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Superior oliver complex

Marko Poglitsch, Ashraf H Ahmed, Michael Resl, Andrea Stoller, Dunja Van Oyen, Cornelia Schwager, Claudia Aigner, Oliver Domenig, Michael Krebs, Manuel Haschke, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is form of hypertension characterized by production of aldosterone by the adrenal that is excessive and relatively autonomous of the renin-angiotensin system. Once detected, unilateral PA can be usually cured by surgical removal of the affected adrenal, while bilateral PA can be specifically treated by medications, which antagonize aldosterone action. Clinical guidelines of Endocrine Societies in Europe and the US recommend screening for PA among most hypertensive patients...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Constantin Dreher, Christian Scholz, Mira Pommer, Stephan Brons, Hannah Prokesch, Swantje Ecker, Jürgen Debus, Oliver Jäkel, Stephanie E Combs, Daniel Habermehl
BACKGROUND: The aim of the thesis is to improve treatment plans of carbon ion irradiation by integrating the tissues' specific [Formula: see text]-values for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five patients with LAPC were included in this study. By the use of the treatment planning system Syngo RT Planning (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) treatment plans with carbon ion beams have been created. Dose calculation was based on [Formula: see text]-values for both organs at risk (OAR) and the tumor...
2016: PloS One
Nelly Flores, Pere Lluís Cabot, Francesc Centellas, José Antonio Garrido, Rosa María Rodríguez, Enric Brillas, Ignasi Sirés
The degradation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a ubiquitous component of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), has been studied by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed in either a 0.050M Na2SO4 solution or a real OOMW at pH 3.0, using a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 generation. Hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface from water oxidation in all processes and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2 in EF and PEF were the main oxidants...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Marko Poglitsch, Ashraf H Ahmed, Michael Resl, Andrea Stoller, Dunja Van Oyen, Cornelia Schwager, Claudia Aigner, Oliver Domenig, Michael Krebs, Manuel Haschke, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is form of hypertension characterized by production of aldosterone by the adrenal that is excessive and relatively autonomous of the renin-angiotensin system. Once detected, unilateral PA can be usually cured by surgical removal of the affected adrenal, while bilateral PA can be specifically treated by medications, which antagonize aldosterone action. Clinical guidelines of Endocrine Societies in Europe and the US recommend screening for PA among most hypertensive patients...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alexander A Nevue, Richard A Felix, Christine V Portfors
Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis...
September 10, 2016: Hearing Research
Tom P Franken, Philip H Smith, Philip X Joris
The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, B Luster, S Mahaffey, F J Urbano, C Phillips
A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition...
2016: Transl Brain Rhythm
Heiner Hartwich, Elena Rosengauer, Lukas Rüttiger, Viviane Wilms, Sarah-Kristin Waterholter, Hans Gerd Nothwang
γ-crystallins are major components of the vertebrate lens but show expression in other tissues as well. Their extralenticular functions remain so far unclear. Here, we explored such roles in the rodent superior olivary complex in which previous analysis demonstrated developmentally regulated expression of Crygd, Cryge and Crygn. Immunohistochemistry with novel antibodies against Crygd/e and Crygn indicate that expression of Crygd/e was moderate and varied between the perinatal superior olivary complex of mice, rats, and gerbils...
2016: PloS One
A Belkhou, C François, Y Bennis, V Duquennoy-Martinot, P Guerreschi
Congenital skin aplasia, or aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disease. It is characterized by the absence of skin at birth, localized or widespread, of one or several areas. This condition commonly involve the scalp but can also involve more rarely the trunk or limbs. However it is most frequently an isolated disorder, it can be associated with other anomalies, such as the Adams-Oliver syndrome, the association with a fetus papyraceus or with an epidermolysis bullosa. Many hypothesis have been suggested: vascular, genetic, traumatic, pharmacological or an anomaly in the neural tube closure process, but the exact mechanism is still unknown...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Eric D Larson, Won-Mean Lee, Marilyn A Roubidoux, Mitchel M Goodsitt, Chris Lashbrook, Fouzaan Zafar, Oliver D Kripfgans, Kai Thomenius, Paul L Carson
The design and performance of a mammographically configured, dual-sided, automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) 3-D imaging system are described. Dual-sided imaging (superior and inferior) is compared with single-sided imaging to aid decisions on clinical implementation of the more complex, but potentially higher-quality dual-sided imaging. Marked improvement in image quality and coverage of the breast is obtained in dual-sided ultrasound over single-sided ultrasound. Among hypo-echoic masses imaged, there are increases in the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of 57% and 79%, respectively, for spliced dual-sided versus superior or inferior single-sided imaging...
