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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050031/reading-first-coordinates-from-the%C3%A2-nephrogenic-zone-in-human-fetal%C3%A2-kidney
#1
Will W Minuth
While substantial information is available on organ anlage and the primary formation of nephrons, molecular mechanisms acting during the late development of the human kidney have received an astonishing lack of attention. In healthy newborn babies, nephrogenesis takes place unnoticed until birth. Upon delivery, morphogenetic activity in the nephrogenic zone decreases, and the stem cell niches aligned beyond the organ capsule vanish by an unknown signal. However, this signal also plays a key role in preterm and low birth weight babies...
October 19, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049924/equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-endometrial-or-adipose-tissue-share-significant-biological-properties-but-have-distinctive-pattern-of-surface-markers-and-migration
#2
J Cabezas, D Rojas, F Navarrete, R Ortiz, G Rivera, F Saravia, L Rodriguez-Alvarez, F O Castro
Adult stromal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been postulated as responsible for cell renewal in highly and continuously regenerative tissues such as the endometrium. MSCs have been identified in the endometrium of many species including humans, rodents, pets and some farm animals, but not in horses. The objective of this work was to isolate such cells from the endometrium of mares and to compare their main biological attributes with horse adipose-derived MSCs. Here we successfully isolated and characterized endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) from mares...
October 6, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049918/dc-sign-expression-in-hofbauer-cells-may-play-an-important-role-in-immune-tolerance-in-fetal-chorionic-villi-during-the-development-of-preeclampsia
#3
Seung Woo Yang, Eun Hee Cho, So Young Choi, Yun Kyung Lee, Jae Hyun Park, Min Kyung Kim, Jin Yeon Park, Hyeong Jwa Choi, Jeong Ik Lee, Hyun Myung Ko, Seung Hwa Park, Han Sung Hwang, Young Sun Kang
Immune tolerance at feto-maternal interfaces is a complex phenomenon. Although maternal decidual macrophages are well-known immune cells, little is known about fetal-derived macrophages (Hofbauer cells) within chorionic villi. Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal mortality in the field of obstetrics, and the innate immunological role of maternal decidual macrophages is well known. In this study, we assessed the differential phenotypes and marker expression in fetal macrophages, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-positive Hofbauer cells...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049852/parental-experiences-of-prenatal-whole-exome-sequencing-wes-in-cases-of-ultrasound-diagnosed-fetal-structural-anomaly
#4
Elizabeth Quinlan-Jones, Sarah C Hillman, Mark D Kilby, Sheila M Greenfield
OBJECTIVE: To explore parental experiences of WES for prenatal diagnosis, and ascertain what influenced their decision-making to undergo testing. METHOD: Twelve women comprised a purposeful sample in a series of semi-structured interviews. All had received a fetal anomaly diagnosis on ultrasound. A topic guide was used, and transcripts were thematically analysed to elicit key themes. RESULTS: Five main themes (parental experiences of prenatal WES, need for information, consent/reasons for prenatal WES, sources of support for prenatal WES, and return of WES findings to families) emerged, some with multiple sub-themes...
