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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245082/adolescent-mental-health-and-behavioural-problems-and-intergenerational-social-mobility-a-decomposition-of-health-selection-effects
#1
Lewis Robert Anderson
According to the health selection hypothesis, poor mental health and behavioural problems in adolescence limit socioeconomic attainment. But to what extent is health selection driven by prior social causation? This paper quantifies the extent to which health selection - here, restricted or downward intergenerational social class mobility due to poor mental health or behavioural problems - can be attributed to the influence of modifiable childhood risk factors. The UK National Child Development Study provides measures of socioeconomic deprivation and childhood adversities, as well as multiple-informant ratings of adolescents' mental health and behavioural problems, for which confirmatory factor analysis supports a three-factor model...
November 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243690/clinical-examination-record-keeping-part-2-history-taking
#2
A M Hadden
This article is the second part of a BDJ series of Practice papers on the subject of clinical examination and related record keeping. The series is taken from the Faculty of General Dental Practice UK (FGDP[UK]) 2016 Good Practice Guidelines book on this topic, edited by A. M. Hadden. This particular article discusses history taking, where information may be gathered prior to the patient seeing the clinician or, in some cases, this may be carried out chairside by the individual. The information gathered can include a medical history, socio-behavioural history, and patient anxiety levels...
December 15, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243375/parental-experiences-and-perceptions-of-infant-complementary-feeding-a-qualitative-evidence-synthesis
#3
REVIEW
K Matvienko-Sikar, C Kelly, C Sinnott, J McSharry, C Houghton, C Heary, E Toomey, M Byrne, P M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent childhood obesity increasingly focus on infant feeding, but demonstrate inconsistent effects. A comprehensive qualitative evidence synthesis is essential to better understand feeding behaviours and inform intervention development. The aim of this study is to synthesize evidence on perceptions and experiences of infant feeding and complementary feeding recommendations. METHODS: Databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex and Maternity and Infant Care were searched from inception to May 2017...
December 15, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243326/three-dimensional-ultrasound-cranial-imaging-and-early-neurodevelopment-in-preterm-growth-restricted-infants
#4
Glenda McLean, Catherine Hough, Arvind Sehgal, Michael Ditchfield, Graeme R Polglase, Suzanne L Miller
AIM: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased perinatal morbidity, mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The objective of this study was to examine whether information about early neurodevelopmental deficits was evident using three-dimensional head ultrasound and developmental assessments in preterm infants with FGR, compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants in the early post-natal period. METHODS: Twenty preterm FGR infants weighing <10th centile and born between 28 and 32 weeks were compared with age-matched AGA infants...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243038/what-performance-analysts-need-to-know-about-research-trends-in-association-football-2012-2016-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Hugo Sarmento, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids, Allistair McRobert, António Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Evolving patterns of match analysis research need to be systematically reviewed regularly since this area of work is burgeoning rapidly and studies can offer new insights to performance analysts if theoretically and coherently organized. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of published articles on match analysis in adult male football, identify and organize common research topics, and synthesize the emerging patterns of work between 2012 and 2016, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
December 14, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242113/professionals-knowledge-attitude-and-referral-behaviour-of-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer
#6
J J G Gietel-Habets, C E M de Die-Smulders, V C G Tjan-Heijnen, I A P Derks-Smeets, R van Golde, E Gomez-Garcia, L A D M van Osch
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer caused by a BRCA1/2 mutation is the most frequent indication for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in the Netherlands. The extent to which involved professionals are informed about this option, however, is unclear. The few available international studies mostly represent a limited range of professionals, and suggest that their knowledge about PGD for hereditary cancer syndromes is sparse and referral for PGD is based on limited understanding. A cross-sectional survey assessing awareness, knowledge, acceptability and PGD-referral for BRCA was completed by 188 professionals involved in the field of breast and ovarian cancer or reproduction...
December 6, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241505/knowledge-behaviours-training-and-attitudes-of-nurses-during-preparation-and-administration-of-intravenous-medications-in-intensive-care-units-icu-a-multicenter-italian-study
#7
Marco Di Muzio, Corrado De Vito, Daniela Tartaglini, Paolo Villari
BACKGROUND: Medication errors can put at risk the life of patients hospitalized in the ICUs. These errors occur more frequently in the ICUs due to their peculiar medical framework. There is not much information about the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and training needs of the nurses who work in ICUs towards the medication errors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at describing the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and training needs of the Italian nurses who work in ICUs towards the use of IV drugs, and identifying the strategies that nurses can adopt to prevent the occurrence of medication errors...
December 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240545/screen-viewing-time-and-externalising-problems-in-pre-school-children-in-northern-thailand
#8
Supakanya Tansriratanawong, Orawan Louthrenoo, Weerasak Chonchaiya, Chawanan Charnsil
OBJECTIVES: There are increasing reports of younger children accessing media and screen. This study aims to describe screen use in pre-school children and its association with externalising problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of pre-schoolers aged two to five years was conducted. Their caregivers were asked to provide data regarding screen use by their children and themselves. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was completed by caregivers to assess their child's behaviour...
November 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239513/without-or-without-pheromone-habituation-possible-differences-between-insect-orders
#9
David Maxwell Suckling, Lloyd D Stringer, Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez, Gimme H Walter, Nicola Sullivan, Ashraf M El-Sayed
BACKGROUND: Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. RESULTS: As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders...
