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Information behaviour

Qiang Yu, David Reutens, Kieran O'Brien, Viktor Vegh
OBJECTIVES: Tissue microstructure features, namely axon radius and volume fraction, provide important information on the function of white matter pathways. These parameters vary on the scale much smaller than imaging voxels (microscale) yet influence the magnetic resonance imaging diffusion signal at the image voxel scale (macroscale) in an anomalous manner. Researchers have already mapped anomalous diffusion parameters from magnetic resonance imaging data, but macroscopic variations have not been related to microscale influences...
October 18, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Matthias Oelke, Peter Anderson, Robert Wood, Tove Holm-Larsen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and timing of the diagnosis and treatment of nocturia in real-life practice in European and US-American patients to obtain better insights into the management of nocturia in different Western healthcare systems. METHODS: Data were drawn from the "LUTS Disease Specific Programme," a real-life survey of physicians and patients in France, Germany, Spain, UK and the USA. Physicians completed a patient record form for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) patients...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Jo Kidd, Sue Ziebland
Online health information is increasingly popular and may bring both benefits and potential harm to users with mental health problems. The encouragement of harmful behaviour among this population is a particular concern. The website provides the benefits of shared experience by publishing excerpts from rigorous research interviews with patients, contextualised with medical information. This article sets out evidence for the positive and negative effects of online mental health information and describes the methodology behind healthtalk...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Lorna Awo Renner, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. AIM: To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Catherine McParlin, Ruth Bell, Stephen C Robson, Colin R Muirhead, Vera Araújo-Soares
OBJECTIVE: to investigate barriers and facilitators to physical activity (PA) guideline implementation for midwives when advising obese pregnant women. DESIGN: a cross-sectional, self-completion, anonymous questionnaire was designed using the Theoretical Domains Framework. this framework was developed to evaluate the implementation of guidelines by health care professionals. A total of 40 questions were included. These were informed by previous research on pregnant women's and midwives views, knowledge and attitudes to PA, and supported by national evidence based guidelines...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Antoine Wystrach, Konstantinos Lagogiannis, Barbara Webb
Taxis behaviour in Drosophila larva is thought to consist of distinct control mechanisms triggering specific actions. Here we support a simpler hypothesis: that taxis results from direct sensory modulation of continuous lateral oscillations of the anterior body, sparing the need for 'action selection'. Our analysis of larvae motion reveals a rhythmic, continuous lateral oscillation of the anterior body, encompassing all head-sweeps, small or large, without breaking the oscillatory rhythm. Further, we show that an agent-model that embeds this hypothesis reproduces a surprising number of taxis signatures observed in larvae...
October 18, 2016: ELife
Ana G Pereira, Marta A Moita
Avoiding or escaping a predator is arguably one of the most important functions of a prey's brain, hence of most animals' brains. Studies on fear conditioning have greatly advanced our understanding of the circuits that regulate learned defensive behaviours. However, animals possess a multitude of threat detection mechanisms, from hardwired circuits that ensure innate responses to predator cues, to the use of social information. Surprisingly, only more recently have these circuits captured the attention of a wider range of researchers working on different species and behavioural paradigms...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anne Vuadens, Simone Ackermann, Fabio Levi, Jean-Luc Bulliard
Switzerland, particularly its western region, has the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Although the risk of melanoma increases with sun overexposure during childhood, sun-related knowledge and attitudes of Swiss children are scarcely documented. We report the first investigation of the knowledge of the danger of ultraviolet radiation, attitudes towards a suntan and parental influence of schoolchildren in western Switzerland. All fifth, eighth and eleventh graders (average ages of 9, 12 and 15, respectively) in the 18 primary (fifth grade, n=431) and secondary (eighth and eleventh grades, n=837) public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds were surveyed during regular school classes...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Jay B Hollick
Paramutation describes a process that results in heritable epigenetic changes of gene regulation and trans-homologue interactions. Recent discoveries in model organisms have highlighted roles for the respective nuclear systems that regulate transposons via small RNA molecules both for paramutation and for defining transgenerational inheritance. Differences between plants and animals may influence specific transmission behaviours but the involvement of small RNA-based mechanisms identifies a unifying eukaryotic theme...
