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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817560/fruit-weight-is-controlled-by-cell-size-regulator-encoding-a-novel-protein-that-is-expressed-in-maturing-tomato-fruits
#1
Qi Mu, Zejun Huang, Manohar Chakrabarti, Eudald Illa-Berenguer, Xiaoxi Liu, Yanping Wang, Alexis Ramos, Esther van der Knaap
Increases in fruit weight of cultivated vegetables and fruits accompanied the domestication of these crops. Here we report on the positional cloning of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling fruit weight in tomato. The derived allele of Cell Size Regulator (CSR-D) increases fruit weight predominantly through enlargement of the pericarp areas. The expanded pericarp tissues result from increased mesocarp cell size and not from increased number of cell layers. The effect of CSR on fruit weight and cell size is found across different genetic backgrounds implying a consistent impact of the locus on the trait...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816603/analysis-of-the-small-non-protein-coding-rna-profile-of-mouse-spermatozoa-reveals-specific-enrichment-of-pirnas-within-mature-spermatozoa
#2
Kate Hutcheon, Eileen A McLaughlin, Simone J Stanger, Ilana R Bernstein, Matthew D Dun, Andrew L Eamens, Brett Nixon
Post-testicular sperm maturation and storage within the epididymis is a key determinant of gamete quality and fertilization competence. Here we demonstrate that mouse spermatozoa possess a complex small non-protein-coding RNA (sRNA) profile, the composition of which is markedly influenced by their epididymal transit. Thus, although miRNAs are highly represented in the spermatozoa of the proximal epididymis, this sRNA class is largely diminished in mature spermatozoa of the distal epididymis. Coincident with this, a substantial enrichment in Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) abundance in cauda spermatozoa was detected...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814414/amblyopia-and-strabismus-trends-in-prevalence-and-risk-factors-among-young-adults-in-israel
#3
Yinon Shapira, Yossy Machluf, Michael Mimouni, Yoram Chaiter, Eedy Mezer
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of amblyopia, present strabismus and amblyopia risk factors (ARFs) among young adults in Israel and to analyse trends over time of prevalence rates. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 107 608 pre-enlistees aged 17.4±0.6 years born between 1971 and 1994. Across the birth years, the following trends of prevalence rates among young adults were analysed: prevalence of amblyopia, prevalence of strabismus, severity of amblyopia and prevalence of ARFs (strabismsus, anisometropia and isoametropia)...
August 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810576/application-of-low-dose-dual-source-computed-tomography-angiography-in-children-with-complex-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Xian-Feng Chen, Fan Jiang, Lin Li, Yan Chen, Xin Chen, Yan-Yan Jiang, Li Xiang, Xiao-Jing Ma
The objective of the present study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dosage using a low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography (CT) protocol for dual-source angiography in children with complex congenital heart disease. A total of 206 patients with complex congenital heart disease were equally assigned into two groups at random. The children in group A underwent low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT scanning with an ECG-pulsing technique, and group B underwent prospective ECG-gated scanning with an ECG-pulsing technique...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810118/capacitive-detection-of-low-enthalpy-higher-order-phase-transitions-in-synthetic-and-natural-composition-lipid-membranes
#5
Graham Jeffrey Taylor, Frederick A Heberle, Jason Sharp Seinfeld, John Katsaras, C Patrick Collier, Stephen Andrew Sarles
In-plane lipid organization and phase separation in natural membranes plays a key role in regulating many cellular processes. Highly cooperative, first-order phase transitions in model membranes consisting of few lipid components are well understood and readily detectable via calorimetry, densitometry, and fluorescence. However, far less is known about natural membranes containing numerous lipid species and high concentrations of cholesterol, for which thermotropic transitions are undetectable by the above-mentioned techniques...
August 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809758/optimizing-timing-performance-of-cdte-detectors-for-pet
#6
Mohammad Nakhostin
Despite several attractive properties, the poor timing performance of compound semiconductor detectors such as CdTe and CdZnTe has hindered their use in commercial PET imaging systems. The standard method of pulse timing with such detectors is to employ a constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) at the output of a timing filter which is fed by the pulses from a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The method has led to a time resolution of about 10 ns at full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with 1 mm thick CdTe detectors...
