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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239863/roaming-behaviour-of-dogs-in-four-remote-aboriginal-communities-in-the-northern-territory-australia-preliminary-investigations
#1
S Molloy, A Burleigh, S Dürr, M P Ward
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. DESIGN: Prospective study. PROCEDURE: Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed...
March 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239705/chemical-communication-and-dynamics-of-droplet-emulsions-in-networks-of-belousov-zhabotinsky-micro-oscillators-produced-by-microfluidics
#2
Kristian Torbensen, Federico Rossi, Sandra Ristori, Ali Abou-Hassan
Chemical communication leading to synchronization and collective behaviour of dynamic elements, such as cell colonies, is a widespread phenomenon with biological, physical and chemical importance. Such synchronization between elements proceeds via chemical communication by emmision, interdiffusion and reception of specific messenger molecules. On a lab scale, these phenomena can be modeled by encapsulating an oscillating chemical reaction, which serves as a signal (information) sender/receiver element, inside microcompartments such as droplet emulsions, liposomes and polymersomes...
February 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238788/childhood-vaccination-communication-outcomes-unpacked-and-organised-in-a-taxonomy-to-facilitate-core-outcome-establishment
#3
Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Yuri Cartier, Julie Cliff, Angela Oyo-Ita, Heather Ames, Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Afiong Oku, Gabriel Rada, Sophie Hill
OBJECTIVE: We present a comprehensive taxonomy of outcomes for childhood vaccination communication interventions. Adding to our earlier map of trial outcomes, we aimed to: 1) identify relevant outcomes not measured in trials; 2) identify outcomes from stakeholder focus groups; and 3) organise outcomes into a taxonomy. STUDY DESIGN: We identified additional outcomes from non-vaccination health communication literature and through parent and healthcare professional focus groups...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237953/evaluating-the-relative-effectiveness-of-high-intensity-and-low-intensity-models-of-behaviour-change-communication-interventions-for-abortion-care-seeking-in-bihar-and-jharkhand-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Sushanta K Banerjee, Kathryn Andersen, Erin Pearson, Janardan Warvadekar, Danish U Khan, Sangeeta Batra
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a high-intensity model (HIM) and a low-intensity model (LIM) of behaviour change communication interventions in Bihar and Jharkhand states of India designed to improve women's knowledge and usage of safe abortion services, as well as the dose effect of intervention exposure. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional household surveys among married women aged 15-49 years in intervention and comparison districts...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237714/application-of-data-fusion-techniques-and-technologies-for-wearable-health-monitoring
#5
REVIEW
Rachel C King, Emma Villeneuve, Ruth J White, R Simon Sherratt, William Holderbaum, William S Harwin
Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs...
February 22, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237023/workflows-and-individual-differences-during-visually-guided-routine-tasks-in-a-road-traffic-management-control-room
#6
Sandra D Starke, Chris Baber, Neil J Cooke, Andrew Howes
Road traffic control rooms rely on human operators to monitor and interact with information presented on multiple displays. Past studies have found inconsistent use of available visual information sources in such settings across different domains. In this study, we aimed to broaden the understanding of observer behaviour in control rooms by analysing a case study in road traffic control. We conducted a field study in a live road traffic control room where five operators responded to incidents while wearing a mobile eye tracker...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236733/influences-on-the-food-choices-and-physical-activity-behaviours-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women-a-qualitative-study
#7
Orna A O'Brien, Karen L Lindsay, Mary McCarthy, Aileen F McGloin, Maria Kennelly, Helena A Scully, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: to qualitatively explore influences identified by overweight/obese pregnant women on food choices and physical activity (PA) behaviours; to determine the impact of pregnancy on these factors; and to inform development of future lifestyle interventions during pregnancy. DESIGN: cross-sectional interview study. SETTING: maternity hospital, Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: pregnant women (n=22), early pregnancy Body Mass Index > 25kg/m(2) MEASURES: barriers to and facilitators of healthy eating and PA in overweight/obese pregnancy...
