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Liposomes and antibiotics

Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Takuya Kaji, Motoki Murai, Hiroaki Itoh, Jyunichiro Yasukawa, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Masayuki Inoue
Lysocin E (1) is a structurally complex 37-membered depsipeptide comprising 12 amino-acid residues with an N-methylated amide and an ester linkage. Compound 1 binds to menaquinone (MK) in the bacterial membrane to exert its potent bactericidal activity. To decipher the biologically important functionalities within this unique antibiotic, we performed a comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study by systematically changing the side-chain structures of l-Thr-1, d-Arg-2, N-Me-d-Phe-5, d-Arg-7, l-Glu-8, and d-Trp-10...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jordi Rello, Eleonora Bunsow, Antonio Perez
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past years and discuss a variety of treatments that may be able to replace antimicrobials: monoclonal antibodies, bacteriophages, stem cells and anti-virulence agents such as liposomes. Expert commentary: There are a series of economic, scientific-research and regulatory reasons for the scarcity of new antimicrobials...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jin Zhang, Kyle Scoten, Suzana K Straus
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic approved for use against Gram-positive organisms, including highly resistant species. A number of studies have suggested that daptomycin kills bacteria by membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Recently a model membrane system consisting of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) in a 1:1 ratio and the ionophore CCCP was proposed as a simple model to investigate the mode of action of daptomycin and resistance mechanisms at a molecular level...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Petra Uttlová, Dominik Pinkas, Olga Bechyňková, Radovan Fišer, Jaroslava Svobodová, Gabriela Seydlová
Surfactin, an anionic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is an antimicrobial that targets the cytoplasmic membrane. Nowadays it appears increasingly apparent that the mechanism of resistance against these types of antibiotics consists of target site modification. This prompted us to investigate whether the surfactin non-producing strain B. subtilis 168 changes its membrane composition in response to a sublethal surfactin concentration. Here we show that the exposure of B. subtilis to surfactin at concentrations of 350 and 650 μg/ml (designated as SF350 and SF650, respectively) leads to a concentration-dependent growth arrest followed by regrowth with an altered growth rate...
September 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhao Wang, Yufan Ma, Hayssam Khalil, Rutao Wang, Tingli Lu, Wen Zhao, Yang Zhang, Jamin Chen, Tao Chen
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations for antibiotics, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Alberto Oddo, Thomas T Thomsen, Hannah M Britt, Anders Løbner-Olesen, Peter W Thulstrup, John M Sanderson, Paul R Hansen
Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is on the rise and threatens to evolve into a worldwide emergency: alternative solutions to current therapies are urgently needed. Cationic amphipathic peptides are potent membrane-active agents that hold promise as the next-generation therapy for multidrug-resistant infections. The peptides' behavior upon encountering the bacterial cell wall is crucial, and much effort has been dedicated to the investigation and optimization of this amphipathicity-driven interaction...
August 11, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Hazem Khalaf, Sravya Sowdamini Nakka, Camilla Sandén, Anna Svärd, Kjell Hultenby, Nikolai Scherbak, Daniel Aili, Torbjörn Bengtsson
BACKGROUND: The complications in healthcare systems associated with antibiotic-resistant microorganisms have resulted in an intense search for new effective antimicrobials. Attractive substances from which novel antibiotics may be developed are the bacteriocins. These naturally occurring peptides are generally considered to be safe and efficient at eliminating pathogenic bacteria. Among specific keystone pathogens in periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered to be the most important pathogen in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory disease...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Hong Jiang, Meimei Xiong, Qiuyan Bi, Ying Wang, Chong Li
Considering that some antibacterial agents can identify the outer structure of pathogens like cell wall and/or cell membrane, we explored a self-enhanced targeted delivery strategy by which a small amount of the antibiotic molecules were modified on the surface of carriers as targeting ligands of certain bacteria while more antibiotic molecules were loaded inside the carriers, and thus has the potential to improve the drug concentration at the infection site, enhance efficacy and reduce potential toxicity. In this study, a novel targeted delivery system against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia was constructed with daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, which can bind to the cell wall of S...
July 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Annie H Cheung Lam, Natalie Sandoval, Ritambhara Wadhwa, Janine Gilkes, Thai Q Do, William Ernst, Su-Ming Chiang, Suzanne Kosina, H Howard Xu, Gary Fujii, Edith Porter
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria continue to be a global threat, highlighting an urgent need for novel antibiotics. In this study, we assessed the potential of free fatty acids and cholesteryl esters that form part of the innate host defense as novel antibacterial agents for use against MDR bacteria. METHODS: Liposomes of six different phospholipid mixtures were employed as carrier for six different fatty acids and four different cholesteryl esters...
