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Spinal cord tumor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912991/malignant-spinal-cord-compression-adapting-conventional-rehabilitation-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Lisa Marie Ruppert
Spinal tumors are classically grouped into 3 categories: extradural, intradural extramedullary, and intradural intramedullary. Spinal tumors may cause spinal cord compression and vascular compromise resulting in pain or neurologic compromise. They may also alter the architecture of the spinal column, resulting in spinal instability. Oncologic management of spinal tumors varies according to the stability of the spine, neurologic status, and presence of pain. Treatment options include surgical intervention, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal manipulation...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911225/successful-treatment-of-mixed-yolk-sac-tumor-and-mature-teratoma-in-the-spinal-cord-case-report
#2
Akitake Mukasa, Shunsuke Yanagisawa, Kuniaki Saito, Shota Tanaka, Keisuke Takai, Junji Shibahara, Masachika Ikegami, Yusuke Nakao, Katsushi Takeshita, Masao Matsutani, Nobuhito Saito
Primary spinal germ cell tumors are rare, and spinal nongerminomatous germ cell tumors represent an even rarer subset for which no standard therapy has been established. The authors report the case of a 24-year-old woman with multifocal primary spinal germ cell tumors scattered from T-12 to L-5 that consisted of yolk sac tumor and mature teratoma. After diagnostic partial resection, the patient was treated with 30 Gy of craniospinal irradiation and 30 Gy of local spinal irradiation, followed by 8 courses of chemotherapy based on ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#3
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896519/image-guidance-technology-and-the-surgical-resection-of-spinal-column-tumors
#4
REVIEW
Bhargav Desai, Jonathan Hobbs, Grant Hartung, Guoren Xu, Ziya L Gokaslan, Andreas Linninger, Ankit I Mehta
Precision imaging is paramount to achieving success in surgical resection of many spinal tumors, whether the goal involves guiding a surgical cure for primary tumors or improving neurological decompression for metastatic lesions. Pre-operatively, image visualization is intimately involved with defining a clear target and surgical planning. Intra-operatively, image-guidance technology allows for surgeons to maximize the probability for gross total resection of spinal cord tumors and minimize damage to adjacent structures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895165/rats-with-a-missense-mutation-in-atm-display-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-subsequent-to-accumulation-of-cytosolic-dna-following-unrepaired-dna-damage
#5
Hazel Quek, John Luff, KaGeen Cheung, Sergei Kozlov, Magtouf Gatei, C Soon Lee, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes, Yi Chieh Lim, Nigel L Barnett, Steven Dingwall, Ernst Wolvetang, Tomoji Mashimo, Tara L Roberts, Martin F Lavin
Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)-mutated (ATM) gene give rise to the human genetic disorder A-T, characterized by immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, and neurodegeneration. Whereas a series of animal models recapitulate much of the A-T phenotype, they fail to present with ataxia or neurodegeneration. We describe here the generation of an Atm missense mutant [amino acid change of leucine (L) to proline (P) at position 2262 (L2262P)] rat by intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of mutant sperm into oocytes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895138/urotensin-ii-inhibitor-eases-neuropathic-pain-by-suppressing-the-jnk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#6
Jing Li, Pan-Pan Zhao, Ting Hao, Dan Wang, Yu Wang, Yang-Zi Zhu, Yu-Qing Wu, Cheng-Hua Zhou
Urotensin II (U-II), a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, can produce proinflammatory effects through its specific G protein-coupled receptor, GPR14. Neuropathic pain, a devastating disease, is related to excessive inflammation in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the relationship between U-II and neuropathic pain has not been reported. This study was designed to investigate the effect of U-II antagonist on neuropathic pain and to understand the associated mechanisms...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891027/purely-extradural-spinal-nerve-root-hemangioblastomas
#7
REVIEW
Murat Hamit Aytar, Ulaş Yener, Murat Şakir Ekşi, Behram Kaya, Serdar Özgen, Aydin Sav, Ahmet Alanay
Spinal nerve root hemangioblastomas present mostly as intradural-extradurally. Purely extradural spinal nerve root hemangioblastoma is a very rare entity. In this study, we aimed to analyze epidemiological perspectives of purely extradural spinal nerve root hemangioblastomas presented in English medical literature in addition to our own exemplary case. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched using the terms "hemangioblastoma," "extradural," "spinal," and "nerve root." Demographical variables of age, gender, concomitant presence of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease; spinal imaging and/or intraoperative findings for tumor location were surveyed from retrieved articles...