October 19, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049352/exposure-to-intrauterine-inflammation-alters-metabolomic-profiles-in-the-amniotic-fluid-fetal-and-neonatal-brain-in-the-mouse
#5
Amy G Brown, Natalia M Tulina, Guillermo O Barila, Michael S Hester, Michal A Elovitz
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to prenatal inflammation is associated with diverse adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed offspring. The mechanism by which inflammation negatively impacts the developing brain is poorly understood. Metabolomic profiling provides an opportunity to identify specific metabolites, and novel pathways, which may reveal mechanisms by which exposure to intrauterine inflammation promotes fetal and neonatal brain injury. Therefore, we investigated whether exposure to intrauterine inflammation altered the metabolome of the amniotic fluid, fetal and neonatal brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049312/impact-of-annotation-error-in-%C3%AE-globin-genes-on-molecular-diagnosis
#6
J Francis Borgio
BACKGROUND: Recent studies on the variants in duplicated human alpha globin genes (HBA2 and HBA1) actively target the α-globin gene as molecular modulators for the treatment of β-thalassemia major. Identification of the exact position of variant in HBA1, HBA2 or its patchworks is mandatory to support the therapeutic aims in β-thalassemia major, by identifying specific modulators for the reactivation of fetal hemoglobin production. Hence, accurate identification of the variants in α-globin genes is crucial for the proper diagnosis, treatment and genetic counseling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049219/risk-assessment-of-morbidly-obese-parturient-in-cesarean-section-delivery-a-prospective-cohort-single-center-study
#7
Xiaohu An, Yanhong Zhao, Ying Zhang, Qiling Yang, Yilong Wang, Weiwei Cheng, Zeyong Yang
BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of women gain excessive weight during pregnancy. Obesity complications and risks in parturient women undergoing cesarean section (CS) with different anesthetic methods remain unknown. This study aimed to assess the safety and risk of obese women undergoing CS delivery with various perioperative anesthetic methods. METHODS: Seven hundred ninety parturient women underwent CS under general anesthesia (GA), intraspinal anesthesia including epidural anesthesia (EA) and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049209/pravastatin-for-prevention-of-hellp-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Lucia Anna Otten, Katrin van der Ven, Marietta Kühr, Ulrich Gembruch, Waltraut Maria Merz
RATIONALE: Pravastatin has emerged for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia; no reports are available on pravastatin and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome. PATIENT CONCERNS: The first pregnancy necessitated termination of pregnancy at gestational age (GA) 20+5 for HELLP. Intrauterine fetal death at GA 22+5 occurred in the second pregnancy, whilst on temporizing management of HELLP. DIAGNOSES: Severe, recurrent early-onset HELLP syndrome...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049070/noninfectious-fever-in-the-near-term-pregnant-rat-induces-fetal-brain-inflammation-a-model-for-the-consequences-of-epidural-associated-maternal-fever
#9
Scott Segal, Carlo Pancaro, Iwona Bonney, James E Marchand
BACKGROUND: Women laboring with epidural analgesia experience fever much more frequently than do women who chose other forms of analgesia, and maternal intrapartum fever is associated with numerous adverse consequences, including brain injury in the fetus. We developed a model of noninfectious inflammatory fever in the near-term pregnant rat to simulate the pathophysiology of epidural-associated fever and hypothesized that it would produce fetal brain inflammation. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were studied at 20 days gestation (term: 22 days)...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049012/transcriptome-profiling-uncovers-potential-common-mechanisms-in-fetal-trisomies-18-and-21
#10
Marija Volk, Aleš Maver, Alenka Hodžić, Luca Lovrečić, Borut Peterlin
Human trisomies have recently been investigated using transcriptomics approaches to identify the gene expression (GE) signatures characteristic of each of these specific aneuploidy conditions. We hypothesized that the viability of cells with gross genomic imbalances might be associated with the activation of resilience mechanisms that are common to different trisomies and that are reflected by specific shared GE patterns. We report in this article our microarray GE analyses of amniocytes from fetuses with viable trisomy conditions, trisomy 21 or trisomy 18, to detect such common expression signatures...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048755/nifedipine-prevents-apoptosis-of-alcohol-exposed-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#11
Alan D Bolnick, Jay M Bolnick, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Michael Hertz, Jing Dai, Sascha Drewlo, D Randall Armant
BACKGROUND: Maternal alcohol abuse leading to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes fetal growth restriction (FGR). Ethanol induces apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cells, possibly disrupting placentation and contributing to FGR in FASD. Ethanol facilitates apoptosis in several embryonic tissues, including human trophoblasts, by raising intracellular Ca(2+) . We previously found that acute ethanol exposure increases trophoblast apoptosis due to signaling from both intracellular and extracellular Ca(2+) ...
