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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454015/why-i-eat-at-night-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-development-maintenance-and-consequences-of-night-eating-syndrome
#1
James A Shillito, James Lea, Stephanie Tierney, Jacqueline Cleator, Sara Tai, John P H Wilding
Night Eating Syndrome (NES), as a diagnosis, presents as a combination of disordered eating, sleep and mood. Patients identified as having both NES and obesity demonstrate poorer outcomes in terms of weight loss compared to those with NES only. However, research focusing on psychological factors associated with NES remains relatively underdeveloped. This study aimed to explore the relationship between NES and the experience of emotion from the perspective of patients accessing a weight management service. Ten adults who met diagnostic criteria for moderate or full NES took part in a semi-structured interview...
February 14, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453857/psychosocial-student-functioning-in-comprehensive-dental-clinic-education-a-qualitative-study
#2
R Moore
INTRODUCTION: The aims were to describe first-year clinical dental students' psychosocial experiences in a known well-functioning comprehensive clinic teaching group (F+Grp) and a known dysfunctional group (Dys-Grp) and, thus, discover and describe phenomena related to psychosocial functioning of students. These groups were compared and contrasted regarding negative stress symptoms, perfectionism and coping with stress. METHODS: Eight female dental students (mean 26 years old), four in each group, were interviewed after the first clinical year about learning and emotional experiences...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452788/understanding-pre-peri-and-post-menopausal-women-s-intentions-to-perform-muscle-strengthening-activities-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#3
Julie Doherty, Melanie Giles, Alison M Gallagher, Ellen Elizabeth Anne Simpson
Although physical activity guidelines recommend muscle-strengthening activities (MSA), public health initiatives tend to focus on increasing aerobic activity and fail to mention MSA. This study sought to identify the issues influencing pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women's intentions to perform MSA with a view to informing future interventions for these populations. Mixed methods guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were used to explore factors that influence women's intentions to perform MSA. In stage one, 34 women participated in either a focus group or interview...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451779/real-time-intrinsic-fluorescence-visualisation-and-sizing-of-proteins-and-protein-complexes-in-microfluidic-devices
#4
Pavan Kumar Challa, Quentin Peter, Maya A Wright, Yuewen Zhang, Kadi-Liis Saar, Jacqueline A Carozza, Justin L P Benesch, Tuomas P J Knowles
Optical detection has become a convenient and scalable approach to read out information from microfluidic systems. For the study of many key biomolecules, however, including peptides and proteins, which have low fluorescence emission efficiencies at visible wavelengths, this approach typically requires labelling of the species of interest with extrinsic fluorophores to enhance the optical signal obtained -- a process which can be time-consuming, requires purification steps, and has the propensity to perturb the behaviour of the systems under study due to interactions between the labels and the analyte molecules...
February 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451411/an-evaluation-of-a-peer-support-intervention-for-student-mental-health
#5
Nicola Byrom
BACKGROUND: Peer support is support provided by and for people with similar experiences. As students turn to peers for support with their mental health, peer support may provide an opportunity to engage students at an informal level and avoid some barriers to help-seeking. AIMS: The study aimed to identify students likely to attend peer support and evaluate the acceptability and impact of the intervention. METHODS: A six-part peer-led course for mild depression, based on behavioural activation and implementation intentions, was evaluated across eight UK universities with 65 students participating in the evaluation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451004/simulating-localised-cellular-inflammation-and-substrate-properties-in-a-strain-energy-density-based-bone-remodelling-algorithm-for-use-in-modelling-trauma
#6
Naomi Rosenberg, Anthony M J Bull
Bone responds to mechanical stimulus and a range of pre-existing finite element models have been suggested to reproduce the internal physiological structure of bone. Inflammation effects are not included in these models, yet inflammation is a key component of bone repair in trauma. Therefore, a model is proposed and tested here that extends these methods to include parameters that could be considered to represent the behaviour of bone remodelling when influenced by inflammation. The proposed model regulates remodelling based on findings from recent studies into the nature of heterotopic ossification, the formation of heterotopic bone, which have revealed information about the nature of bone after high levels of trauma...
