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Hyperreactive Airway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091773/the-nervous-system-of-airways-and-its-remodeling-in-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Katrin Julia Audrit, Lucas Delventhal, Öznur Aydin, Christina Nassenstein
Inflammatory lung diseases are associated with bronchospasm, cough, dyspnea and airway hyperreactivity. The majority of these symptoms cannot be primarily explained by immune cell infiltration. Evidence has been provided that vagal efferent and afferent neurons play a pivotal role in this regard. Their functions can be altered by inflammatory mediators that induce long-lasting changes in vagal nerve activity and gene expression in both peripheral and central neurons, providing new targets for treatment of pulmonary inflammatory diseases...
January 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063042/murine-models-of-allergic-asthma
#2
Eline Haspeslagh, Nincy Debeuf, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory lung disease affecting millions of people worldwide and with a steadily increasing incidence. Mouse models have been of utmost importance in uncovering key inflammatory cell types, cytokines, and pathways in the development and maintenance of allergic asthma. Historically, the mainstay in experimental asthma research was sensitizing rodents to the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) with the pro-Th2 adjuvant aluminum hydroxide, followed by repetitive OVA exposures to the airways to initiate a Th2-skewed adaptive immune response leading to eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity (AHR)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056550/co-inhalation-of-roflumilast-rather-than-formoterol-with-fluticasone-more-effectively-improves-asthma-in-asthmatic-mice
#3
Hussam A Murad, Hamed S Habib, Misbahuddin M Rafeeq, Mansour I Sulaiman, Amer S Abdulrahman, Mohamad Nidal Khabaz
Roflumilast is approved as an add-on therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly neutrophilic, while in asthma it is mainly eosinophilic, studies addressing role of roflumilast in eosinophilic inflammation are recommended. Also in severe asthma, the dominant inflammatory cells are neutrophils. Thus, roflumilast has a potential off-label use in the treatment of asthma. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of co-inhalation of roflumilast and fluticasone compared to that of formoterol and fluticasone in ovalbumin-sensitized and-challenged BALB/c mice...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030368/sphingolipids-ormdl3-and-asthma-what-is-the-evidence
#4
Tilla S Worgall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies identified ORMDL3, a protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, as a significant asthma risk factor. ORMDL3 is one of three ORMDL proteins that integrate multiple signals to maintain sphingolipid homeostasis. Studies that investigated potential mechanisms for how increased ORMDL3 might affect asthma are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Investigations focused on decreased sphingolipid synthesis and on the unfolded protein response because ORMDL3 had been implicated in both...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025241/clinical-tools-to-assess-asthma-control-in-children
#5
Chitra Dinakar, Bradley E Chipps
Asthma affects an estimated 7 million children and causes significant health care and disease burden. The most recent iteration of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute asthma guidelines, the Expert Panel Report 3, emphasizes the assessment and monitoring of asthma control in the management of asthma. Asthma control refers to the degree to which the manifestations of asthma are minimized by therapeutic interventions and the goals of therapy are met. Although assessment of asthma severity is used to guide initiation of therapy, monitoring of asthma control helps determine whether therapy should be maintained or adjusted...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009478/local-effects-on-airway-inflammation-and-systemic-uptake-of-5-nm-pegylated-and-citrated-gold-nanoparticles-in-asthmatic-mice
#6
Albert J Omlor, Duc D Le, Janine Schlicker, Matthias Hannig, Raphael Ewen, Sebastian Heck, Christian Herr, Annette Kraegeloh, Christina Hein, Ralf Kautenburger, Guido Kickelbick, Robert Bals, Juliane Nguyen, Q Thai Dinh
Nanotechnology is showing promise in many medical applications such as drug delivery and hyperthermia. Nanoparticles administered to the respiratory tract cause local reactions and cross the blood-air barrier, thereby providing a means for easy systemic administration but also a potential source of toxicity. Little is known about how these effects are influenced by preexisting airway diseases such as asthma. Here, BALB/c mice are treated according to the ovalbumin (OVA) asthma protocol to promote allergic airway inflammation...
December 23, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002727/allergen-exposure-when-timing-is-everything
#7
Tanel Mahlakõiv, David Artis
It is known that young children exposed to allergens are prone to develop asthma later in life. In this issue of Immunity, de Kleer et al. (2016) identify IL-33 as a key player in the developing lung for sensitization to environmental allergens and airway hyperreactivity.
