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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#1
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342108/different-lipid-regulation-in-ovarian-cancer-inhibition-of-the-immune-system
#2
Christina Wefers, Tjitske Duiveman-de Boer, Petra L M Zusterzeel, Leon F A G Massuger, David Fuchs, Ruurd Torensma, Craig E Wheelock, I Jolanda M de Vries
Lipid metabolism is altered in several cancer settings leading to different ratios of intermediates. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Cancer cells disperse in the abdominal space and ascites occurs. T cells obtained from ascites are unable to proliferate after an antigenic stimulus. The proliferation of ascites-derived T cells can be restored after culturing the cells for ten days in normal culture medium. No pathway aberrancies were detected. The acellular fraction of ascites can inhibit the proliferation of autologous as well as allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes, indicating the presence of soluble factors that interfere with T cell functionality...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341742/measurement-of-the-electron-antineutrino-angular-correlation-in-neutron-%C3%AE-decay
#3
G Darius, W A Byron, C R DeAngelis, M T Hassan, F E Wietfeldt, B Collett, G L Jones, M S Dewey, M P Mendenhall, J S Nico, H Park, A Komives, E J Stephenson
We report the first result for the electron-antineutrino angular correlation (a coefficient) in free neutron β decay from the aCORN experiment. aCORN uses a novel method in which the a coefficient is proportional to an asymmetry in proton time of flight for events where the β electron and recoil proton are detected in delayed coincidence. Data are presented from a 15 month run at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. We obtained a=-0.1090±0.0030(stat)±0.0028(sys), the most precise measurement of the neutron a coefficient reported to date...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341269/characterization-of-a-3xtg-ad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-background
#4
Jessica Virgili, Meryem Lebbadi, Cyntia Tremblay, Isabelle St-Amour, Caroline Pierrisnard, Audrey Faucher-Genest, Vincent Emond, Carl Julien, Frédéric Calon
No model fully recapitulates the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) expresses Aβ plaques and tau-laden neurofibrillary tangles, as well as synaptic and behavioral deficits, it does not display frank neuronal loss. Since old age is the most important risk factor in AD, senescence-related interactions might be lacking to truly establish an AD-like environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we bred the 3xTg-AD mouse with the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), a model of accelerated aging...
January 17, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340384/kinetics-of-the-a-c3h5-o2-reaction-investigated-by-photoionization-using-synchrotron-radiation
#5
D Schleier, P Constantinidis, N Faßheber, I Fischer, G Friedrichs, P Hemberger, E Reusch, B Sztáray, K Voronova
The kinetics of the combustion-relevant reaction of the allyl radical, a-C3H5, with molecular oxygen has been studied in a flow tube reactor at the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline of the Swiss Light Source storage ring, using the CRF-PEPICO (Combustion Reactions Followed by Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence Spectroscopy) setup. The ability to measure threshold photoelectron spectra enables a background-free detection of reactive species as well as an isomer-specific analysis of reaction products. Allyl was generated by direct photodissociation of allyl iodide at 266 nm and 213 nm and indirectly by the reaction of propene with Cl atoms, which were generated by photolysis from oxalyl chloride at 266 nm...
January 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327317/transcript-levels-of-members-of-the-slc2-and-slc5-families-of-glucose-transport-proteins-in-eel-swimbladder-tissue-the-influence-of-silvering-and-the-influence-of-a-nematode-infection
#6
Gabriel Schneebauer, David Mauracher, Birgit Fiechtner, Bernd Pelster
The rate of glucose metabolism has been shown to be correlated to glucose uptake in swimbladder gas gland cells. Therefore, it is assumed that in the European eel silvering, i.e., the preparation of the eel for the spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea, coincides with an enhanced capacity for glucose uptake. To test this hypothesis expression of all known glucose transport proteins has been assessed at the transcript level in yellow and in silver eels, and we also included Anguillicola crassus infected swimbladders...