February 16, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450963/multicellular-tumor-spheroids-mcts-as-a-3d-in-vitro-evaluation-tool-of-nanoparticles
#7
REVIEW
Hongxu Lu, Martina H Stenzel
Multicellular tumor spheroid models (MCTS) are often coined as 3D in vitro models that can mimic the microenvironment of tissues. MCTS have gained increasing interest in the nano-biotechnology field as they can provide easily accessible information on the performance of nanoparticles without using animal models. Considering that many countries have put restrictions on animals testing, which will only tighten in the future as seen by the recent developments in the Netherlands, 3D models will become an even more valuable tool...
February 16, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449754/behavioural-and-physiological-responses-of-laying-hens-to-automated-monitoring-equipment
#8
Stephanie Buijs, Francesca Booth, Gemma Richards, Laura McGaughey, Christine J Nicol, Joanne Edgar, John F Tarlton
Automated monitoring of behaviour can offer a wealth of information in circumstances where observing behaviour is difficult or time consuming. However, this often requires attaching monitoring devices to the animal which can alter behaviour, potentially invalidating any data collected. Birds often show increased preening and energy expenditure when wearing devices and, especially in laying hens, there is a risk that individuals wearing devices will attract aggression from conspecifics. We studied the behavioural and physiological response of 20 laying hens to backpacks containing monitoring devices fastened with elastic loops around the wing base...
February 2018: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449569/threshold-driven-contagion-on-weighted-networks
#9
Samuel Unicomb, Gerardo Iñiguez, Márton Karsai
Weighted networks capture the structure of complex systems where interaction strength is meaningful. This information is essential to a large number of processes, such as threshold dynamics, where link weights reflect the amount of influence that neighbours have in determining a node's behaviour. Despite describing numerous cascading phenomena, such as neural firing or social contagion, the modelling of threshold dynamics on weighted networks has been largely overlooked. We fill this gap by studying a dynamical threshold model over synthetic and real weighted networks with numerical and analytical tools...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449298/clinical-validation-of-a-public-health-policy-making-platform-for-hearing-loss-evotion-protocol-for-a-big-data-study
#10
Giorgos Dritsakis, Dimitris Kikidis, Nina Koloutsou, Louisa Murdin, Athanasios Bibas, Katherine Ploumidou, Ariane Laplante-Lévesque, Niels Henrik Pontoppidan, Doris-Eva Bamiou
INTRODUCTION: The holistic management of hearing loss (HL) requires an understanding of factors that predict hearing aid (HA) use and benefit beyond the acoustics of listening environments. Although several predictors have been identified, no study has explored the role of audiological, cognitive, behavioural and physiological data nor has any study collected real-time HA data. This study will collect 'big data', including retrospective HA logging data, prospective clinical data and real-time data via smart HAs, a mobile application and biosensors...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449291/adapting-and-enhancing-pax-good-behavior-game-for-first-nations-communities-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol-developed-with-swampy-cree-tribal-council-communities-in-manitoba
#11
Janique Fortier, Mariette Chartier, Sarah Turner, Nora Murdock, Frank Turner, Jitender Sareen, Tracie O Afifi, Laurence Y Katz, Marni Brownell, James Bolton, Brenda Elias, Corinne Isaak, Roberta Woodgate, Depeng Jiang
INTRODUCTION: High rates of mental health problems, such as suicidal behaviours, among First Nations youth in Canada are a major public health concern. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a school-based intervention that provides a nurturing environment for children and has been shown to promote positive outcomes. PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG) is an adaptation and enhancement of the GBG. While PAX GBG has been implemented in Indigenous communities, little research exists examining the cultural and contextual appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention in First Nations communities...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448922/a-randomised-control-crossover-trial-of-a-theory-based-intervention-to-improve-sun-safe-and-healthy-behaviours-in-construction-workers-study-protocol
#12
Amanda Nioi, Charlotte Wendelboe-Nelson, Sue Cowan, Hilary Cowie, Shahzad Rashid, Peter Ritchie, Mark Cherrie, Terry C Lansdown, John W Cherrie
BACKGROUND: Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production...