October 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889433/the-protective-effect-of-curcumin-in-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-exposed-to-hypoxia
#8
Roberta Bonfanti, Teresa Musumeci, Cristina Russo, Rosalia Pellitteri
Curcumin, a phytochemical component derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has shown a great variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-depression and anti-oxidant activity. Therefore, in the last years it has been used as a therapeutic agent since it confers protection in different neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia and excitotoxicity. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs) are glial cells of the olfactory system. They are able to secrete several neurotrophic growth factors, promote axonal growth and support the remyelination of damaged axons...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870483/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-regenerating-tail-versus-the-scarring-limb-in-lizard-reveals-pathways-leading-to-successful-versus-unsuccessful-organ-regeneration-in-amniotes
#9
Nicola Vitulo, Luisa Dalla Valle, Tatjana Skobo, Giorgio Valle, Lorenzo Alibardi
BACKGROUND: lizards are amniotes regenerating the tail but not the limb and no information on their different gene expression is available. RESULTS: transcriptomes of regenerating tail and limb blastemas show differences in gene expression between the two organs. In tail blastema snoRNAs and Wnt signals appear up-regulated probably in association with the Apical Epidermal Peg (AEP), an epithelial region that sustains tail regeneration but is absent in the limb. A balance between pro-oncogenes and tumor suppressors is likely present in tail blastema allowing a regulated proliferation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869449/-diffuse-tenosynovial-giant-cell-tumor-of-the-cervical-spine-destroying-vertebra-c6-a%C3%A2-case-report
#10
Zdeněk Kinkor, Tomáš Svoboda, Petr Grossman, David Bludovský, Filip Heidenreich, Andrej Švec, Iveta Mečiarová
Presented is a case of 59-year-old woman with longstanding neck pain who has been promptly operated for spinal cord compression. Imaging studies disclosed ill-defined cervical paravertebral soft tissue mass at the level of vertebra C5/6 abutting left-sided intervertebral joint and destroying neighboring both vertebral arch and processus spinosus. Submitted specimen was interpreted as a possible metastatic skeletal process by clinicians and referring pathologist favored diagnosis of giant cell tumor/osteoclastoma of the bone...
2016: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867117/extramedullar-cavernous-hemangioma-with-intra-and-extradural-growth-and-clinical-symptoms-of-brown-s%C3%A3-quard-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Bryndís Baldvinsdóttir, Gígja Erlingsdóttir, Ólafur Kjartansson, Ingvar Hákon Ólafsson
Primary spinal tumors are rare. Symptoms depend on size and location of the tumor. In the current case the patient presented with a rare clinical finding, Brown-Séquard syndrome. The symptoms were caused by an extramedullary tumor compressing on the thoracic spinal cord. Pathologic examination showed cavernous hemangioma, which had growth both intra- and extraduralt. This is an an extremely rare finding and to our knowledge only one case report has been published before were spinal cavernous hemangioma had intra- and extradural growth...
November 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861327/spinal-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-a-novel-alternative-to-surgery-for-metastatic-epidural-spinal-cord-compression
#12
Claudio E Tatsui, Sun-Ho Lee, Behrang Amini, Ganesh Rao, Dima Suki, Marilou Oro, Paul D Brown, Amol J Ghia, Shreyas Bhavsar, Keyuri Popat, Laurence D Rhines, R Jason Stafford, Jing Li
BACKGROUND: Although surgery followed by radiation effectively treats metastatic epidural compression, the ideal surgical approach should enable fast recovery and rapid institution of radiation and systemic therapy directed at the primary tumor. OBJECTIVE: To assess spinal laser interstitial thermotherapy (SLITT) as an alternative to surgery monitored in real time by thermal magnetic resonance (MR) images. METHODS: Patients referred for spinal metastasis without motor deficits underwent MR-guided SLITT, followed by stereotactic radiosurgery...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857455/imaging-in-spinal-posterior-epidural-space-lesions-a-pictorial-essay
#13
Foram B Gala, Yashant Aswani
Spinal epidural space is a real anatomic space located outside the dura mater and within the spinal canal extending from foramen magnum to sacrum. Important contents of this space are epidural fat, spinal nerves, epidural veins and arteries. Due to close proximity of posterior epidural space to spinal cord and spinal nerves, the lesions present with symptoms of radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. In this pictorial essay, detailed anatomy of the posterior epidural space, pathologies affecting it along with imaging pearls to accurately diagnose them are discussed...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855689/metformin-reduces-morphine-tolerance-by-inhibiting-microglial-mediated-neuroinflammation
#14
Yinbing Pan, Xiaodi Sun, Lai Jiang, Liang Hu, Hong Kong, Yuan Han, Cheng Qian, Chao Song, Yanning Qian, Wentao Liu
