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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219119/density-overwrites-of-internal-tumor-volumes-in-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-plans-for-mobile-lung-tumors
#1
Pablo Botas, Clemens Grassberger, Gregory Sharp, Harald Paganetti
The purpose of this study was to investigate Internal Tumor Volume (ITV) density overwrite strategies to minimize Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) plan degradation of mobile lung tumors. Four planning paradigms were compared for nine lung cancer patients. IGTV and ICTV structures were defined encompassing their respective volumes in every 4DCT phase. The paradigms use different planning CT (pCT) created from the Average Intensity Projection (AIP) of the 4DCT, overwriting the density within the IGTV to account for movement...
December 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218482/a-novel-muscle-sparing-high-thoracotomy-for-upper-thoracic-spine-resection-and-reconstruction
#2
Derek T Bernstein, Wu Zhuge, Shanda H Blackmon, Rex A W Marco
PURPOSE: High thoracotomy allows access to the anterior cervicothoracic and upper thoracic vertebrae; however, traditional techniques transect shoulder girdle muscles, leading to postoperative shoulder dysfunction. Muscle-sparing techniques diminish this concern, but often sacrifice the quality of exposure. We describe a novel muscle-sparing, high thoracotomy approach for the treatment of ventral cervicothoracic and upper thoracic spine lesions. METHODS: A novel muscle-sparing, high thoracotomy approach is described, utilizing a midline posterior incision with lateral extension from the lateral decubitus position...
December 7, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217355/crocetin-attenuates-spared-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in%C3%A2-mice
#3
Xiaolei Wang, Guangqing Zhang, Yong Qiao, Chang Feng, Xin Zhao
Crocetin is the main component of saffron and exhibits anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have been recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of crocetin in a mouse model with neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI). Crocetin was intrathecally perfused at various doses for up to 12 days starting 3 days before the surgery. Behavioral tests were performed to determine pain sensitivity. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured to assess neuroinflammation...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216380/recent-advances-in-intradural-spinal-tumors
#4
Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Kevin T Huang, Ziev B Moses, J Bryan Iorgulescu, John H Chi
Intradural spinal tumors are rare tumors of the central nervous system. Due to the eloquence of the spinal cord and its tracts, compact architecture of the cord and nerves and the infiltrative nature of some of these tumors, surgical resection is difficult to achieve without causing neurological deficits. Likewise, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are utilized more cautiously in the treatment of intradural spinal tumors than their cranial counterparts. Targeted therapies aimed at the genetic alterations and molecular biology tailored to these tumors would be helpful, but are lacking...
December 5, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216010/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-role-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Albert M Chung
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has an important anti-inflammatory role in the immune system. Research has shown that CGRP is an integral part in peripheral nerve regeneration by (1) suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α, (2) forming an initial nerve bridge by increasing fibroblast motility and extracellular matrix synthesis, (3) vascularizing the spinal cord injury site, and (4) inducing Schwann cell (SC) proliferation. In this treatise, the following hypotheses will be explored: (1) CGRP is induced by c-Jun to regulate SC dedifferentiation, (2) CGRP promotes the chemotaxic migration of SCs along the nerve bridge, and (3) CGRP induces myelinophagy by activating various signaling pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase...
December 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215699/lncrna-linc00880-promotes-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-while-inhibiting-apoptosis-by-targeting-cacng5-through-the-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-spinal-cord-ependymoma
#6
Dong-Mei Wu, Yong-Jian Wang, Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Shan Wang, Min Shen, Shao-Hua Fan, Juan Zhuang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Qun Shan, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
The present study was to investigate the effect of lncRNA LINC00880 targeting CACNG5 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis in spinal cord ependymoma (SCE) through the MAPK signaling pathway. GEO database was used to download gene expression data related with SCE (GSE50161 and GSE66354) and annotation file. LncRNA with differential expression was predicted by Multi Experiment Matrix website (MEM). The target gene was analyzed by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. SCE tissues and adjacent tissues were collected...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209025/oblique-corpectomy-in-the-cervical-spine
#7
Tomasz Tykocki, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Marcin Czyz, Guy Wynne-Jones
STUDY DESIGN: A narrative review. OBJECTIVES: A literature review of studies reporting on the application of oblique corpectomy (OC) in various pathologies of the cervical spine. SETTING: UK. METHODS: A search was carried out using the PubMed and Google Scholar up to 18 March 2017. Finally, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A multilevel OC shows good clinical outcomes in various pathologies in the cervical spine...