February 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235776/cost-effectiveness-of-a-text-message-programme-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-cardiovascular-events
#8
Edward Burn, Son Nghiem, Stephen Jan, Julie Redfern, Anthony Rodgers, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Nicholas Graves, Clara K Chow
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of Tobacco, Exercise and Diet Messages (TEXT ME), a text message-based intervention that provides advice, motivation, information and support to improve health-related behaviours. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model was used to estimate major vascular events (myocardial infarctions and strokes) avoided, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, costs to the health system and the incremental cost per QALY gained. The model was informed by data from a randomised controlled trial of TEXT ME, with evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses used to estimate the effects of changes in risk factors on the risk of major vascular events...
February 24, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235415/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-of-opioid-agonist-therapies-in-maintenance-treatment-of-non-prescription-opioid-dependence
#9
Mersha Chetty, James J Kenworthy, Sue Langham, Andrew Walker, William C N Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites...
February 24, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230399/not-all-probabilities-are-equivalent-evidence-from-orientation-versus-spatial-probability-learning
#10
Syaheed B Jabar, Britt Anderson
Frequently targets are detected faster, probable locations searched earlier, and likely orientations estimated more precisely. Are these all consequences of a single, domain-general "attentional" effect? To examine this issue, participants were shown brief instances of spatial gratings, and were tasked to draw their location and orientation. Unknown to participants, either the location or orientation probability of these gratings were manipulated. While orientation probability affected the precision of orientation reports, spatial probability did not...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230107/regulation-of-visual-wulst-cell-responsiveness-by-imprinting-causes-stimulus-specific-activation-of-rostral-cells
#11
Tomoharu Nakamori, Tomomi Kato, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Kohichi Tanaka, Hiroko Ohki-Hamazaki
Imprinting behaviour in chicks can be induced exclusively during a short period after hatching. During this period, visual information on the imprinting stimulus is conveyed to the visual Wulst (VW) in the telencephalon, which corresponds to the visual cortex of mammals, and then to the memory-storing region known as the intermediate medial mesopallium. These two regions are indispensable for imprinting. We previously showed that imprinting training altered the response pattern of the VW to the imprinting stimulus; however, the precise distribution of cells and the mechanism involved with this altered response remains unclear...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230097/evidence-for-risk-extrapolation-in-decision-making-by-tadpoles
#12
Adam L Crane, Maud C O Ferrari
Through time, the activity patterns, morphology, and development of both predators and prey change, which in turn alter the relative vulnerability of prey to their coexisting predators. Recognizing these changes can thus allow prey to make optimal decisions by projecting risk trends into the future. We used tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus) to test the hypothesis that tadpoles can extrapolate information about predation risk from past information. We exposed tadpoles to an odour that represented either a temporally consistent risk or an increasing risk...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229808/knowledge-of-behavioural-management-principles-amongst-specialist-paediatric-dental-practitioners-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
James Coxon, Marie Therese Hosey, J Tim Newton
BACKGROUND: Paediatric specialist dental practitioners are often faced with the challenge of disruptive behaviour or refusal to comply with treatment. Behaviour management skills are an essential component of their role. However, little is known of the confidence or competence of practitioners in these approaches. AIM: To identify paediatric dentists' knowledge of behavioural management principles as applied to paediatric dentistry. METHOD: Postal questionnaire survey of all specialists in Paediatric Dentistry on the General Dental Council UK register (n = 234), using the Knowledge of Behavioural Principles as Applied to Children Questionnaire (KBPACQ; O'Dell, 1979) adapted for the dental setting...