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Liang Wang, Kesheng Wang, Xuefeng Liu, Yi He
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The perception of genetic knowledge is useful for improving the heath behaviour change against developing cancers. However, no studies have investigated the perception of genetic knowledge on the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine demographic and lifestyle factors of the perception of genetic knowledge on the development of lung cancer. METHODS: Data on 2,295 US adults (739 had the perception of genetic knowledge) were taken from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
S McDougall, C W R Compton, N Botha
AIMS: To determine the factors associated with the selection of antimicrobials by dairy veterinarians, and the attitudes of those veterinarians and dairy farmers to antimicrobial usage and resistance. METHODS: Facilitated focus groups of dairy farmers (n=22) and an anonymous online survey of dairy cattle veterinarians (n=206 respondents) were used to determine prescribing behaviour, factors affecting prescribing of antimicrobials, and the attitudes of veterinarians and farmers to the use of antimicrobials and the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
October 16, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Canan Turgut, Godhuli Sinha, Jouko Lahtinen, Kai Nordlund, Mohammed Belmahi, Patrick Philipp
Quantitative analyses in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) become possible only if ionization processes are controlled. The Storing Matter technique has been developed to circumvent this so-called matrix effect, primarily for inorganic samples, but has also been extended to organic samples. For the latter, it has been applied to polystyrene in order to investigate the extent of damage in the polymer, its fragmentation during the sputter deposition process and the effect of the deposition process on the spectra taken by Time-of-Flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS)...
October 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Brittany Harding, Rylan Egan, Peter Kannu, Jennifer J MacKenzie
Parents have the opportunity to educate their children to facilitate behaviours and lifestyle habits that may prevent or delay genetic disease, or mitigate predispositions within the family. We sought to determine parents' understanding of genetic knowledge and heritability. Using a quantitative survey methodology 108 volunteer participants were surveyed from a convenience sample of all parents/caregivers within the waiting room of a general children's outpatient clinic. Results indicated that average genetic knowledge levels were fairly high, with the majority of participants scoring 70-80 % correct on knowledge-based questions...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Raquel Castillo-Oyagüe, Carmen Perea, María-Jesús Suárez-García, Jaime Del Río, Christopher D Lynch, Arelis Preciado
OBJECTIVES: To validate the 'Quality of Life related to function, aesthetics, socialization, and thoughts about health-behavioural habits (QoLFAST-10)' questionnaire for assessing the whole concept of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD) wearers. METHODS: 107 patients were assigned to: Group 1 (HP; n=37): fixed-detachable hybrid prostheses (control); Group 2 (C-PD, n=35): cemented partial dentures; and Group 3 (S-PD, n=35): screwed partial dentures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Sarah Tully, Adrian Wells, Melissa Pyle, Jemma Hudson, Andrew Gumley, David Kingdon, Matthias Schwannauer, Douglas Turkington, Anthony P Morrison
Responses to psychotic experiences are central to cognitive models of psychosis. The current study aimed to develop and validate a self-report measure of common responses to the experience of psychosis. This measure is needed as cognitive and behavioural responses are implicated in the maintenance of psychosis, but there is currently no measure that comprehensively assesses these maintaining factors. The Measure of Common Responses to psychosis (MCR) was developed and utilised in a sample of 487 participants who met criteria for treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Nélia C Mestre, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais, Maria João Bebianno
Despite the wide application of quantum dots (QDs) in electronics, pharmacy and nanomedicine, limited data is available on their environmental health risk. To advance our current understanding of the environmental impact of these engineered nanomaterials, the aim of this review is to give a detailed insight on the existing information concerning the behaviour, transformation and fate of QDs in the aquatic environment, as well as on its mode of action (MoA), ecotoxicity, trophic transfer and biomagnification at various trophic levels (micro-organisms, aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates)...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Anthony C Umeh, Luchun Duan, Ravi Naidu, Kirk T Semple
Risk-based approaches to managing contaminated land, rather than approaches based on complete contaminant removal, have gained acceptance as they are likely to be more feasible and cost effective. Risk-based approaches aim to minimise risks of exposure of a specified contaminant to humans. However, adopting a risk-based approach over alternative overly-conservative approaches requires that associated uncertainties in decision making are understood and minimised. Irrespective of the nature of contaminants, a critical uncertainty is whether there are potential risks associated with exposure to the residual contaminant fractions in soil to humans and other ecological receptors, and how they should be considered in the risk assessment process...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Naja I Beck, Issra Arif, Michelle F Paumier, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. METHODS: We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013...
October 6, 2016: Injury
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