October 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048748/accuracy-of-fetal-sex-determination-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-using-3d-virtual-reality-ultrasound
#12
Hein Bogers, Maria S Rifouna, Anton H J Koning, Margreet Husen-Ebbinge, Attie T J I Go, Peter J van der Spek, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Eric A P Steegers, Niek Exalto
PURPOSE: Early detection of fetal sex is becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fetal sex determination in the first trimester, using 3D virtual reality. METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) US volumes were obtained in 112 pregnancies between 9 and 13 weeks of gestational age. They were offline projected as a hologram in the BARCO I-Space and subsequently the genital tubercle angle was measured. Separately, the 3D US aspect of the genitalia was examined for having a male or female appearance...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048406/disparity-in-fetal-growth-between-twin-and-singleton-gestation-the-role-of-adipokines
#13
R Zemet, Y Shulman, R Hemi, B Brandt, E Sivan, H Kanety, S Mazaki-Tovi
OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancies are characterized by unique pattern of attenuated fetal weight gain during late gestation compared with singleton gestation. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating twin growth has not yet elucidated. Leptin and adiponectin are two adipocytokines implicated in metabolism and energy balance of fetuses, newborns and adults. Moreover, these hormones have been suggested to play a role in fetal growth. The objective of the study was to determine cord blood adiponectin and leptin in twins and singletons, with and without growth impairment...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048133/vasa-previa-prenatal-diagnosis-and-outcomes-thirty-five-cases-from-a-single-maternal-fetal-medicine-practice
#14
Ankita Kulkarni, Jennifer Powel, Michael Aziz, Leena Shah, Susan Lashley, Carlos Benito, Yinka Oyelese
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy and effectiveness of routine screening for vasa previa, to describe our experience, and to assess factors that contribute to missed cases of vasa previa. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of all cases of vasa previa from a single maternal-fetal medicine service between 2009 and 2017 was performed. Ultrasound findings and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-five cases of vasa previa were identified...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047093/cross-talk-between-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Tengyao Song, Yun-Min Zheng, Yong-Xiao Wang
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) occurs during both fetal and postnatal development and plays a critical role in matching regional alveolar perfusion with ventilation in humans and animals. HPV also contributes significantly to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Although the molecular mechanisms of HPV and pulmonary hypertension remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence demonstrates that hypoxia induces an elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]i) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046976/the-complement-system-and-preeclampsia
#16
REVIEW
Jean F Regal, Richard M Burwick, Sherry D Fleming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preeclampsia affects 3-4% of pregnancies with few treatment options to reduce maternal and fetal harm. Recent evidence that targeting the complement system may be an effective therapeutic strategy in prevention or treatment of preeclampsia will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in humans confirm the safety and efficacy of C5 blockade in complement-mediated disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Animal models mimic the placental abnormalities and/or the maternal symptoms which characterize preeclampsia...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046946/-report-of-the-working-group-on-pediatric-and-fetal-pathology
#17
A M Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046485/dimethyl-fumarate-increases-fetal-hemoglobin-provides-heme-detoxification-and-corrects-anemia-in-sickle-cell-disease
#18
Sriram Krishnamoorthy, Betty Pace, Dipti Gupta, Sarah Sturtevant, Biaoru Li, Levi Makala, Julia Brittain, Nancy Moore, Benjamin F Vieira, Timothy Thullen, Ivan Stone, Huo Li, William E Hobbs, David R Light
Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a point mutation in the β-globin gene forming hemoglobin S (HbS), which polymerizes in deoxygenated erythrocytes, triggering recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises and chronic hemolytic anemia. Reactivation of fetal Hb (HbF) expression ameliorates these symptoms of SCD. Nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that triggers cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways to limit oxidative damage and inflammation and increases HbF synthesis in CD34+ stem cell-derived erythroid progenitors...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046480/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-maternal-diabetes-associated-risk-of-congenital-heart-disease
#19
Madhumita Basu, Jun-Yi Zhu, Stephanie LaHaye, Uddalak Majumdar, Kai Jiao, Zhe Han, Vidu Garg
Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality, and they are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental risk factors may contribute to birth defects in genetically susceptible infants by altering critical molecular pathways during embryogenesis, but experimental evidence for gene-environment interactions is limited. Fetal hyperglycemia associated with maternal diabetes results in a 5-fold increased risk of congenital heart disease (CHD), but the molecular basis for this correlation is unknown...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046361/trefoil-factor-family-peptides-enhance-cell-migration-by-increasing-cellular-osmotic-permeability-and-aquaporin-3-levels
#20
Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are produced rapidly at sites of injury, stimulating epithelial migration, a process involving rapid changes in cell shape and volume, requiring rapid flow of water into and out of the cell. We examined the effect of TFFs on fluidity of cells by measuring their sensitivity to osmotic challenges and cell migration, and determined whether those results were mediated through altering the levels of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of transmembrane water channels involved in cellular water homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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