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Rebeca Kawahara, Livia Rosa-Fernandes, Ancély Ferreira Dos Santos, Carla Letícia Bandeira, Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Micaella Pereira da Fonseca, William T Festuccia, Leticia Labriola, Martin R Larsen, Claudio R F Marinho, Giuseppe Palmisano
Malaria in pregnancy is a public health concern in malaria-endemic areas. Accumulation of maternal immune cells in the placenta and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes have been associated to poor neonatal outcomes, including low birth weight due to fetal growth restriction. Little is known about the molecular changes occurring in a P. falciparum-infected placenta that has developed placental malaria during pregnancy but had the parasites cleared by pharmacological treatment (past infection)...
September 21, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Anthony R Gregg, Janice G Edwards
The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) held a workshop entitled "Prenatal Genetic Testing" on January 25, 2017 to address several questions arising from the increasing implementation of preconception and prenatal expanded carrier screening (ECS). ECS allows for identification of a greater number of genetic sequencing changes (not all of which cause disease) and simultaneous testing for an increased number of genetic conditions without limitation to specific ethnic groups...
July 26, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Annie Penfield-Cyr, Carmen Monthe-Dreze, Marcela C Smid, Sarbattama Sen
PURPOSE: Maternal body mass index (BMI) and systemic fatty acid (FA) concentrations affect inflammatory balance in pregnancy and play a key role in fetal growth and well-being. Little is known about how maternal BMI may affect the association between key FA concentrations and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between the maternal omega (n)6:n3 FA ratio and neonatal outcomes according to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network randomized controlled trial of omega-3 FA supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Charles K F Chan, Gunsagar S Gulati, Rahul Sinha, Justin Vincent Tompkins, Michael Lopez, Ava C Carter, Ryan C Ransom, Andreas Reinisch, Taylor Wearda, Matthew Murphy, Rachel E Brewer, Lauren S Koepke, Owen Marecic, Anoop Manjunath, Eun Young Seo, Tripp Leavitt, Wan-Jin Lu, Allison Nguyen, Stephanie D Conley, Ankit Salhotra, Thomas H Ambrosi, Mimi R Borrelli, Taylor Siebel, Karen Chan, Katharina Schallmoser, Jun Seita, Debashis Sahoo, Henry Goodnough, Julius Bishop, Michael Gardner, Ravindra Majeti, Derrick C Wan, Stuart Goodman, Irving L Weissman, Howard Y Chang, Michael T Longaker
Stem cell regulation and hierarchical organization of human skeletal progenitors remain largely unexplored. Here, we report the isolation of a self-renewing and multipotent human skeletal stem cell (hSSC) that generates progenitors of bone, cartilage, and stroma, but not fat. Self-renewing and multipotent hSSCs are present in fetal and adult bones and can also be derived from BMP2-treated human adipose stroma (B-HAS) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Gene expression analysis of individual hSSCs reveals overall similarity between hSSCs obtained from different sources and partially explains skewed differentiation toward cartilage in fetal and iPSC-derived hSSCs...
September 20, 2018: Cell
Azucena Ocampo, Jeimy Pedraza, Ginna Ortiz, Elizabeth Hernández-Pérez, Leonardo Porchia, Esther López-Bayghen
BACKGROUND: Current methods for determining superior embryo quality (morphological assessment) are unable to compensate for poor pregnancy outcomes. Due to the importance of the cumulus-oocyte complex and the value of cumulus cells (CCs) as markers of embryo health, we determined the association between the CCs gene expression of the Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (PTGS2) and Versican (VCAN) with pregnancy. METHODS: One hundred forty-nine women, suffering from infertility and undergoing IVF, were included in this study (age: 29-46 years; BMI = 25...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Huso Yi, Shenaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome (DS) has become widely available. In Hong Kong, obstetric providers in the public sector refer women identified at high risk of having a child with Down syndrome to obstetric providers in the private sector for NIPT. Little is known about how the NIPT has been adopted in the public sector where DS screening is provided for free of charge. The study aimed to identify the factors influencing providers' role enactment, such as consultation and referral, in the service provision of NIPT for DS in public and private healthcare sectors...