BACKGROUND: Tolerance seriously impedes the application of morphine in clinical medicine. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the exact mechanisms and efficient treatment. Microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord are thought to play pivotal roles on the genesis and maintaining of morphine tolerance. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) has been associated with the inhibition of inflammatory nociception. Metformin, a biguanide class of antidiabetic drugs and activator of AMPK, has a potential anti-inflammatory effect...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853720/performance-evaluation-of-algorithms-in-lung-imrt-a-comparison-of-monte-carlo-pencil-beam-superposition-fast-superposition-and-convolution-algorithms
#15
T Verma, N K Painuly, S P Mishra, M Shajahan, N Singh, M L B Bhatt, N Jamal, M C Pant
BACKGROUND: Inclusion of inhomogeneity corrections in intensity modulated small fields always makes conformal irradiation of lung tumor very complicated in accurate dose delivery. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the performance of five algorithms via Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Convolution, Fast Superposition and Superposition were evaluated in lung cancer Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment plans for ten lung cancer patients previously planned on Monte Carlo algorithm were re-planned using same treatment planning indices (gantry angel, rank, power etc...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851693/the-correlation-between-recordable-meps-and-motor-function-during-spinal-surgery-for-resection-of-thoracic-spinal-cord-tumor
#16
LanJun Guo, Yan Li, Ruquan Han, Adrian W Gelb
BACKGROUND: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are commonly used during surgery for spinal cord tumor resection. However, it can be difficult to record reliable MEPs from the muscles of the lower extremities during surgery in patients with preoperative weakness due to spinal cord compression. In this study, motor function of patients' lower extremities and their association with intraoperative MEP recording were compared. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing thoracic spinal cord tumor resection were studied...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847266/the-dosimetric-and-radiobiological-impact-of-calculation-grid-size-on-head-and-neck-imrt
#17
Shiv P Srivastava, Chee-Wai Cheng, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: Small-volume structures usually found in the head and neck may be susceptible to dose-volume averaging, which has not been studied. Here, the impact of calculation grid size on dose distribution for tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is investigated for head and neck (H&N) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: IMRT plans were generated for H&N patients with different grid sizes (1-5 mm) to calculate dose and related TCP and NTCP...
October 11, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847080/dumbbell-mimicked-mediastinal-angiomatosis
#18
En-Kuei Tang, Ping-Teng Chu, Yih-Gang Goan, Pin-Pen Hsieh, Jung-Chia Lin
Angiomatosis is a nonneoplastic proliferative vascular lesion, which occurs mostly in diverse soft tissues. We observed a rare case of mediastinal angiomatosis with intraspinal invasion that mimicked a dumbbell tumor in a 63-year-old man with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma. A roentgenogram of the chest showed that the patient had left pleural effusion and a left paraspinal mass, computed tomography disclosed a low-density fusiform lesion over the left paraspinal region, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a large posterior mediastinal tumor with T4 intraspinal invasion...
December 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846916/intrafractional-dose-variation-and-beam-configuration-in-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-esophageal-cancer
#19
M F Haefner, F Sterzing, D Krug, S A Koerber, O Jaekel, J Debus, M M Haertig
BACKGROUND: In carbon ion radiotherapy (CIR) for esophageal cancer, organ and target motion is a major challenge for treatment planning due to potential range deviations. This study intends to analyze the impact of intrafractional variations on dosimetric parameters and to identify favourable settings for robust treatment plans. METHODS: We contoured esophageal boost volumes in different organ localizations for four patients and calculated CIR-plans with 13 different beam geometries on a free-breathing CT...
November 15, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846400/spinal-cordectomy-a-new-hope-for-morbid-spinal-conditions
#20
REVIEW
Subhas K Konar, Tanmoy K Maiti, Shyamal C Bir, Anil Nanda
A spinal cordectomy is a treatment option for several disorders of the spinal cord like post-traumatic syringomyelia, spinal cord tumor and myelomeningocele. We have done a systematic analysis of all reported cases of spinal cordectomy to investigate the possible outcomes and complications. A PubMed search was performed for literature published from 1949 to 2015 with search words "spinal cordectomy", "spinal cord transection" and "cordectomy for malignant spinal cord tumors" to select articles containing information about the indication, outcome and complication of spinal cordectomy performed for diverse etiologies...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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