December 5, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207127/radiolabeled-methotrexate-as-a-diagnostic-agent-of-inflammatory-target-sites-a-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Maria Papachristou, George A Kastis, Petros Z Stavrou, Stavros Xanthopoulos, Lars R Furenlid, Ioannis E Datseris, Penelope Bouziotis
Methotrexate (MTX), as a pharmaceutical, is frequently used in tumor chemotherapy and is also a part of the established treatment of a number of autoimmune inflammatory disorders. Radiolabeled MTX has been studied as a tumor‑diagnostic agent in a number of published studies. In the present study, the potential use of technetium‑99m‑labelled MTX (99mTc‑MTX) as a radiotracer was investigated for the identification of inflammatory target sites. The labelling of MTX was carried out via a 99mTc‑gluconate precursor...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207118/oxysophoridine-rescues-spinal-cord-injury-via-anti%C3%A2-inflammatory-anti%C3%A2-oxidative-stress-and-anti%C3%A2-apoptosis-effects
#9
Zhong Cao, Liang Chen, Yanbin Liu, Tao Peng
Oxysophoridine (OSR) is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides L and has various pharmacological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of OSR on spinal cord injury (SCI), a clinically common serious trauma, in a rat model. The results of the present study demonstrated that the anti‑inflammatory effect of OSR improved Basso, Beatie and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale scores and reduced spinal cord tissue water contents in an SCI rat model...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201857/a-rare-complication-of-lumbar-spinal-surgery-pneumocephalus
#10
Uğur Özdemir
A 25-year-old male patient with severe thigh and right side pain was presented. In the lumbar magnetic resonance images, there was a contrasting spinal cord tumor image with 1 cm in diameter at the level of the L3 vertebra. The patient was operated and the tumor was totally removed. All the pain of the patient recovered. The patient's postoperative two days were very comfortable and the patient was early mobilized. On the third postoperative day, the patient complained of severe headache, nausea and vomiting...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201192/daidzein-ameliorates-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-neurological-function-deficits-in-sprague-dawley-rats-through-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#11
Fan Zhang, Neng Ru, Zheng-Hui Shang, Jian-Feng Chen, Chao Yan, Yun Li, Jie Liang
Daidzein (DZ) has a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer as well as cardio- and hepatoprotective properties. The present study was designed to elucidate the in-depth mechanism underlying the neuroprotective efficacy of DZ against spinal cord ischemic/reperfusion injury (SCII) in a rat model by comparison with the standard neuroprotective agent methylprednisolone (MP). A total of 48 rats were divided into four groups of twelve rats in each (n=12). In sham-operated group (Control) group, rats received only saline (Fogarty catheter was inserted without balloon inflation), whereas rats in the SCII induction group (SCII) were subjected to SCII insult by insertion of a Fogarty balloon catheter, which was inflated in the descending thoracic aorta to cause an occlusion...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200113/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#12
Catherine H Han, Tracy T Batchelor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare and aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the brain, eyes, spinal cord, or leptomeninges without systemic involvement. This article provides an overview of the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of primary CNS lymphoma in patients who are immunocompetent, focusing on recent advances in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary CNS lymphoma is sensitive to radiation therapy; however, whole-brain radiation therapy inadequately controls the disease when used alone and causes delayed neurotoxicity with significant neurocognitive impairment, especially in patients who are elderly...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200112/epidemiology-treatment-and-complications-of-central-nervous-system-metastases
#13
Amy A Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic problems resulting from systemic cancer metastases to brain parenchyma, dura, spinal cord, and leptomeninges are among the most common types of consultations addressed by neurologists. With patients surviving longer from systemic cancer, along with the rapidly evolving therapeutic options, the treatment of these devastating complications has become both more effective and more complicated. This article reviews current patterns of metastatic disease and the increasingly nuanced landscape of evolving therapies, their complications, and their impact on quality of survival...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194940/the-development-of-a-4d-treatment-planning-methodology-to-simulate-the-tracking-of-central-lung-tumors-in-an-mri-linac
#14
Shahad M Al-Ward, Anthony Kim, Claire McCann, Mark Ruschin, Patrick Cheung, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
