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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055272/engaging-psychiatrists-in-the-diagnosis-of-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-what-can-they-contribute
#1
Massimiliano Beghi, Giuseppe Erba, Cesare Maria Cornaggia, Giorgia Giussani, Elisa Bianchi, Gianni Porro, Michela Russo, Ettore Beghi
PURPOSE: To investigate if psychiatrists could predict the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) by reviewing videos of seizures of various types and to compare the accuracy and the criteria leading to the diagnosis used by psychiatrists with those used by epileptologists. METHODS: Four board-certified psychiatrists were asked to review 23 videos capturing representative events of 21 unselected consecutive patients admitted to an epilepsy center for long-term video-EEG monitoring...
October 16, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054621/modelling-regional-cropping-patterns-under-scenarios-of-climate-and-socio-economic-change-in-hungary
#2
Sen Li, Linda Juhász-Horváth, László Pintér, Mark D A Rounsevell, Paula A Harrison
Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054560/transcultural-adaptation-into-spanish-of-the-induction-compliance-checklist-for-assessing-children-s-behaviour-during-induction-of-anaesthesia
#3
Carmen Jerez-Molina, Juan J Lázaro-Alcay, Ana M Ullán-de la Fuente
OBJECTIVE: Cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish of the Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC) for assessing children's behaviour during induction of anaesthesia. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a sample of 81 children aged 2 to 12 years operated in an ambulatory surgery unit of a paediatric hospital in Barcelona. Adaptation by translation-back translation of the tool and analysis of the scale's validity and reliability...
October 17, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053860/clinicopathological-correlations-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#4
David C Perry, Jesse A Brown, Katherine L Possin, Samir Datta, Andrew Trujillo, Anneliese Radke, Anna Karydas, John Kornak, Ana C Sias, Gil D Rabinovici, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Mary De May, Katherine P Rankin, Virginia E Sturm, Suzee E Lee, Brandy R Matthews, Aimee W Kao, Keith A Vossel, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Zachary A Miller, Sang Won Seo, Manu Sidhu, Stephanie E Gaus, Alissa L Nana, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Ji-Hye L Hwang, Rik Ossenkoppele, Alainna B Brown, Eric J Huang, Giovanni Coppola, Howard J Rosen, Daniel Geschwind, John Q Trojanowski, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer's disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system...
October 6, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#5
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053775/neuroinflammation-and-its-relationship-to-changes-in-brain-volume-and-white-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Wim Van Hecke, Graham Searle, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Paul M Matthews
Brain magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. However, magnetic resonance imaging alone provides limited information for predicting an individual patient's disability progression. In part, this is because magnetic resonance imaging lacks sensitivity and specificity for detecting chronic diffuse and multi-focal inflammation mediated by activated microglia/macrophages. The aim of this study was to test for an association between 18 kDa translocator protein brain positron emission tomography signal, which arises largely from microglial activation, and measures of subsequent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients...
September 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052929/what-makes-generalist-mental-health-professionals-effective-when-working-with-people-with-an-intellectual-disability-a-family-member-and-support-person-perspective
#7
Janelle Weise, Karen R Fisher, Julian N Trollor
BACKGROUND: Generalist mental health professionals are inadequately equipped to meet the rights of people with intellectual disability. A better understanding of the attributes of effective professionals may assist in the development of workforce capacity in this area. METHODS: Twenty-eight family/support persons of people with intellectual disability participated in four focus groups. Thematic analysis was undertaken applying the Intellectual Disability Mental Health Core Competencies Framework...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052364/sensorimotor-learning-and-associated-visual-perception-are-intact-but-unrelated-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Spencer J Hayes, Matthew Andrew, Nathan C Foster, Digby Elliott, Emma Gowen, Simon J Bennett
Humans show an astonishing capability to learn sensorimotor behaviours. However, data from sensorimotor learning experiments suggest the integration of efferent sensorimotor commands, afferent sensorimotor information, and visual consequences of a performed action during learning is different in autism, leading to atypical representation of internal action models. Here, we investigated the generalization of a sensorimotor internal action model formed during sensorimotor learning to a different, but associated, visual perception task...