January 11, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324975/strong-population-bottleneck-and-repeated-demographic-expansions-of-populus-adenopoda-salicaceae-in-subtropical-china
#7
Liqiang Fan, Honglei Zheng, Richard I Milne, Lei Zhang, Kangshan Mao
Background and Aims: Glacial refugia and inter-/postglacial recolonization routes during the Quaternary of tree species in Europe and North America are well understood, but far less is known about those of tree species in subtropical eastern Asia. Thus, we have examined the phylogeographic history of Populus adenopoda (Salicaceae), one of the few poplars that naturally occur in this subtropical area. Methods: Genetic variations across the range of the species in subtropical China were surveyed using ten nuclear microsatellite loci and four chloroplast fragments (matK, trnG-psbK, psbK-psbI and ndhC-trnV)...
January 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324437/performance-of-a-high-resolution-depth-encoding-pet-detector-module-using-linearly-graded-sipm-arrays
#8
Junwei Du, Xiaowei Bai, Alberto Gola, Fabio Acerbi, Alessandro Ferri, Claudio Piemonte, Yongfeng Yang, Simon R Cherry
The goal of this study was to exploit the excellent spatial resolution characteristics of a position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and develop a high-resolution depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector module. The detector consists of a 30 x 30 array of 0.445 mm x 0.445 mm x 20 mm polished LYSO crystals coupled to two 15.5 mm x 15.5 mm linearly-graded SiPM (LG-SiPM) arrays at both ends. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the LYSO array can be resolved...
January 11, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322688/phylodynamics-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-with-emphasis-on-ecuadorian-strains
#9
A D Garrido Haro, M Barrera Valle, A Acosta, F J Flores
Classic swine fever virus (CSFV) is a Pestivirus from the Flaviviridae family that affects pigs worldwide and is endemic in several Latin American countries. However, there are still some countries in the region, including Ecuador, for which CSFV molecular information is lacking. To better understand the epidemiology of CSFV in the Americas, sequences from CSFVs from Ecuador were generated and a phylodynamic analysis of the virus was performed. Sequences for the full-length glycoprotein E2 gene of twenty field isolates were obtained and, along with sequences from strains previously described in the Americas and from the most representative strains worldwide, were used to analyse the phylodynamics of the virus...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315626/comparison-of-the-digene-hybrid-capture-2-and-roche-cobas-4800-hpv-tests-for-detection-of-cin2-in-a-referral-population-in-japan
#10
Toshiyuki Sasagawa, Toshiyuki Maehama, Yasuhiro Osaka, Jinichi Sakamoto, Takeo Shibata, Satoko Fujita, Masahiro Takakura, Hiroaki Takagi
To examine validity of the hybrid capture-2 and cobas 4800 HPV tests, 396 women including 188 women visiting for cancer screening, and 208 referral cases were examined with both HPV tests and the liquid-based cervical Pap test. Concordant results between the HPV assays were observed in 333 cases (coincident rates; 84.1%, kappa value; 0.682). The sensitivity for CIN2+ was 98.6% (69/70) and 82.9% (58/70) for HC2 and cobas 4800 (McNemar's test; P = 0.0026). The sensitivity for CIN3+ was 97.2% (35/36) and 83...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315361/networks-of-tau-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Merle C Hoenig, Gérard N Bischof, Joseph Seemiller, Jochen Hammes, Juraj Kukolja, Özgür A Onur, Frank Jessen, Klaus Fliessbach, Bernd Neumaier, Gereon R Fink, Thilo van Eimeren, Alexander Drzezga
A stereotypical anatomical propagation of tau pathology has been described in Alzheimer's disease. According to recent concepts (network degeneration hypothesis), this propagation is thought to be indicative of misfolded tau proteins possibly spreading along functional networks. If true, tau pathology accumulation should correlate in functionally connected brain regions. Therefore, we examined whether independent components could be identified in the distribution pattern of in vivo tau pathology and whether these components correspond with specific functional connectivity networks...
