (3D) alginate scaffold encapsulated with adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for cartilage tissue repair is reported. The 3D alginate scaffolds with co-administration of PRP and/or chondrogenic supplements had a significant effect on the differentiation of ADSCs into mature cartilage, as assessed by evaluation of the expression of cartilage related markers of Sox9, Collagen II, Aggrecan and collagen and glycosaminoglycan assays...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Tingting Fu, Guoxun Zheng, Gao Tu, Fengyuan Yang, Yu Zong Chen, Xiaojun Yao, Xiaofeng Li, Weiwei Xue, Feng Zhu
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) plays a key role in synaptic information storage and memory, which is a well-known target for a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, the increasing efforts have been focused on the design of allosteric modulators, and the negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are the front runners. Recently, the architecture of transmembrane (TM) domain of mGlu5 receptor has been determined by crystallographic experiment. However, it has been not well understood how the pharmacophores of NAMs accommodated into the allosteric binding site...
March 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Lena Vogt, Liliana Liverani, Judith A Roether, Aldo R Boccaccini
For biomedical applications such as soft tissue engineering, plant proteins are becoming increasingly attractive. Zein, a class of prolamine proteins found in corn, offers excellent properties for application in the human body, but has inferior mechanical properties and lacks aqueous stability. In this study, electrospun scaffolds from neat zein and zein blended with prepolymer and mildly cross-linked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) were fabricated. Less toxic solvents like acetic acid and ethanol were used. The morphological, physiochemical and degradation properties of the as-spun fiber mats were determined...
March 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
Lani S Chun, Rakesh H Vekariya, R Benjamin Free, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin, Ping Su, Fang Liu, Yoon Namkung, Stephane A Laporte, Amy E Moritz, Jeffrey Aubé, Kevin J Frankowski, David R Sibley
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is known to elicit effects through activating two major signaling pathways mediated by either G proteins (Gi/o) or β-arrestins. However, the specific role of each pathway in physiological or therapeutic activities is not known with certainty. One approach to the dissection of these pathways is through the use of drugs that can selectively modulate one pathway vs. the other through a mechanism known as functional selectivity or biased signaling. Our laboratory has previously described a G protein signaling-biased agonist, MLS1547, for the D2R using a variety of in vitro functional assays...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Virat G Pandya, Santosh B Mhaske
A novel process for the preparation of various ( E)-oxindolylidene acetates using arynes and carbamoylpropiolates has been developed. The utility of this protocol is also further extended to the one-pot synthesis of complex spirooxindolopyrrolidones. This method provides a milder and transition-metal-free access to both of the target scaffolds in moderate to good yields.
March 7, 2018: Organic Letters
Mikhail A Filatov, Safakath Karuthedath, Pavel M Polestshuk, Susan Callaghan, Keith J Flanagan, Maxime Telitchko, Thomas Wiesner, Frédéric Laquai, Mathias O Senge
A family of heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) exhibiting triplet excited state formation from charge-transfer states is reported. Four types of BODIPY scaffolds, different in the alkyl substitution pattern, and four anthracene derivatives have been used to access BADs. Fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) in these dyads depend on donor-acceptor couplings and can be accurately controlled by substitution or media polarity. Under conditions that do not allow charge transfer (CT), the dyads exhibit fluorescence with high quantum yields...
March 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M D Tang-Schomer, W B Wu, D L Kaplan, M J Bookland
In vitro culture of primary neurons are widely adapted with embryonic but not mature brain tissue. Here, we extended a previously developed bioengineered 3D embryonic brain tissue model to resected normal patient brain tissue in an attempt to regenerate human neurons in vitro. Single cells and small sized (diameter < 100 μm) spheroids from dissociated brain tissue were seeded into 3D silk fibroin-based scaffolds, with or without collagen or Matrigel, and compared with 2D cultures and scaffold-free suspension cultures...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Aline L Y Nachlas, Siyi Li, Rajneesh Jha, Monalisa Singh, Chunhui Xu, Michael E Davis
Despite recent advances in tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV), a major challenge is identifying a cell source for seeding TEHV scaffolds. Native heart valves are durable because valve interstitial cells (VICs) maintain tissue homeostasis by synthesizing and remodeling the extracellular matrix. In this study, the goal is to demonstrate that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) can be derived from iPSCs using a feeder-free protocol and then further matured into VICs by encapsulation within 3D hydrogels...
March 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jana Chumová, Lucie Trögelová, Hana Kourová, Jindřich Volc, Vadym Sulimenko, Petr Halada, Ondřej Kučera, Oldřich Benada, Anna Kuchařová, Anastasiya Klebanovych, Pavel Dráber, Geoffrey Daniel, Pavla Binarová
γ-Tubulin is essential for microtubule nucleation and also plays less understood roles in nuclear and cell-cycle-related functions. High abundancy of γ-tubulin in acentrosomal Arabidopsis cells facilitated purification and biochemical characterization of large molecular species of γ-tubulin. TEM, fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy of purified high molecular γ-tubulin forms revealed the presence of linear filaments with a double protofilament substructure, filament bundles and aggregates. Filament formation from highly purified γ-tubulin free of γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) was demonstrated for both plant and human γ-tubulin...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rajesh Guruswamy Damodaran, Patrick Vermette
Diabetes Mellitus involves the loss of function and/or absolute numbers of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation is currently being investigated as a potential cure, and advances in tissue engineering methods can be used to improve pancreatic islets survival and functionality. Transplanted islets experience anoikis, hypoxia and inflammation-mediated immune response, leading to early damage and subsequent failure of the graft. Recent development in tissue engineering enables the use of decellularized organs as scaffolds for cell therapies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Susanne Schäfer, Kent Urban, Maria Gerber, Markus Dekiff, Dieter Dirksen, Ulrich Plate
Implantation of micromass cultures of osteoblastic cells offers the possibility of scaffold free tissue engineering for example, regeneration of bone defects. However, the details of cell dynamics during the formation of these micromasses are still not well understood. This study aims to investigate and clarify the extent to which cell quantity influences the dynamics of micromass formation of osteoblastic cell cultures. For this purpose, the migration and aggregation during this process are investigated by optical inspection employing image processing software that allows for automated tracking of cell groups using digital image correlation...
March 1, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Nopporn Sawatjui, Temduang Limpaiboon, Karsten Schrobback, Travis Klein
Adult chondrocytes are surrounded by a protein- and glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix and are subjected to dynamic mechanical compression during daily activities. The extracellular matrix and mechanical stimuli play an important role in chondrocyte biosynthesis and homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop scaffold and compressive loading conditions that mimic the native cartilage microenvironment and enable enhanced chondrogenesis for tissue engineering applications. Towards this aim, we fabricated porous scaffolds based on silk fibroin (SF) and SF with gelatin/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronate (SF-GCH), seeded the scaffolds with either human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) or chondrocytes, and evaluated their performance with and without dynamic compression...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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