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Information behaviour

C de Baat, R S T Modderman
The behaviour of a 78-year-old, edentulous female resident of a care home, suffering from dementia indicated to her care providers that she was experiencing oral pain. At the left (pre)molar region of the mandibular residual alveolar ridge, an irritated, red-coloured, sharply restricted mucosal area was seen, extending in width from the buccal to the lingual border of the ridge. Eventually it was identified as mucosal irritation, apparently due to hydroxylapatite cones that had previously been inserted to augment the residual alveolar ridge...
June 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Lisa Lehnen, Wigbert Schorcht, Inken Karst, Martin Biedermann, Gerald Kerth, Sebastien J Puechmaille
Population sex ratios are of high ecological relevance, but are challenging to determine in species lacking conspicuous external cues indicating their sex. Acoustic sexing is an option if vocalizations differ between sexes, but is precluded by overlapping distributions of the values of male and female vocalizations in many species. A method allowing the inference of sex ratios despite such an overlap will therefore greatly increase the information extractable from acoustic data. To meet this demand, we developed a novel approach using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to infer the sex ratio of populations from acoustic data...
2018: PloS One
Puteri Paramita, Zuduo Zheng, Md Mazharul Haque, Simon Washington, Paul Hyland
In the public transport industry, travellers' perceived satisfaction is a key element in understanding their evaluation of, and loyalty to ridership. Despite its notable importance, studies of customer satisfaction are under-represented in the literature, and most previous studies are based on survey data collected from a single city only. This does not allow a comparison across different transport systems. To address this underrepresentation, this paper reports on a study of train passengers' satisfaction with the fare paid for their most recent home-based train trip in five Australian capital cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Perth...
2018: PloS One
Petr Winkler, Tomáš Formánek, Karolína Mladá, Pavla Cermakova
OBJECTIVES: The CZEch Mental health Study (CZEMS) was launched to inform the ongoing mental health care reform. This paper describes rationale, methods, and the plan for the future analyses of this project. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of the general adult noninstitutionalized population of the Czech Republic was conducted. Two-stage sampling was utilized and respondents were interviewed by centrally trained staff using a paper and pencil interviewing...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Dimitris Liparas
Neuroinformatics is a fascinating research field that applies computational models and analytical tools to high dimensional experimental neuroscience data for a better understanding of how the brain functions or dysfunctions in brain diseases. Neuroinformaticians work in the intersection of neuroscience and informatics supporting the integration of various sub-disciplines (behavioural neuroscience, genetics, cognitive psychology, etc.) working on brain research. Neuroinformaticians are the pathway of information exchange between informaticians and clinicians for a better understanding of the outcome of computational models and the clinical interpretation of the analysis...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Sion Scott, Allan Clark, Carol Farrow, Helen May, Martyn Patel, Michael James Twigg, David John Wright, Debi Bhattacharya
Background Deprescribing medication may be in response to an adverse clinical trigger (reactive) or if future gains are unlikely to outweigh future harms (proactive). A hospital admission may present an opportunity for deprescribing, however current practice is poorly understood. Objective To quantify and describe the nature of deprescribing in a UK teaching hospital. Method Prescribing and discontinuation data for admission medication from a hospital's electronic prescribing system were extracted over 4 weeks...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Dominic A Evans, A Vanessa Stempel, Ruben Vale, Sabine Ruehle, Yaara Lefler, Tiago Branco
Escaping from imminent danger is an instinctive behaviour that is fundamental for survival, and requires the classification of sensory stimuli as harmless or threatening. The absence of threat enables animals to forage for essential resources, but as the level of threat and potential for harm increases, they have to decide whether or not to seek safety 1 . Despite previous work on instinctive defensive behaviours in rodents2-11 , little is known about how the brain computes the threat level for initiating  escape...
June 20, 2018: Nature
Athanasios Metaxakis, Dionysia Petratou, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Multisensory integration is a mechanism that allows organisms to simultaneously sense and understand external stimuli from different modalities. These distinct signals are transduced into neuronal signals that converge into decision-making neuronal entities. Such decision-making centres receive information through neuromodulators regarding the organism's physiological state and accordingly trigger behavioural responses. Despite the importance of multisensory integration for efficient functioning of the nervous system, and also the implication of dysfunctional multisensory integration in the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disease, little is known about the relative molecular mechanisms...