PURPOSE: Targeting and tracking of central lung tumors may be feasible on the Elekta MRI-linac (MRL) due to the soft-tissue visualization capabilities of MRI. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel treatment planning methodology to simulate tracking of central lung tumors with the MRL and to quantify the benefits in OAR sparing compared with the ITV approach. METHODS: Full 4D-CT datasets for five central lung cancer patients were selected to simulate the condition of having 4D-pseudo-CTs derived from 4D-MRI data available on the MRL with real-time tracking capabilities...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191390/efficacy-of-intraoperative-lumbar-subarachnoid-drainage-for-prevention-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-after-spinal-cord-tumor-resection
#15
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a major clinical problem, and prevention of CSF leakage at the surgical site is an important issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative lumbar subarachnoid drainage (LSAD) for prevention of CSF leakage after spinal cord tumor resection. METHODS: The subjects were 97 patients with a cervical or thoracic primary intradural spinal cord tumor who underwent surgery at our hospital...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191363/histopathological-proof-of-the-pathogenicity-of-a-rare-gfap-mutation-in-a-patient-with-flaccid-paraparesis
#16
Florian Brackmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Cornelia Kraus, Oliver Rompel, Regina Trollmann
Infantile Alexander disease is a rare progressive leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the (GFAP) gene typically presenting with psychomotor retardation, progressive macrocephaly and refractory epilepsy. Neuroradiological hallmarks are extensive white matter lesions with frontal preponderance as well as signal intensity changes of basal ganglia and medulla oblongata with variable contrast enhancement. Here, we report an atypical manifestation in a 21-month-old boy presenting with flaccid paraparesis and areflexia...
November 27, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190137/high-risk-gastric-pathology-and-prevalent-autoimmune-diseases-in-patients-with-pernicious-anemia
#17
Jing W Hughes, Brian D Muegge, Garry S Tobin, Marina Litvin, Lulu Sun, Jose B Saenz, C Prakash Gyawali, Janet B McGill
OBJECTIVE: Pernicious anemia (PA) develops from atrophic gastritis due to autoimmune destruction of parietal cells and results in achlorhydria, vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies, anemia, neurologic deficits, and premalignant and malignant stomach lesions. We report the presentation, diagnosis and gastric complications of PA in patients from an endocrinology practice. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (31 female, 3 male) with PA who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or gastrectomy were identified...
November 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189641/mri-characteristics-of-spinal-ependymoma-in-who-grade-ii-a-review-of-59-cases
#18
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Fumihiko Kato, Tokumi Kanemura, Koji Sato, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Kei Ando, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter study. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine the characteristic imaging features of spinal ependymoma in a review of MRI data for a large series of surgically proven cases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Common spinal intramedullary neoplasms are mostly ependymomas and comprise 50-60% of spinal neuroepithelial tumors in adults. Preoperative prediction of the pathological diagnosis could enhance surgical planning and explanation of the procedure to patients...
November 20, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188529/spinal-ependymomas-in-nf2-a-surgical-disease
#19
M Kalamarides, W Essayed, J P Lejeune, R Aboukais, O Sterkers, D Bernardeschi, M Peyre, S K Lloyd, S Freeman, C Hammerbeck-Ward, M Kellett, S A Rutherford, D G Evans, O Pathmanaban, A T King
The management of spinal cord ependymomas in Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) has traditionally been conservative, in contrast to the management of sporadic cases; the assumption being that, in the context of NF2, they did not cause morbidity. With modern management and improved outcome of other NF2 tumours, this assumption, and therefore the lack of role for surgery, has been questioned. To compare the outcome of conservative treatment of spinal ependymomas in NF2 with surgical intervention in selected patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188210/pituitary-ependymoma-10-year-follow-up-after-partial-resection-and-radiation-therapy
#20
Jong Seok Lee, Kwan Ho Cho, Eun Kyung Hong, Sang-Hoon Shin
Ependymoma usually arises within the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. These tumors, found in the sellar region, are extremely rare. We report a case of pituitary ependymoma followed up over 10 years. A 59-year-old male patient presented with fatigue, general weakness, erectile dysfunction, and loss of body hair, including pubic hair. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 3.3×3.5×2.3-cm sellar and suprasellar snowman-shaped enhancing mass. The tumor was partially resected via the trans-sphenoidal approach followed by postoperative radiation therapy...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
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