2016: BMC Research Notes
H M H N Bandara, M J Herpin, D Kolacny, A Harb, D Romanovicz, H D C Smyth
The challenge of eliminating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, such as in cystic fibrosis lungs, remains unchanged due to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. Poor drug penetration into dense P. aeruginosa biofilms plays a vital role in ineffective clearance of the infection. Thus, the current antibiotic therapy against P. aeruginosa biofilms need to be revisited and alternative antibiofilm strategies need to be invented. Fungal quorum sensing molecule (QSM), farnesol, appears to have detrimental effects on P...
August 1, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Mohan Vimaladevi, Kurunchi Chellapathi Divya, Agnishwar Girigoswami
The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is an alternative method for killing bacterial cells in view of the rising problem of antibiotic resistance microorganisms. The present study examined the effect of a water soluble photosensitizer, Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in stealth liposomes on multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of visible light. Liposomes were prepared with cholesterol and phospholipids that extracted from hen eggs in a cost effective way and characterized by light microscopy, particle size analyzer, electron microscopy, steady state spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Rawan Huwaitat, Alice P McCloskey, Brendan F Gilmore, Garry Laverty
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding...
July 2016: Future Microbiology
Maddalena Chermetz, Margherita Gobbo, Katia Rupel, Giulia Ottaviani, Giancarlo Tirelli, Rossana Bussani, Roberto Luzzati, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto
Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are two opportunistic fungal infections, which can evolve into life-threatening complications. They generally affect patients with relevant risk factors such as immunocompromisation or long-term use of antibiotics or corticosteroids. Treatment usually combines medical and surgical approaches, often including extended necrosectomies, although the prognosis of generalized fungal infections is very poor. In this paper, we present the case of a 17-year-old girl affected by combined aspergillosis and mucormycosis, following treatment of a recurrent glioma...
October 2016: Mycopathologia
Siavash Beiranvand, Ali Eatemadi, Arash Karimi
Lipid nanoparticles (liposomes) were first described in 1965, and several work have led to development of important technical advances like triggered release liposomes and drug-loaded liposomes. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas such as the delivery of anti-cancer, antifungal, and antibiotic drugs; the delivery of gene medicines; and most importantly the delivery of anesthesia drugs. Quite a number of liposomes are on the market, and many more are still in developmental stage...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Bas G J Surewaard, Justin F Deniset, Franz J Zemp, Matthias Amrein, Michael Otto, John Conly, Abdelwahab Omri, Robin M Yates, Paul Kubes
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is reaching epidemic proportions causing morbidity, mortality, and chronic disease due to relapses, suggesting an intracellular reservoir. Using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy to track MRSA-GFP in vivo, we identified that within minutes after intravenous infection MRSA is primarily sequestered and killed by intravascular Kupffer cells (KCs) in the liver. However, a minority of the Staphylococci overcome the KC's antimicrobial defenses...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Momeni-Javid Zahra, Hamishekar Hamed, Rahmati-Yamchi Mohammad, Zarghami Nosratollah, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Milani Morteza
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of liposomal meropenem formulation against clinical and laboratory isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa isolates were used to determine the MIC and MBC of free and liposomal meropenem. As well as the effect of free and liposomes meropenem compare the minimum biofilm eradication concentration and inhibition of P. aeruginosa motility was assessed. RESULTS: In this study, the MICs and MBC of liposomal meropenem was more effective against all clinical and laboratory strains were significantly lower than those of free meropenem (6...
June 20, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Zahraa Al-Saedi, Allison Zimmerman, Rinda Devi Bachu, Surajit Dey, Zahoor Shah, Reginald Baugh, Sai H S Boddu
Dry eye disease (DED) is a tear film disorder resulting in hyperosmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. DED is also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and dry eye syndrome. DED represents a significant public health issue, particularly in older adults, and needs more research and attention. Despite the urgent need for safe and effective pharmacotherapies, there is currently only one approved medication, Restasis®, to tackle DED. In this review article, we present an overview of DED, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and risk factors of DED...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Andre Martins Galvão, Júlia Siqueira Galvão, Marcela Araújo Pereira, Pabyton Gonçalves Cadena, Nereide Stella Santos Magalhães, James B Fink, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, Celia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro, Maria Bernadete de Sousa Maia
The intracellular redox state of alveolar cells is a determining factor for tolerance to oxidative and pro-inflammatory stresses. This study investigated the effects of intratracheal co-administration of antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes on the lungs of rats subjected to sepsis. For this, male rats subjected to sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli or placebo operation were treated (intratracheally) with antibiotic, 0.9% saline and antioxidants encapsulated or non-encapsulated in liposomes...
September 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
H Y Cui, J Wu, L Lin
Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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