August 15, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801363/l-selectin-promotes-the-maturation-of-dendritic-cells-via-up-regulation-the-expression-of-tlr4-in-vitro
#7
Zhishuai Ye, Jia Liu, Jie Zheng, Jianing Zhang, Rongchong Huang
The relationship between dendritic cells (DCs) and L-selectin in the progress of atherosclerosis is unclear. Here, we used L-selectin co-cultured with DCs to investigate the effect of L-selectin on the maturation of DCs in vitro Monocytes derived DCs were isolated and cultured from human peripheral blood. After being stimulated with L-selectin and/or its antagonist for 24-48 hours, the feather of cells was observed by the electron microscope. The expression of mature antigens CD1a, CD80, CD83, and CD86 were investigated by flow cytometric analysis (FACS)...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796511/unveiling-the-ionization-energy-of-the-cn-radical
#8
Bérenger Gans, Séverine Boyé-Péronne, Gustavo A Garcia, Anja Röder, Domenik Schleier, Philippe Halvick, Jean-Christophe Loison
The cyano radical is an ubiquitous molecule, and was for instance one of the first species detected in astrophysical media such as comets or diffuse clouds. In photodis- sociation regions the reaction rate of CN(+) + CO → CN + CO(+) is one of the critical parameters defining nitrile chemistry. The enthalpy of this charge transfer reaction is defined as the difference of ionization energies (EI) between CN and CO. Although EI(CO) is known accurately, the EI(CN) values are more dispersed and deduced indirectly from thermodynamic thresholds only, all above EI(CO), leading to the assumption that the reaction was fast even at low temperature...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794978/localization-of-beta-and-high-frequency-oscillations-within-the-subthalamic-nucleus-region
#9
B C M van Wijk, A Pogosyan, M I Hariz, H Akram, T Foltynie, P Limousin, A Horn, S Ewert, P Brown, V Litvak
Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-frequency oscillations (HFO) within the 150-400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794796/a-high-throughput-phenotyping-procedure-for-evaluation-of-antixenosis-against-common-cutworm-at-early-seedling-stage-in-soybean
#10
Guangnan Xing, Kai Liu, Junyi Gai
BACKGROUND: Common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a major leaf-feeding pest of soybean in Asia. The previous methods of measuring antixenosis against CCW using adult plant under field or net-room conditions were time-consuming, labor-intensive and precision-inferior. To solve the problems, this study aimed at (i) establishing a high-throughput phenotyping method for evaluating antixenosis against CCW at early seedling stage, (ii) using the procedure to evaluate the antixenosis of an insect-resistant versus -susceptible germplasm population (IRSGP), (iii) validating the proposed method through comparing the results with the historical phenotypic data and phenotyping-genotyping consistency data using PAV (presence/absence variation) markers linked with the identified loci CCW-1 and CCW-2, (iv) and evaluating the efficiency of the novel method through comparisons to the previous methods...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793403/wind-dynamics-influence-on-south-spain-airborne-olive-pollen-during-african-intrusions
#11
H García-Mozo, M A Hernández-Ceballos, M M Trigo, C Galán
Given its proximity to northern Africa, southern Spain is regularly affected by high-altitude African intrusions. This determines a well-defined wind dynamics at surface levels. Although this weather event-mainly recorded in spring and summer-coincides with the flowering season of many wind pollinated species, its potential influence on long term airborne pollen transport has been not investigated in detail. We analyse their influence on olive pollen transport at surface level in south Spain. Daily and bi-hourly olive pollen data from 2010 to 2015, recorded at two sites 150km apart, Málaga (coast) and Córdoba (inland), were analysed together with 1) air masses at 300m above ground level (m...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792958/can-remote-infrared-cameras-be-used-to-differentiate-small-sympatric-mammal-species-a-case-study-of-the-black-tailed-dusky-antechinus-antechinus-arktos-and-co-occurring-small-mammals-in-southeast-queensland-australia
#12
Emma L Gray, Todd E Dennis, Andrew M Baker
The black-tailed dusky antechinus (Antechinus arktos) is an endangered, small carnivorous marsupial endemic to Australia, which occurs at low population density along with abundant sympatric populations of other small mammals: Antechinus stuartii, Rattus fuscipes and Melomys cervinipes. Using A. arktos as a model species, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of infrared digital camera traps for detecting and differentiating small mammals and to comment on the broad applicability of this methodology. We also sought to understand how the detection probabilities of our target species varied over time and characterize their activity patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792518/rendering-visual-events-as-sounds-spatial-attention-capture-by-auditory-augmented-reality
#13
Scott A Stone, Matthew S Tata
Many salient visual events tend to coincide with auditory events, such as seeing and hearing a car pass by. Information from the visual and auditory senses can be used to create a stable percept of the stimulus. Having access to related coincident visual and auditory information can help for spatial tasks such as localization. However not all visual information has analogous auditory percepts, such as viewing a computer monitor. Here, we describe a system capable of detecting and augmenting visual salient events into localizable auditory events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791158/gamma-ray-bursts-and-their-use-as-cosmic-probes
#14
REVIEW
Patricia Schady