September 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Chuan-Fu Lin, Malachi Noked, Alexander C Kozen, Chanyuan Liu, Oliver Zhao, Keith Gregorczyk, Liangbing Hu, Sang Bok Lee, Gary W Rubloff
Materials that undergo conversion reactions to form different materials upon lithiation typically offer high specific capacity for energy storage applications such as Li ion batteries. However, since the reaction products often involve complex mixtures of electrically insulating and conducting particles and significant changes in volume and phase, the reversibility of conversion reactions is poor, preventing their use in rechargeable (secondary) batteries. In this paper, we fabricate and protect 3D conversion electrodes by first coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with a model conversion material, RuO2, and subsequently protecting them with conformal thin-film lithium phosphous oxynitride (LiPON), a well-known solid-state electrolyte...
February 23, 2016: ACS Nano
Nikodemus Gessele, Elisabet Garcia-Pino, Damir Omerbašić, Thomas J Park, Ursula Koch
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals...
2016: PloS One
Martin Vielreicher, Monika Gellner, Ulrike Rottensteiner, Raymund E Horch, Andreas Arkudas, Oliver Friedrich
Collagen I is the major fibrous extracellular component of bone responsible for its ultimate tensile strength. In tissue engineering, one of the most important challenges for tissue formation is to get cells interconnected via a strong and functional extracellular matrix (ECM), mimicking as closely as possible the natural ECM geometry. Still missing in tissue engineering are: (a) a versatile, high-resolution and non-invasive approach to evaluate and quantify different aspects of ECM development within engineered biomimetic scaffolds online; and (b) deeper insights into the mechanism whereby cellular matrix production is enhanced in 3D cell-scaffold composites, putatively via enhanced focal adhesion linkage, over the 2D setting...
December 29, 2015: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Stefan Reuss, Stefanie Closhen-Gabrisch, Christina Closhen
The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons...
February 2016: Hearing Research
Gila Behzad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
K Ruby, K Falvey, R J Kulesza
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly one in 5000 newborn males and is a leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder. In addition to developmental delays and intellectual impairment, FXS is characterized by seizures, attention deficit, and hypersensitivity to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli. The Fmr1 gene encodes Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is abundant in neurons, binds select mRNAs and functions as a negative regulator of mRNA translation...
September 10, 2015: Neuroscience
J R Miles, J L Vallet, J J Ford, B A Freking, W T Oliver, L A Rempel
Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts...
April 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Fei Gao, Albert S Berrebi
Perception of acoustic stimuli is modulated by the temporal and spectral relationship between sound components. Forward masking experiments show that the perception threshold for a probe tone is significantly impaired by a preceding masker stimulus. Forward masking has been systematically studied at the level of the auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and auditory cortex, but not yet in the superior olivary complex. The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a principal cell group of the superior olive, plays an essential role in sound localization...
May 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Tetsufumi Ito, Hiroyuki Hioki, Jaerin Sohn, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takeshi Kaneko, Satoshi Iino, Douglas L Oliver
Large GABAergic (LG) neurons form a distinct cell type in the inferior colliculus (IC), identified by the presence of dense VGLUT2-containing axosomatic terminals. Although some of the axosomatic terminals originate from local and commissural IC neurons, it has been unclear whether LG neurons also receive axosomatic inputs from the lower auditory brainstem nuclei, i.e., cochlear nuclei (CN), superior olivary complex (SOC), and nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL). In this study we injected recombinant viral tracers that force infected cells to express GFP in a Golgi-like manner into the lower auditory brainstem nuclei to determine whether these nuclei directly innervate LG cell somata...
October 15, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Cornelia Kopp-Scheinpflug, Beatrice M Pigott, Ian D Forsythe
Hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cation-permeable channels (HCN) mediate I(H) currents, which are modulated by cGMP and cAMP and by nitric oxide (NO) signalling. Channel properties depend upon subunit composition (HCN1-4 and accessory subunits) as demonstrated in expression systems, but physiological relevance requires investigation in native neurons with intact intracellular signalling. Here we use the superior olivary complex (SOC), which exhibits a distinctive pattern of HCN1 and HCN2 expression, to investigate NO modulation of the respective I(H) currents, and compare properties in wild-type and HCN1 knockout mice...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
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