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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906123/one-health-research-and-training-and-government-support-for-one-health-in-south-asia
#1
REVIEW
Joanna S McKenzie, Rojan Dahal, Manish Kakkar, Nitish Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Sithar Dorjee, Khalid Naeem, Tikiri Wijayathilaka, Barun Kumar Sharma, Nasir Maidanwal, Asmatullah Halimi, Eunmi Kim, Pranab Chatterjee, Brecht Devleesschauwer
INTRODUCTION: Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905986/predictors-of-perceived-male-partner-concurrency-among-women-at-risk-for-hiv-and-sti-acquisition-in-durban-south-africa
#2
Zakir Gaffoor, Handan Wand, Renée A Street, Nathlee Abbai, Gita Ramjee
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test...
March 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905515/neonicotinoid-induced-impairment-of-odour-coding-in-the-honeybee
#3
Mara Andrione, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is considered one of the possible causes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) population decline. At sublethal doses, these chemicals have been shown to negatively affect a number of behaviours, including performance of olfactory learning and memory, due to their interference with acetylcholine signalling in the mushroom bodies. Here we provide evidence that neonicotinoids can affect odour coding upstream of the mushroom bodies, in the first odour processing centres of the honeybee brain, i...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905108/the-effects-of-cognitive-style-and-emotional-trade-off-difficulty-on-information-processing-in-decision-making
#4
Dawei Wang, Leilei Hao, Phil Maguire, Yixin Hu
This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903784/terrain-following-and-applications-caenorhabditis-elegans-swims-along-the-floor-using-a-bump-and-undulate-strategy
#5
Jinzhou Yuan, Hungtang Ko, David M Raizen, Haim H Bau
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans are heavier than water. When submerged in water, they settle to the bottom surface. Observations reveal that the animals do not lie flat on the bottom surface, but remain substantially suspended above the surface through continuous collisions with the surface, while maintaining their swimming gaits. Consequently, the swimming animals follow the bottom surface topography. When the bottom surface is inclined, the animals swim up or down along the incline. As the magnitude of the gravitational force can be easily estimated, this behaviour provides a convenient means to estimate the animal's propulsive thrust...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903563/leveraging-ongoing-research-to-evaluate-the-health-impacts-of-south-africa-s-salt-reduction-strategy-a-prospective-nested-cohort-within-the-who-sage-multicountry-longitudinal-study
#6
Karen Charlton, Lisa J Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chiné Pieterse, Savathree Lorna Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E Schutte, Paul Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903561/keeping-weight-off-study-protocol-of-an-rct-to-investigate-brain-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction
#7
Carl Fulwiler, Julia A Siegel, Jeroan Allison, Milagros C Rosal, Judson Brewer, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903064/modelling-of-the-distribution-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-and-biomphalaria-straminea-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-recife-pernambuco-brazil
#8
Verônica Santos Barbosa, Ricardo José de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Rodrigo Moraes Loyo, Constança Simões Barbosa
The occurrence of schistosomiasis is directly linked to the presence of its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria spp. Knowledge of geographical distribution, habitats and behaviour of these snails in relation to the climate is essential for guiding measures for disease prevention and control. This study aims to model the distribution of B. glabrata and B. straminea in schistosomiasis non-endemic areas of the metropolitan region of Recife (MRR) based on environmental data and estimates of snail distributions in endemic and neighbouring areas...
November 25, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903049/associations-between-time-spent-in-green-areas-and-physical-activity-among-late-middle-aged-adults
#9
Bart Dewulf, Tijs Neutens, Delfien Van Dyck, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Steven Broekx, Carolien Beckx, Nico Van de Weghe
Physical activity is an important facilitator for health and wellbeing, especially for late middle-aged adults, who are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity performed in green areas is supposed to be particularly beneficial, so we studied whether late middle- aged adults are more active in green areas than in non-green areas and how this is influenced by individual characteristics and the level of neighbourhood greenness. We tracked 180 late middle-aged (58 to 65 years) adults using global positioning system and accelerometer data to know whether and where they were sedentary or active...
November 16, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902960/optimising-measurement-of-health-related-characteristics-of-the-built-environment-comparing-data-collected-by-foot-based-street-audits-virtual-street-audits-and-routine-secondary-data-sources
#10
Triantafyllos Pliakas, Sophie Hawkesworth, Richard J Silverwood, Kiran Nanchahal, Chris Grundy, Ben Armstrong, Juan Pablo Casas, Richard W Morris, Paul Wilkinson, Karen Lock
The role of the neighbourhood environment in influencing health behaviours continues to be an important topic in public health research and policy. Foot-based street audits, virtual street audits and secondary data sources are widespread data collection methods used to objectively measure the built environment in environment-health association studies. We compared these three methods using data collected in a nationally representative epidemiological study in 17 British towns to inform future development of research tools...