Since the launch of the highly successful and ongoing Swift mission, the field of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has undergone a revolution. The arcsecond GRB localizations available within just a few minutes of the GRB alert has signified the continual sampling of the GRB evolution through the prompt to afterglow phases revealing unexpected flaring and plateau phases, the first detection of a kilonova coincident with a short GRB, and the identification of samples of low-luminosity, ultra-long and highly dust-extinguished GRBs...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782042/polycomb-repressive-complex-1-modifies-transcription-of-active-genes
#15
Michelle Pherson, Ziva Misulovin, Maria Gause, Kathie Mihindukulasuriya, Amanda Swain, Dale Dorsett
This study examines the role of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) at active genes. The PRC1 and PRC2 complexes are crucial for epigenetic silencing during development of an organism. They are recruited to Polycomb response elements (PREs) and establish silenced domains over several kilobases. Recent studies show that PRC1 is also directly recruited to active genes by the cohesin complex. Cohesin participates broadly in control of gene transcription, but it is unknown whether cohesin-recruited PRC1 also plays a role in transcriptional control of active genes...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780201/absolute-standardizations-of-99m-tc-and-57-co-by-4%C3%AF-electron-gamma-liquid-scintillation-coincidence-counting-for-sirti-and-sir-comparisons
#16
M W van Rooy, M J van Staden, B R S Simpson, J Lubbe
The radionuclides (99m)Tc and (57)Co were standardized via absolute liquid scintillation counting techniques. We provide the first technical report on the absolute standardization of (99m)Tc using 4π(LS)e-γ coincidence counting. The low detection efficiency of low-energy conversion electrons translates into a large efficiency extrapolation range. A simulation indicated that the γ-ray interacting with the liquid scintillator introduces curvature to the count rate vs. efficiency relationship, the approximation of the functional form used for extrapolation providing the main measurement uncertainty for (99m)Tc...
July 25, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780116/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-rotavirus-and-all-cause-gastroenteritis-in-peri-urban-kenyan-children
#17
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, Satoshi Komoto, James Nyangao, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Koki Taniguchi, Yoshio Ichinose
A monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the National Immunization Program in Kenya in July 2014. We examined the impact of the vaccine on hospitalization for all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-specific AGE and strain distribution at a large referral hospital which serves a predominantly peri-urban population in Central Kenya. Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from ongoing hospital-based AGE surveillance. Hospital administrative data were used to compare trends in all-cause AGE...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777253/mir-30e-attenuates-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-through-suppressing-snai1-tgf%C3%AE-signaling
#18
Zhang Wenqi, Chang Hong, Zhang Hexun, Zhang Lei
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that inhibit protein expression through either degradation of mRNA or interference with protein translation. Our previous work suggested an involvement of miR-30e in myocardial fibrosis; however, the exact role of miR-30e in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with isoproterenol to induce cardiac remodeling and fibrosis and treated with either miR-30e agomir (AG) or antagomir and respective controls...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772089/fructose-rich-diet-differently-affects-angiotensin-ii-receptors-content-in-the-nucleus-and-a-plasma-membrane-fraction-of-visceral-adipose-tissue
#19
Maja Bundalo, Ana Djordjevic, Biljana Bursac, Maja Zivkovic, Goran Koricanac, Aleksandra Stankovic
The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is proposed to be a pathophysiological link between adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic disorders induced by fructose rich diet (FRD). RAS can act intracellularly. We hypothesized that adipocytes nuclear membranes possess angiotensin receptors type 1 and type 2 (AT1R and AT2R) that couple to nuclear signaling pathways and regulate oxidative gene expression under the FRD. We analyzed the effect of nine-week consumption of 10% fructose solution on biochemical parameters, adipocyte morphology and expression of AT1R, AT2R, AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), NOX4, MMP-9, and MnSOD in adipose tissue of Wistar rats...
August 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768741/theta-frequency-selectivity-in-the-somatic-spike-triggered-average-of-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-is-dependent-on-hcn-channels
#20
Anindita Das, Rishikesh Narayanan
The ability to distill specific frequencies from complex spatiotemporal patterns of afferent inputs is a pivotal functional requirement for neurons residing in networks receiving frequency-multiplexed inputs. Although the expression of theta-frequency subthreshold resonance is established in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, it is not known if their spike initiation dynamics manifest spectral selectivity or if their intrinsic properties are tuned to process gamma-frequency inputs. Here, we measured the spike-triggered average (STA) of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons through electrophysiological recordings and quantified spectral selectivity in their spike initiation dynamics and their coincidence detection window (CDW)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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