February 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447995/how-effective-are-messages-and-their-characteristics-in-changing-behavioural-intentions-to-substitute-plant-based-foods-for-red-meat-the-mediating-role-of-prior-beliefs
#13
Annukka Vainio, Xavier Irz, Hanna Hartikainen
By means of a population-based survey experiment, we analysed the effectiveness of two message characteristics - message framing and the refutation of misinformation - in persuading respondents to reduce their consumption of red meat and increase that of plant-based alternatives. We also tested whether the effects of those two message characteristics were moderated by prior beliefs about the health and climate impacts of red meat consumption. The data were collected with an online survey of the adult population living in Finland (N = 1279)...
February 12, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447157/an-inconclusive-study-comparing-the-effect-of-concrete-and-abstract-descriptions-of-belief-inconsistent-information
#14
Katherine A Collins, Richard Clément
Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446700/an-interview-informed-synthesized-contingency-analysis-to-inform-the-treatment-of-challenging-behavior-in-a-young-child-with-autism
#15
Ciara Herman, Olive Healy, Sinéad Lydon
PURPOSE: Experimental Functional analysis (EFA) is considered the "gold standard" of behavioural assessment and its use is predictive of treatment success. However, EFA has a number of limitations including its lengthy nature, the high level of expertise required, and the reinforcement of challenging behaviour. This study aimed to further validate a novel interview-informed synthesised contingency analysis (IISCA). METHODS: An open-ended interview and brief direct observation informed an IISCA for a young boy with autism who engaged in challenging behaviour...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445203/effects-of-touch-location-and-intensity-on-interneurons-of-the-leech-local-bend-network
#16
Friederice Pirschel, Gerrit Hilgen, Jutta Kretzberg
Touch triggers highly precise behavioural responses in the leech. The underlying network of this so-called local bend reflex consists of three layers of individually characterised neurons. While the population of mechanosensory cells provide multiplexed information about the stimulus, not much is known about how interneurons process this information. Here, we analyse the responses of two local bend interneurons (cell 157 and 159) to a mechanical stimulation of the skin and show their response characteristics to naturalistic stimuli...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444747/hiv-susceptibility-among-clients-of-female-sex-workers-in-indonesia-a-qualitative-inquiry
#17
Lillian Mwanri, Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Christina Yeni Kustanti, Atik Ambarwati, Maria Silvia Merry
Background: The spread of HIV infection among men in Indonesia continues to increase every year. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a group at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection due to their frequent engagement in sexual acts with sex workers. This study aimed to identify factors of susceptibility to HIV infection among clients of FSWs. Methods: A qualitative inquiry using one-on-one in-depth interviews was conducted in the Belu and Malaka districts of Indonesia from January to April 2017. The study participants (n =42) were the clients of FSWs recruited using the snowball sampling technique...
February 15, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444674/the-gendered-experience-with-respect-to-health-seeking-behaviour-in-an-urban-slum-of-kolkata-india
#18
Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J S M Krumeich, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence shows that the relationship between health-seeking behaviour and diverse gender elements, such as gendered social status, social control, ideology, gender process, marital status and procreative status, changes across settings. Given the high relevance of social settings, this paper intends to explore how gender elements interact with health-seeking practices among men and women residing in an Indian urban slum, in consideration of the unique socio-cultural context that characterises India's slums...
February 14, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444100/super-ranging-a-new-ranging-strategy-in-european-badgers
#19
Aoibheann Gaughran, David J Kelly, Teresa MacWhite, Enda Mullen, Peter Maher, Margaret Good, Nicola M Marples
We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles) population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females) remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22%) regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443386/technical-note-error-metrics-for-estimating-the-accuracy-of-needle-instrument-placement-during-transperineal-mr-us-guided-prostate-interventions
#20
Ester Bonmati, Yipeng Hu, Barbara Villarini, Rachael Rodell, Paul Martin, Lianghao Han, Ian Donaldson, Hashim U Ahmed, Caroline M Moore, Mark Emberton, Dean C Barratt
PURPOSE: Image-guided systems that fuse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) images for performing targeted prostate needle biopsy and minimally-invasive treatments for prostate cancer are of increasing clinical interest. To date, a wide range of different accuracy estimation procedures and error metrics have been reported, which makes comparing the performance of different systems difficult. METHODS: A set of 9 measures are presented to assess the accuracy of MRI-US image registration, needle positioning, needle guidance, and overall system error, with the aim of providing a methodology for estimating the accuracy of instrument placement using a MR/US-guided transperineal approach...
February 14, 2018: Medical Physics
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