November 27, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902786/southern-elephant-seals-replenish-their-lipid-reserves-at-different-rates-according-to-foraging-habitat
#11
Gaëtan Richard, Samantha L Cox, Baptiste Picard, Jade Vacquié-Garcia, Christophe Guinet
Assessing energy gain and expenditure in free ranging marine predators is difficult. However, such measurements are critical if we are to understand how variation in foraging efficiency, and in turn individual body condition, is impacted by environmentally driven changes in prey abundance and/or accessibility. To investigate the influence of oceanographic habitat type on foraging efficiency, ten post-breeding female southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina (SES) were equipped and tracked with bio-loggers to give continuous information of prey catch attempts, body density and body activity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900549/understanding-factors-influencing-physical-activity-and-exercise-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Catherine L Granger, Bronwen Connolly, Linda Denehy, Nicholas Hart, Phillip Antippa, Kuan-Yin Lin, Selina M Parry
PURPOSE: Despite evidence and clinical practice guidelines supporting physical activity (PA) for people with lung cancer, this evidence has not translated into clinical practice. This review aims to identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for patients with lung cancer to participate in PA from the perspective of patients, carers and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: Systematic review of articles using electronic databases: MEDLINE (1950-2016), CINAHL (1982-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Scopus (2004-2016) and Cochrane (2016)...
November 29, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900508/temperature-dependence-of-viscosity-relaxation-times-t1-t2-and-simulated-contrast-for-potential-perfusates-in-post-mortem-mr-angiography-pmmra
#13
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Bernhard Neumayer, Christine Bruguier, Sylvia Scheicher, Hanna Sprenger, Silke Grabherr, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
Developments in post-mortem imaging increasingly focus on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses, especially with regard to suspected natural deaths. Post-mortem MR angiography (PMMRA) may offer additional diagnostic information to help address such weaknesses, specifically in the context of sudden cardiac death. Complete filling of the coronary arteries and acceptable contrast with surrounding tissue are essential for a successful approach to PMMRA. In this work, the suitability of different liquids for inclusion in a targeted PMMRA protocol was evaluated...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900170/low-fitness-low-body-mass-and-prior-injury-predict-injury-risk-during-military-recruit-training-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-the-british-army
#14
Mark Robinson, Andrew Siddall, James Bilzon, Dylan Thompson, Julie Greeves, Rachel Izard, Keith Stokes
BACKGROUND: Injuries sustained by military recruits during initial training impede training progression and military readiness while increasing financial costs. This study investigated training-related injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry recruits. METHODS: Recruits starting infantry training at the British Army Infantry Training Centre between September 2008 and March 2010 were eligible to take part. Information regarding lifestyle behaviours and injury history was collected using the Military Pre-training Questionnaire...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899795/the-momconnect-mhealth-initiative-in-south-africa-early-impact-on-the-supply-side-of-mch-services
#15
Peter Barron, Yogan Pillay, Antonio Fernandes, Jane Sebidi, Rob Allen
MomConnect is an mHealth initiative giving pregnant women information via SMS. We report on an analysis of the compliments and especially complaints component of the feedback. We scrutinised the electronic databases containing information on the first seventeen months of operation of MomConnect. During this time, 583,929 pregnant women were registered on MomConnect, representing approximately 46 per cent of pregnant women booking their pregnancy in the public sector in South Africa. These women gave feedback on services received: 4173 compliments and 690 complaints...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899708/sex-differences-in-the-reciprocal-behaviour-of-children-with-autism
#16
Tineke Backer van Ommeren, Hans M Koot, Anke M Scheeren, Sander Begeer
Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899103/time-to-event-versus-ten-year-absolute-risk-in-cardiovascular-risk-prevention-does-it-make-a-difference-results-from-the-optimizing-risk-communication-optrisk-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Charles Christian Adarkwah, Nikita Jegan, Monika Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Felicitas Kühne, Uwe Siebert, Uwe Popert, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff, Sarah Kürwitz
BACKGROUND: The concept of shared-decision-making is a well-established approach to increase the participation of patients in medical decisions. Using lifetime risk or time-to-event (TTE) formats has been increasingly suggested as they might have advantages, e.g. in younger patients, to better show consequences of unhealthy behaviour. In this study, the most-popular ten-year risk illustration in the decision-aid-software arriba(TM) (emoticons), is compared within a randomised trial to a new-developed TTE illustration, which is based on a Markov model...
November 29, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899098/health-risk-behaviours-amongst-school-adolescents-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Youness El Achhab, Abdelghaffar El Ammari, Hicham El Kazdouh, Adil Najdi, Mohamed Berraho, Nabil Tachfouti, Driss Lamri, Samira El Fakir, Chakib Nejjari
BACKGROUND: Determining risky behaviours of adolescents provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programmes for advancing adolescent's health. However, these behaviours are not fully addressed by researchers in a comprehensive approach. We report the protocol of a mixed methods study designed to investigate the health risk behaviours of Moroccan adolescents with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. METHODS: We used a sequential two-phase explanatory mixed method study design...
November 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897341/adaptive-self-assembly-behaviour-restrained-by-supramolecular-crystallization-and-molecular-recognition
#20
Seiji Shinkai, Bappaditya Roy, Takao Noguchi, Daisuke Yoshihara, Junji Sakamoto, Tatsuhiro Yamamoto
Recently, the supramolecular community is integrating different approaches to find converging ideas towards understanding the 'origin of life'. In this report, we have found an interesting adaptation trait, as like in Darwin's theory, in a bolaamphiphile molecule and established an environment friendly behaviour under non-covalent forces leading to evolve diverse assembly structures and interesting photo-physical properties. The perylene diimide (PDI)-based bolaamphiphile is used as a promising scaffold with great potential for the development of emerging supramolecular system...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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