June 2018: Open Biology
Eleanor M Caves, Patrick A Green, Sönke Johnsen
Cleaner shrimp and their reef fish clients are an interspecific mutualistic interaction that is thought to be mediated by signals, and a useful system for studying the dynamics of interspecific signalling. To demonstrate signalling, one must show that purported signals at minimum (a) result in a consistent state change in the receiver and (b) contain reliable information about the sender's intrinsic state or future behaviour. Additionally, signals must be perceptible by receivers. Here, we document fundamental attributes of the signalling system between the cleaner shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni and its clients...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Arinobu Hori, Tomohiro Morita, Izumi Yoshida, Masaharu Tsubokura
Cognitive-behavioural therapy is a first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is difficult to implement in disaster settings. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman, who was diagnosed with PTSD after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear plant accident) in Fukushima. Her recovery was greatly enhanced by the social support she received while living in Idobata-Nagaya community housing, established by Soma city in Fukushima, where residents could naturally discuss their traumatic experiences...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Eugene Hong, Anteneh Mesfin Yeneneh, Tushar Kanti Sen, Ha Ming Ang, Ahmet Kayaalp
Large quantities of sludge is generated from different sections of a wastewater treatment plant operation. Sludge can be a solid, semisolid or liquid muddy residual material. Understanding the flow behaviour and rheological properties of sewage sludge at different sections of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is important for the design of pumping system, mixing, hydrodynamics and mass transfer rates of various sludge treatment units, optimization of conditioning dose and for sustainable sludge management...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Stephen Bell, Johanna Wapling, Sophie Ase, Ruthy Boli-Neo, Andrew J Vallely, John M Kaldor, Claire E Nightingale, Angela Kelly-Hanku
BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has some of the highest prevalence of urogenital sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pacific Asia, but to date, anorectal STI prevalence data do not exist, and diagnosis of anorectal STIs does not occur. The purpose of this study was to document the acceptability of anorectal STI testing and self-collection of anorectal swabs for testing among populations at risk of anorectal STIs, in advance of a large bio-behavioural survey during which this approach to specimen collection was planned among key populations in PNG...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Daniel Slunge, Anders Boman
The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of risk perceptions and exposure for protective behaviour against tick bites and the related diseases Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), both of which are growing health concerns. We use data from a national survey in Sweden with respondents in geographical areas with substantial differences in both abundance of ticks and incidence of LB and TBE. We find that the share of respondents who frequently use protective clothing (64%), perform tick checks (63%) or avoid tall grass while in areas with ticks (48%) is relatively high...
2018: PloS One
Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Kristiina J Hurme
We propose a practical concept that distinguishes the particular kind of weaponry that has evolved to be used in combat between individuals of the same species and sex, which we term intrasexually selected weapons (ISWs). We present a treatise of ISWs in nature, aiming to understand their distinction and evolution from other secondary sex traits, including from 'sexually selected weapons', and from sexually dimorphic and monomorphic weaponry. We focus on the subset of secondary sex traits that are the result of same-sex combat, defined here as ISWs, provide not previously reported evolutionary patterns, and offer hypotheses to answer questions such as: why have only some species evolved weapons to fight for the opposite sex or breeding resources? We examined traits that seem to have evolved as ISWs in the entire animal phylogeny, restricting the classification of ISW to traits that are only present or enlarged in adults of one of the sexes, and are used as weapons during intrasexual fights...
June 20, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Eilidh M Duncan, Heather Cassie, Janet Pooley, Paula Elouafakoui, Maria Prior, Elizabeth Gibb, Craig Ramsay, Linda Young
PURPOSE: A common response to rising demand for healthcare is to extend the role of health professionals and the range of their service provision. Community optometry in Scotland is a recent example of this. Within this context of innovation and change there are challenges to ensuring quality in optometry practice. The purpose of this research is to establish what the priorities are for practice improvement within community optometry and to start a programme to inform strategies to improve practice...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Gisèle Carrière, Bougie Bougie, Dafna Kohen
BACKGROUND: National information about acute care hospitalizations for mental/behavioural disorders among Aboriginal people in Canada is limited. DATA AND METHODS: This study describes acute care hospitalizations for mental /behavioural disorders among First Nations people living on and off reserve. The 2006 Census was linked to the Discharge Abstract Database from 2006/2007 through 2008/2009 for all provinces (except Ontario and Quebec) and the three territories...
June 20, 2018: Health Reports
Sharon O'Grady
AIM: The purpose of this article is to sensitize managers to the phenomenon of organisational citizenship behaviours-extra-role behaviours in which employees participate without expecting rewards and that bring forth positive impacts for the organisation. BACKGROUND: In a context of recurring budget cuts, health care organisations are expected to provide quality and safe care. Organisational citizenship behaviour is one of the measures that organisations can use to meet this mandate...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
D Tasic, I Lazarevic, A Knezevic, L Tasic, A Pikula, Z Perisic, T Jovanovic, M Cupic
Persistent infection with one or more highly oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV) is necessary but not a sufficient aetiological agent for the development of cervical neoplasia. A number of viral, host, environmental and behavioural factors are suggested to be associated with the progression of cervical disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of environmental and behavioural cofactors on the development of cervical disorders in HR-HPV-infected women in Serbia. A total of 541 women have been tested by PCR for the presence of HPV on the cervix...
June 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K L Webb, S C Hewawitharana, L E Au, V Collie-Akers, W J Strauss, A J Landgraf, J Nagaraja, D K Wilson, R Sagatov, J Kao, C M Loria, S B Fawcett, L D Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Rational planning of community policies and programs (CPPs) to prevent obesity requires an understanding of CPP objectives associated with dietary behaviours. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to identify objectives of CPPs associated with healthful dietary behaviours. METHODS: An observational study identified 4026 nutrition CPPs occurring in 130 communities in the prior 6 years. Dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables, added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, among others, were reported among 5138 children 4-15 years of age from the communities, using a Dietary Screener Questionnaire with children age 9 years and older (parent assisted) or parent proxies for younger children...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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