December 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237857/using-knowledge-from-human-research-to-improve-understanding-of-contest-theory-and-contest-dynamics
#10
REVIEW
Michael M Kasumovic, Khandis Blake, Thomas F Denson
Our understanding of animal contests and the factors that affect contest dynamics and decisions stems from a long and prosperous collaboration between empiricists and theoreticians. Over the last two decades, however, theoretical predictions regarding the factors that affect individual decisions before, during and after a contest are becoming increasingly difficult to test empirically. Extremely large sample sizes are necessary to experimentally test the nuanced theoretical assumptions surrounding how information is used by animals during a contest, how context changes the information used, and how individuals change behaviour as a result of both the information available and the context in which the information is acquired...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237856/humans-as-model-organisms
#11
Kim Sterelny
Like every other species, our species is the result of descent with modification under the influence of natural selection; a tip in an increasingly large and deep series of nested clades, as we trace its ancestry back to increasingly remote antecedents. As a consequence of shared history, our species has much in common with many others; as a consequence of its production by the general mechanisms of evolution, our species carries information about the mechanisms that shaped other species as well. For reasons unconnected to biological theory, we have far more information about humans than we do about other species...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237238/directional-probe-for-radio-guided-surgery-a-pilot-study
#12
Roberto Massari, Antonio Ucci, Annunziata D'Elia, Costantino Campisi, Emilio Bertani, Alessandro Soluri
The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique has highly evolved during the last twenty years. Consequently, the intraoperative use of Gamma Probes (GPs) for SLN mapping is increased. This preliminary study evaluates a novel directional GP prototype. This proof-of-concept prototype is designed to identify the direction of radiopharmaceuticals uptakes, by combining the information from multiple detectors. The purpose of this work is to develop a tool able to effectively guide the surgeon reducing the surgery time...
December 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236787/efficient-enhancement-of-information-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-presence-of-reward-predicting-stimuli
#13
Camilo J Mininni, César F Caiafa, B Silvano Zanutto, Kuei Y Tseng, Sergio E Lew
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain structure for decision making, behavioural flexibility and working memory. Neurons in PFC encode relevant stimuli through changes in their firing rate, although the metabolic cost of spiking activity puts strong constrains to neural codes based on firing rate modulation. Thus, how PFC neural populations code relevant information in an efficient way is not clearly understood. To address this issue we made single unit recordings in the PFC of rats performing a GO/NOGO discrimination task and analysed how entropy between pairs of neurons changes during cue presentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236727/mental-health-behavioural-problems-and-treatment-seeking-among-students-commencing-university-in-northern-ireland
#14
Margaret McLafferty, Coral R Lapsley, Edel Ennis, Cherie Armour, Sam Murphy, Brendan P Bunting, Anthony J Bjourson, Elaine K Murray, Siobhan M O'Neill
Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236724/the-role-of-cortical-oscillations-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#15
Zafeirios Fountas, Murray Shanahan
Although brain oscillations involving the basal ganglia (BG) have been the target of extensive research, the main focus lies disproportionally on oscillations generated within the BG circuit rather than other sources, such as cortical areas. We remedy this here by investigating the influence of various cortical frequency bands on the intrinsic effective connectivity of the BG, as well as the role of the latter in regulating cortical behaviour. To do this, we construct a detailed neural model of the complete BG circuit based on fine-tuned spiking neurons, with both electrical and chemical synapses as well as short-term plasticity between structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236647/assessing-the-marks-of-change-how-psychotherapy-alters-the-brain-structure-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236330/exploring-the-usefulness-of-key-green-physicochemical-properties-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-qsar-for-solvents-from-biomass
#17
Estefanía Zuriaga, Beatriz Giner, María Pilar Ribate, Cristina B García, Laura Lomba
During the last decades there has been a growing interest in the development of new solvents from biomass. Some of these new solvents have been classified as green due to their renewable and sustainable source. However, characterization from the ecotoxicological and physicochemical point of view is needed in order to categorize them as green solvents. We have selected several key physicochemical properties that can reflect environmental features (density, boiling point, critical aggregation concentration and Log P) and explored their usefulness for preliminary assessing the green character of the studied solvents...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236067/how-well-do-health-mediation-programs-address-the-determinants-of-the-poor-health-status-of-roma-a-longitudinal-case-study
#18
Andrej Belak, Zuzana Dankulincova Veselska, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
In Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), health-mediation programs (HMPs) have become central policy instruments targeting health inequities between segregated Roma and general populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) represent the root causes behind health inequities. We therefore evaluated how an HMP based in Slovakia addressed known SDH in its agenda and its everyday implementation. To produce descriptive data on the HMP's agenda and everyday implementation we observed and consulted 70 program participants across organizational levels and 30 program recipients over the long-term...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235711/an-assessment-of-australian-school-physical-activity-and-nutrition-policies
#19
Michalis Stylianou, Jacqueline L Walker
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to identify and assess existing physical activity and nutrition policies for Australian schools. METHODS: Policies were identified through a search of the websites of national and state/territory education departments and school associations, and were subsequently assessed against specific criteria. RESULTS: Policies were identified for government schools, but only for one non-government school association...
December 13, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235170/scaling-up-integrated-early-childhood-development-programs-lessons-from-four-countries
#20
R Pérez-Escamilla, V Cavallera, M Tomlinson, T Dua
BACKGROUND: There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
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