September 21, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Craig Nowadly, Kelly Johnson-Arbor, Annelee Boyle
Background: The fetus is uniquely susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure. We present a case of severe unintentional CO poisoning in the first trimester of pregnancy. Case: A 23-year-old G5P2022 female at 11 weeks' gestational age sat in a car with the engine idling. She was unaware that the vehicle's exhaust pipe was blocked with snow. She was found to be unresponsive, with an initial carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration of 47.1%. She underwent emergent treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy...
July 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Ismail Tekesin
PURPOSE:  To evaluate the performance of first-trimester ultrasound screening involving a detailed anomaly scan for the detection of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, Turner syndrome and trisomy 21. METHODS:  Data of pregnant women who underwent aneuploidy screening at 11 - 13 weeks of gestation was retrospectively analyzed. Crown-rump length (CRL), fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT) and nasal bone (NB) anatomy, blood flow across the tricuspid valve (TV) and through the ductus venosus (DV) were assessed...
September 21, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Raluca Marcu, Yoon Jung Choi, Jun Xue, Chelsea L Fortin, Yuliang Wang, Ryan J Nagao, Jin Xu, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Charles E Murry, Kimberly Muczynski, Kelly R Stevens, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Stephen M Schwartz, Ying Zheng
The endothelium first forms in the blood islands in the extra-embryonic yolk sac and then throughout the embryo to establish circulatory networks that further acquire organ-specific properties during development to support diverse organ functions. Here, we investigated the properties of endothelial cells (ECs), isolated from four human major organs-the heart, lung, liver, and kidneys-in individual fetal tissues at three months' gestation, at gene expression, and at cellular function levels. We showed that organ-specific ECs have distinct expression patterns of gene clusters, which support their specific organ development and functions...
June 29, 2018: iScience
Andreas Kyburz, Angela Fallegger, Xiaozhou Zhang, Aleksandra Altobelli, Mariela Artola-Boran, Timothy Borbet, Sabine Urban, Petra Paul, Christian Münz, Stefan Floess, Jochen Huehn, Timothy L Cover, Martin J Blaser, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
BACKGROUND: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jordan T Speidel, Meixiang Xu, Sherif Z Abdel-Rahman
Exposure to bisphenols (BPA and BPS) during pregnancy can significantly affect fetal development and increase risk of adverse health consequences, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In human placenta, the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 gene, extrudes its substrates from the trophoblasts back into the maternal circulation. Alterations in levels of placental P-gp could therefore significantly affect fetal exposure to xenobiotics that are P-gp substrates...
September 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Elizabeth L Stockley, Joseph Y Ting, John Kingdom, Sarah D McDonald, Jon Barrett, Anne Synnes, Luis Monterrosa, Prakesh S Shah
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum magnesium sulphate administration is recommended for fetal neuroprotection in women with imminent very preterm birth. However, previous studies have not included or separately analyzed the outcomes of pregnancies with fetal growth restriction that were treated with intrapartum magnesium sulphate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of growth restricted fetuses born before 29 weeks' gestation and exposed to maternal intrapartum magnesium sulphate...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tingbin Zhang, Yuanyu Huang, Xiaowei Ma, Ningqiang Gong, Xiaoli Liu, Lu Liu, Xiaoxia Ye, Bo Hu, Chunhui Li, Jianhua Tian, Andrea Magrini, Jinchao Zhang, Weisheng Guo, Jinfeng Xing, Massimo Bottini, Xing-Jie Liang
Efficient small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery in presence of serum is of crucial importance for effective gene therapy. Fluorinated vectors are considered to be attractive candidates for siRNA-mediated gene therapy because of their delivery efficacy in serum-containing media. However, the mechanisms driving the superior gene transfection behavior of fluorinated vectors are still not well understood and comprehensive investigations are warranted. Herein, we fabricated a library of perfluorooctanoyl fluoride (PFF)-fluorinated oligoethylenimines (fxOEIs, x is the PFF:OEI feeding ratio), which can readily form nano-assemblies (fxOEI NAs) capable of efficient siRNA delivery in cells cultured in medium both devoid of and supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS)...