December 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995616/b-cell-subsets-are-modulated-during-allergic-airway-inflammation-but-are-not-required-for-the-development-of-respiratory-tolerance-in-a-murine-model
#8
Anika Habener, Ann-Kathrin Behrendt, Jelena Skuljec, Adan Chari Jirmo, Almut Meyer-Bahlburg, Gesine Hansen
Allergic asthma is a widespread chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The role of different B-cell subsets in developing asthma and respiratory tolerance is not well-known. Especially regulatory B (Breg) cells are proposed to be important in asthma regulation. Using wildtype (WT) and B-cell-deficient (μMT) mice we investigated how B-cells are affected by induction of allergic airway inflammation and respiratory tolerance and whether they are necessary to develop these conditions. WT mice with an asthma-like phenotype, characterized by increased airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and elevated Th2 cytokines, exhibited increased MHCII and CD23 expression on follicular mature B-cells in lung, bronchial lymph nodes (bLN) and spleen, which contributed to allergen-specific T-cell proliferation in vitro...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982078/a-tnfrsf14-fc%C3%A9-ri-mast-cell-pathway-contributes-to-development-of-multiple-features-of-asthma-pathology-in-mice
#9
Riccardo Sibilano, Nicolas Gaudenzio, Marianne K DeGorter, Laurent L Reber, Joseph D Hernandez, Philipp M Starkl, Oliwia W Zurek, Mindy Tsai, Sonja Zahner, Stephen B Montgomery, Axel Roers, Mitchell Kronenberg, Mang Yu, Stephen J Galli
Asthma has multiple features, including airway hyperreactivity, inflammation and remodelling. The TNF superfamily member TNFSF14 (LIGHT), via interactions with the receptor TNFRSF14 (HVEM), can support TH2 cell generation and longevity and promote airway remodelling in mouse models of asthma, but the mechanisms by which TNFSF14 functions in this setting are incompletely understood. Here we find that mouse and human mast cells (MCs) express TNFRSF14 and that TNFSF14:TNFRSF14 interactions can enhance IgE-mediated MC signalling and mediator production...
December 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935998/pro-resolving-effects-of-resolvin-d2-in-ltd4-and-tnf-%C3%AE-pre-treated-human-bronchi
#10
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Chantal Sirois, Marco Sirois, Edmond Rizcallah, Sofia Marouan, Caroline Morin, Éric Rousseau
Inflammation is a major burden in respiratory diseases, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis is that resolution of inflammation may represent a long-term solution in preventing human bronchial dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of RvD2, a member of the D-series resolving family, with concomitant effects on ASM mechanical reactivity. The role and mode of action of RvD2 were assessed in an in vitro model of human bronchi under pro-inflammatory conditions, induced either by 1 μM LTD4 or 10 ng/ml TNF-α pre-treatment for 48h...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913141/acute-lung-injury-and-persistent-small-airway-disease-in-a-rabbit-model-of-chlorine-inhalation
#11
Sadiatu Musah, Connie F Schlueter, David M Humphrey, Karen S Powell, Andrew M Roberts, Gary W Hoyle
Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858495/asthma-associated-with-the-use-of-cocaine-heroin-and-marijuana-a-review-of-the-evidence
#12
Timothy H Self, Samarth Shah, Katherine L March, Christopher W Sands
OBJECTIVE: Review the evidence regarding asthma associated with use of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. DATA SOURCES: A search of the English literature via PubMed/Medline and EMBASE using the search terms asthma AND cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. When pertinent articles were found, salient references in those articles were assessed. STUDY SELECTION: Due to the relatively small number of studies, we included all studies and cases. RESULTS: For several decades, case reports, retrospective studies, and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that inhalation of cocaine or heroin is associated with increased asthma symptoms and reduced pulmonary function...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855687/diagnostic-accuracy-of-methacholine-challenge-tests-assessing-airway-hyperreactivity-in-asthmatic-patients-a-multifunctional-approach
#13
Richard Kraemer, Hans-Jürgen Smith, Thomas Sigrist, Gabi Giger, Roland Keller, Martin Frey
BACKGROUND: There are few studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of different lung function parameters evaluating dose-response characteristics of methacholine (MCH) challenge tests (MCT) as quantitative outcome of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in asthmatic patients. The aim of this retrospectively analysis of our database (Clinic Barmelweid, Switzerland) was, to assess diagnostic accuracy of several lung function parameters quantitating AHR by dose-response characteristics. METHODS: Changes in effective specific airway conductance (sGeff) as estimate of the degree of bronchial obstruction were compared with concomitantly measured forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flows at 50% forced vital capacity (FEF50)...