March 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228538/route-choice-in-pedestrians-determinants-for-initial-choices-and-revising-decisions
#14
Weichen Liao, Armel U Kemloh Wagoum, Nikolai W F Bode
In moving pedestrian crowds, the distribution of individuals over different available routes emerges from the decisions of individuals that may be influenced by the actions of others. Understanding this phenomenon not only is important for research into collective behaviour, but also has practical applications for building safety and event management. Here, we study the mechanisms underlying pedestrian route choice, focusing on how time-independent information, such as path lengths, and time-dependent information, such as queue lengths, affect both initial decisions and subsequent changes in route choices...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228513/shape-matters-animal-colour-patterns-as-signals-of-individual-quality
#15
REVIEW
Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Roger Jovani, Martin Stevens
Colour patterns (e.g. irregular, spotted or barred forms) are widespread in the animal kingdom, yet their potential role as signals of quality has been mostly neglected. However, a review of the published literature reveals that pattern itself (irrespective of its size or colour intensity) is a promising signal of individual quality across species of many different taxa. We propose at least four main pathways whereby patterns may reliably reflect individual quality: (i) as conventional signals of status, (ii) as indices of developmental homeostasis, (iii) by amplifying cues of somatic integrity and (iv) by amplifying individual investment in maintenance activities...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228447/childhood-academic-ability-in-relation-to-cigarette-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-from-adolescence-into-early-adulthood-longitudinal-study-of-young-people-in-england-lsype
#16
James Williams, Gareth Hagger-Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the association between childhood academic ability and the onset and persistence of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use across adolescence in a representative sample of English schools pupils. Previous research has produced conflicting findings. DESIGN: Data from 7 years of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), 2004-2010 (age 13/14-19/20). SETTING: Self-completion questionnaires during home visits, face-to-face interviews and web-based questionnaires...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228182/cost-effectiveness-of-computerized-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-primary-care-findings-from-the-randomised-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-and-acceptability-of-computerised-therapy-reeact-trial
#17
A Duarte, S Walker, E Littlewood, S Brabyn, C Hewitt, S Gilbody, S Palmer
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive-behavioural therapy (cCBT) forms a core component of stepped psychological care for depression. Existing evidence for cCBT has been informed by developer-led trials. This is the first study based on a large independent pragmatic trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of cCBT as an adjunct to usual general practitioner (GP) care compared with usual GP care alone and to establish the differential cost-effectiveness of a free-to-use cCBT programme (MoodGYM) in comparison with a commercial programme (Beating the Blues) in primary care...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228127/a-review-of-enhanced-paramedic-roles-during-and-after-hospital-handover-of-stroke-myocardial-infarction-and-trauma-patients
#18
Darren Flynn, Richard Francis, Shannon Robalino, Joanne Lally, Helen Snooks, Helen Rodgers, Graham McClelland, Gary A Ford, Christopher Price
BACKGROUND: Ambulance paramedics play a critical role expediting patient access to emergency treatments. Standardised handover communication frameworks have led to improvements in accuracy and speed of information transfer but their impact upon time-critical scenarios is unclear. Patient outcomes might be improved by paramedics staying for a limited time after handover to assist with shared patient care. We aimed to categorize and synthesise data from studies describing development/extension of the ambulance-based paramedic role during and after handover for time-critical conditions (trauma, stroke and myocardial infarction)...
February 23, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226024/-guidelines-for-accurate-and-transparent-health-estimates-reporting-the-gather-statement
#19
Gretchen A Stevens, Leontine Alkema, Robert E Black, J Ties Boerma, Gary S Collins, Majid Ezzati, John T Grove, Daniel R Hogan, Margaret C Hogan, Richard Horton, Joy E Lawn, Ana Marušic, Colin D Mathers, Christopher J L Murray, Igor Rudan, Joshua A Salomon, Paul J Simpson, Theo Vos, Vivian Welch
Measurements of health indicators are rarely available for every population and period of interest, and available data may not be comparable. The Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER) define best reporting practices for studies that calculate health estimates for multiple populations (in time or space) using multiple information sources. Health estimates that fall within the scope of GATHER include all quantitative population-level estimates (including global, regional, national, or subnational estimates) of health indicators, including indicators of health status, incidence and prevalence of diseases, injuries, and disability and functioning; and indicators of health determinants, including health behaviours and health exposures...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225752/prefrontal-cortex-output-circuits-guide-reward-seeking-through-divergent-cue-encoding
#20
James M Otis, Vijay M K Namboodiri, Ana M Matan, Elisa S Voets, Emily P Mohorn, Oksana Kosyk, Jenna A McHenry, J Elliott Robinson, Shanna L Resendez, Mark A Rossi, Garret D Stuber
The prefrontal cortex is a critical neuroanatomical hub for controlling motivated behaviours across mammalian species. In addition to intra-cortical connectivity, prefrontal projection neurons innervate subcortical structures that contribute to reward-seeking behaviours, such as the ventral striatum and midline thalamus. While connectivity among these structures contributes to appetitive behaviours, how projection-specific prefrontal neurons encode reward-relevant information to guide reward seeking is unknown...
February 22, 2017: Nature
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