September 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Laura M Bergner, Richard J Orton, Ana da Silva Filipe, Andrew E Shaw, Daniel J Becker, Carlos Tello, Roman Biek, Daniel G Streicker
Microbial communities play an important role in organismal and ecosystem health. While high throughput metabarcoding has revolutionized the study of bacterial communities, generating comparable viral communities has proven elusive, particularly in wildlife samples where the diversity of viruses present and limited quantities of viral nucleic acid present distinctive challenges. Metagenomic sequencing is a promising solution for studying viral communities, but the lack of standardized methods currently precludes comparisons across host taxa or localities...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Qinghua Huang, Xinxin Ma, Xiaoying Huang, Yanyan Huang, Shaohua Yang, Lin Zhang, Ning Cui, Chuantian Xu
In this study, we determined and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a fowl adenovirus isolate SD1356 in China and examined its pathogenicity in specific pathogen-free chick embryos and newly hatched chicks. The full genome of SD1356 was 44,454 nucleotides in length with 58.1% G + C content. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain SD1356 was clustered together belonging to serotype 8b of fowl adenoviruses E species (FAdV-8b). No regions homologous to early regions E1, E3, and E4 of mastadenoviruses were recognized, and being very similar to the typical organization of FAdV-E genomes...
September 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Renjuan Chen, Qian Li, Wenli Cui, Xiaoyi Wang, Qin Gao, Chunrong Zhong, Guoqiang Sun, Xinlin Chen, Guoping Xiong, Xuefeng Yang, Liping Hao, Nianhong Yang
Background: Maternal iodine status has been suggested to affect birth outcomes. Few studies have focused on its effects on fetal growth during pregnancy. Objective: This study aimed to assess maternal iodine status during early pregnancy and further examine the relation between maternal iodine status and fetal growth. Methods: A total of 2087 singleton-pregnant women participating in the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study were involved...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Hanan El Marroun, Koen Bolhuis, Ingmar H A Franken, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Manon H Hillegers, Benjamin B Lahey, Henning Tiemeier
Background: Studies of the long-term consequences of maternal cannabis use on child development beyond the neonatal period are sparse. In the current study, we use a multi-information approach to assess the association of prenatal cannabis exposure and child behavioural and emotional functioning. To explore the possible causal nature of the association, we investigated whether maternal tobacco and paternal cannabis use during pregnancy were also associated with child problems. Methods: The study population included children of a population-based birth cohort in The Netherlands (n = 5903)...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sven Cnattingius, Michael S Kramer, Mikael Norman, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Fang Fang, Donghao Lu
Background: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is commonly used as a proxy for fetal growth restriction, but also includes constitutionally small infants. Genetic factors account for almost half of the risk of SGA birth. We estimated perinatal risks of SGA birth using both population-based and within-sibling analyses, where the latter by design controls for shared genetic factors and maternal environmental factors that are constant across pregnancies. Methods: This was a prospective nationwide cohort study of 2 616 974 singleton infants born in Sweden between January 1987 and December 2012, of whom 1 885 924 were full siblings...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
S Lalani, A J Choudhry, B Firth, V Bacal, Mark Walker, S W Wen, S Singh, A Amath, M Hodge, I Chen
STUDY QUESTION: How is endometriosis associated with adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with endometriosis are at elevated risk for serious and important adverse maternal (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta praevia and Cesarean section) and fetal or neonatal outcomes (preterm birth, PPROM, small for gestational age, stillbirth and neonatal death). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A number of studies have shown an association between endometriosis and certain adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, but the results have been conflicting with potential for confounding by the use of assisted reproductive technology...
September 17, 2018: Human Reproduction
Nis Brix, Andreas Ernst, Lea L B Lauridsen, Erik T Parner, Jørn Olsen, Tine B Henriksen, Cecilia H Ramlau-Hansen
As early puberty has been linked to diseases later in life, identification of modifiable causes of early puberty is of interest. We explore the possible associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and pubertal development in sons and daughters. Between 2012 and 2017, 15,819 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, born during 2000-2003, provided half-yearly information on puberty from the age of 11 years. We estimated adjusted age differences (in months) at attaining various pubertal milestones, including Tanner stages, per 10 daily cigarettes smoked in first trimester...
September 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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