October 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052282/nursing-staff-intentions-towards-managing-deteriorating-health-in-nursing-homes-a-convergent-parallel-mixed-methods-study-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#9
Barbara J O'Neill, Trudy Dwyer, Kerry Reid-Searl, Lynne Parkinson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To predict the factors that are most important in explaining nursing staff intentions towards early detection of the deteriorating health of a resident and providing subacute care in the nursing home setting. BACKGROUND: Nursing staff play a pivotal role in managing the deteriorating resident and determining whether the resident needs to be transferred to hospital or remain in the nursing home; however, there is a dearth of literature that explains the factors that influence their intentions...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051984/harnessing-advances-in-computer-simulation-to-inform-policy-and-planning-to-reduce-alcohol-related-harms
#10
Jo-An Atkinson, Dylan Knowles, John Wiggers, Michael Livingston, Robin Room, Ante Prodan, Geoff McDonnell, Eloise O'Donnell, Sandra Jones, Paul S Haber, David Muscatello, Nadine Ezard, Nghi Phung, Louise Freebairn, Devon Indig, Lucie Rychetnik, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Sonia Wutzke
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol misuse is a complex systemic problem. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a transparent and participatory agent-based modelling approach to develop a robust decision support tool to test alcohol policy scenarios before they are implemented in the real world. METHODS: A consortium of Australia's leading alcohol experts was engaged to collaboratively develop an agent-based model of alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051500/odour-dialects-among-wild-mammals
#11
Eleanor Freya Kean, Michael William Bruford, Isa-Rita M Russo, Carsten Theodor Müller, Elizabeth Anna Chadwick
Across multiple taxa, population structure and dynamics depend on effective signalling between individuals. Among mammals, chemical communication is arguably the most important sense, underpinning mate choice, parental care, territoriality and even disease transmission. There is a growing body of evidence that odours signal genetic information that may confer considerable benefits including inbreeding avoidance and nepotism. To date, however, there has been no clear evidence that odours encode population-level information in wild mammals...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050835/patient-handover-in-the-emergency-department-how-is-as-important-as-what
#12
Santel de Lange, Ilze van Eeden, Tanya Heyns
We explored the existing patient handover practices between emergency care practitioners and healthcare professionals in the emergency department. In the emergency department, patient handover between emergency care practitioner's and healthcare professionals is a complex process involving multiple functions, such as the transfer of information, responsibility and accountability from one person to another. We used a qualitative study design. Emergency care practitioners and healthcare professionals were identified using purposive and convenience sampling data...
October 16, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050552/sexual-health-and-students-the-pathways-travelled-by-those-with-sexual-health-concerns
#13
Georgia Freeman, Lucy Watchirs Smith, Anna McNulty, Basil Donovan
The aim of this study was to identify the type of research (Internet, phone lines, friends, family, media or medical journal) undertaken by university students with sexual health concerns, and the effect this research had on their healthcare-seeking behaviour. The Internet was the most common (46%) first point of call for health information, closely followed by doctors (40%). Of those who undertook extra research, the majority subsequently went to a doctor. Health practitioners need to be aware of this tendency for independent research...