November 17, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852361/-lower-airway-abnormalities-in-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis
#14
J F Ji, Q P Wang, Y Zhang, Z Y Wang, Y Q Xie, W J Guan, K M Wu, L Xu, W Chen, F Xue, M J Jiang, T Y Wang, N S Zhong
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of lower airway abnormalities in allergic rhinitis(AR) patients without asthma. Methods: Between June 2008 and December 2012, 377 consecutive AR patients and 264 healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects underwent meticulous history taking, nasal examination, allergen skin prick test, blood routine test, serum total immunoglobin E assay, induced sputum cell count and differentials, measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and bronchial challenge test...
November 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836899/trail-signaling-is-proinflammatory-and-proviral-in-a-murine-model-of-rhinovirus-1b-infection
#15
Jason L Girkin, Luke M Hatchwell, Adam M Collison, Malcolm R Starkey, Philip M Hansbro, Hideo Yagita, Paul S Foster, Joerg Mattes
the aim of this study is to elucidate the role of TRAIL during rhinovirus (RV) infection in vivo. Naïve wild-type and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-deficient (Tnfsf10(-/-)) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with RV1B. In separate experiments, Tnfsf10(-/-) mice were sensitized and challenged via the airway route with house dust mite (HDM) to induce allergic airways disease and then challenged with RVIB or UV-RVIB. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was invasively assessed as total airways resistance in response to increasing methacholine challenge and inflammation was assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at multiple time points postinfection...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831810/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-airway-hyperreactivity-in-asthma-lessons-for-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Winfried J Randerath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820848/acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-contributes-to-airway-hyperreactivity-in-mice
#17
Leah R Reznikov, David K Meyerholz, Ryan J Adam, Mahmoud Abou Alaiwa, Omar Jaffer, Andrew S Michalski, Linda S Powers, Margaret P Price, David A Stoltz, Michael J Welsh
Neurons innervating the airways contribute to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a hallmark feature of asthma. Several observations suggested that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), neuronal cation channels activated by protons, might contribute to AHR. For example, ASICs are found in vagal sensory neurons that innervate airways, and asthmatic airways can become acidic. Moreover, airway acidification activates ASIC currents and depolarizes neurons innervating airways. We found ASIC1a protein in vagal ganglia neurons, but not airway epithelium or smooth muscle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812632/effects-of-passive-inhalation-of-cigarette-smoke-on-structural-and-functional-parameters-in-the-respiratory-system-of-guinea-pigs
#18
Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Yvelize Ramos de Araújo, João Paulo Melo de Pinho, Pedro Marcos Gomes Soares, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes Bastos
Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day) for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid...
September 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810937/deficiency-of-cpeb2-confined-choline-acetyltransferase-expression-in-the-dorsal-motor-nucleus-of-vagus-causes-hyperactivated-parasympathetic-signaling-associated-bronchoconstriction
#19
Yen-Ting Lai, Chun-Kuei Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Ya-Jen Chang, Alan Chuan-Ying Lai, Yi-Shuian Huang
: Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805618/eosinophils-are-required-to-suppress-th2-responses-in-peyer-s-patches-during-intestinal-infection-by-nematodes
#20
J Strandmark, S Steinfelder, C Berek, A A Kühl, S Rausch, S Hartmann
Infections with enteric nematodes result in systemic type 2 helper T (Th2) responses, expansion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies, and eosinophilia. Eosinophils have a supportive role in mucosal Th2 induction during airway hyperreactivity. Whether eosinophils affect the local T-cell and antibody response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during enteric infections is unknown. We infected eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice with the Th2-inducing small intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and found that parasite fecundity was decreased in the absence of eosinophils...
November 2, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
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