October 20, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050393/distinct-processing-of-ambiguous-speech-in-people-with-non-clinical-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#14
Ben Alderson-Day, César F Lima, Samuel Evans, Saloni Krishnan, Pradheep Shanmugalingam, Charles Fernyhough, Sophie K Scott
Auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices) are typically associated with psychosis, but a minority of the general population also experience them frequently and without distress. Such 'non-clinical' experiences offer a rare and unique opportunity to study hallucinations apart from confounding clinical factors, thus allowing for the identification of symptom-specific mechanisms. Recent theories propose that hallucinations result from an imbalance of prior expectation and sensory information, but whether such an imbalance also influences auditory-perceptual processes remains unknown...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048447/strategies-for-disease-prevention-and-health-promotion-in-urban-areas-the-erice-50-charter
#15
D D'Alessandro, S Arletti, A Azara, M Buffoli, L Capasso, A Cappuccitti, A Casuccio, A Cecchini, G Costa, A M De Martino, M Dettori, E Di Rosa, G M Fara, M Ferrante, G Giammanco, A Lauria, G Melis, U Moscato, I Oberti, C Patrizio, M G Petronio, A Rebecchi, V Romano Spica, G Settimo, C Signorelli, S Capolongo
The Erice 50 Charter titled "Strategies for Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion in Urban Areas" was unanimously approved at the conclusion of the 50th Residential Course "Urban Health. Instruments for promoting health and for assessing hygienic and sanitary conditions in urban areas", held from 29th March to 2nd April 2017 in Erice, at the "Ettore Majorana" Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture and promoted by the International School of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine "G. D'Alessandro" and the Study Group "Building Hygiene" of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health (SItI)...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048099/patients-illness-perception-as-a-tool-to-improve-individual-disease-management-in-primary-cutaneous-lymphomas
#16
Stefanie Porkert, Eva Lehner-Baumgartner, Julia Valencak, Robert Knobler, Elisabeth Riedl, Constanze Jonak
The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) has been shown to assess illness perception reproducibly in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Illness perception reflects patients' individual concepts of understanding and interpretation of the disease, influencing illness behaviour and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study investigated the clinical relevance of the relationships between illness perception, illness behaviour, and HRQOL in CTCL and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL). A total of 92 patients completed the IPQ-R, the Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behavior (SAIB), and a skin-specific HRQOL tool (Skindex-29)...
October 19, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046819/interpersonal-art-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-aggression-in-people-with-learning-disabilities-in-secure-care-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#17
Simon S Hackett, John L Taylor, Mark Freeston, Andrew Jahoda, Elaine McColl, Lindsay Pennington, Eileen Kaner
BACKGROUND: Art psychotherapy has greater potential for use with adults with mild to moderate learning disabilities as it places less of a burden on verbal interaction to achieve positive therapeutic, psychological, and behavioural goals. The feasibility study objectives include testing procedures, outcomes, validated tools, recruitment and attrition rates, acceptability, and treatment fidelity for manualised interpersonal art psychotherapy. METHODS: Adult males and females with mild to moderate learning disabilities will be recruited from four NHS secure hospitals...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046557/a-multidimensional-framework-for-studying-social-predation-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Stephen D J Lang, Damien R Farine
Social predation-the act of hunting and feeding with others-is one of the most successful life-history traits in the animal kingdom. Although many predators hunt and feed together, a diversity of mechanisms exist by which individuals forage socially. However, a comprehensive framework capturing this diversity is lacking, preventing us from better understanding cooperative forms of predation, and how such behaviours have evolved and been maintained over time. We outline a framework of social predation that describes five key behavioural dimensions: sociality, communication, specialization, resource sharing, and dependence...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046379/heterospecific-eavesdropping-in-ant-following-birds-of-the-neotropics-is-a-learned-behaviour
#19
Henry S Pollock, Ari E Martínez, J Patrick Kelley, Janeene M Touchton, Corey E Tarwater
Animals eavesdrop on other species to obtain information about their environments. Heterospecific eavesdropping can yield tangible fitness benefits by providing valuable information about food resources and predator presence. The ability to eavesdrop may therefore be under strong selection, although extensive research on alarm-calling in avian mixed-species flocks has found only limited evidence that close association with another species could select for innate signal recognition. Nevertheless, very little is known about the evolution of eavesdropping behaviour and the mechanism of heterospecific signal recognition, particularly in other ecological contexts, such as foraging...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046376/functional-basis-of-the-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-auditory-fovea-of-the-duetting-bushcricket-ancylecha-fenestrata
#20
Jan Scherberich, Jennifer Hummel, Stefan Schöneich, Manuela Nowotny
From mammals to insects, acoustic communication is in many species crucial for successful reproduction. In the duetting bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata, the mutual acoustic communication between males and females is asymmetrical. We investigated how those signalling disparities are reflected by sexual dimorphism of their ears. Both sexes have tympanic ears in their forelegs, but male ears possess a significantly longer crista acustica containing 35% more scolopidia. With more sensory cells to cover a similar hearing range, the male hearing organ shows a significantly expanded auditory fovea that is tuned to the dominant frequency of the female reply to facilitate phonotactic mate finding...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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