January 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305088/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-imp3-and-p53-expression-in-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-and-resected-specimens-of-pancreatic-diseases
#12
Junichi Senoo, Rintaro Mikata, Takashi Kishimoto, Masahiro Hayashi, Yuko Kusakabe, Shin Yasui, Mutsumi Yamato, Hiroshi Ohyama, Harutoshi Sugiyama, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Juri Maeda, Satoshi Ota, Yukio Nakatani, Naoya Kato
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor II messenger ribonucleic acid-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is a valuable marker that distinguishes malignant from benign lesions and predicts prognosis. METHODS: First, we evaluated IMP3 expression in 77 resected specimens of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Eleven PDAC patients preoperatively underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)...
December 26, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303304/dark-energy-after-gw170817-dead-ends-and-the-road-ahead
#13
Jose María Ezquiaga, Miguel Zumalacárregui
Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |c_{g}/c-1|≤5×10^{-16}. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299287/diet-reveals-links-between-morphology-and-foraging-in-a-cryptic-temperate-reef-fish
#14
Natalia S Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W Lamb, Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common microcarnivorous cryptic reef fish species, the triplefin Helcogrammoides cunninghami...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299154/resminostat-induces-changes-in-epithelial-plasticity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-and-sensitizes-them-to-sorafenib-induced-apoptosis
#15
Jitka Soukupova, Esther Bertran, Irene Peñuelas-Haro, Uxue Urdiroz-Urricelqui, Matthias Borgman, Hella Kohlhof, Isabel Fabregat
Resminostat, a novel class I, IIb, and IV histone deacetylase inhibitor, was studied in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after relapse to sorafenib (SHELTER study). In this phase I/II clinical trial, combination of sorafenib and resminostat was safe and showed early signs of efficacy. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this synergism have not been explored yet. In this work, we aimed to analyze whether resminostat regulates epithelial-mesenchymal and stemness phenotype as a mechanism of sensitization to sorafenib...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298987/abrupt-transitions-in-time-series-with-uncertainties
#16
Bedartha Goswami, Niklas Boers, Aljoscha Rheinwalt, Norbert Marwan, Jobst Heitzig, Sebastian F M Breitenbach, Jürgen Kurths
Identifying abrupt transitions is a key question in various disciplines. Existing transition detection methods, however, do not rigorously account for time series uncertainties, often neglecting them altogether or assuming them to be independent and qualitatively similar. Here, we introduce a novel approach suited to handle uncertainties by representing the time series as a time-ordered sequence of probability density functions. We show how to detect abrupt transitions in such a sequence using the community structure of networks representing probabilities of recurrence...
January 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298300/neonicotinoid-residues-in-uk-honey-despite-european-union-moratorium
#17
Ben A Woodcock, Lucy Ridding, Stephen N Freeman, M Gloria Pereira, Darren Sleep, John Redhead, David Aston, Norman L Carreck, Richard F Shore, James M Bullock, Matthew S Heard, Richard F Pywell
Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289090/enhancing-acoustic-signal-response-and-absorption-of-an-underwater-coated-plate-by-embedding-periodical-inhomogeneities
#18
Yanni Zhang, Jie Pan
An underwater structure is proposed for simultaneous detection and stealth purposes by embedding periodic signal conditioning plates (SCPs) at the interface of two elastic coatings attached to an elastic plate. Results show that the embedded SCPs can enhance sound absorption at frequencies below the coincidence frequency of the plate (fc). Significantly enhanced absorption occurs at five peaks, of which the peak due to excited localized bending resonance in the outer coating between SCPs is the most significant...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288121/contemporary-incidence-outcomes-of-prostate-cancer-lymph-node-metastases
#19
Adrien N Bernstein, Jonathan E Shoag, Ron Golan, Joshua A Halpern, Edward M Schaeffer, Wei-Chun Hsu, Paul L Nguyen, Art Sedrakyan, Ronald C Chen, Scott E Eggener, Jim C Hu
PURPOSE: The incidence of localized prostate cancer has declined with shifts in prostate cancer screening. While recent population-based studies demonstrate a stable incidence of loco-regional prostate cancer, this categorized organ-confined, extra-prostatic and lymph node positive disease together. The contemporary incidence of prostate cancer with pelvic lymph node metastases (PLNM) however, remains unknown. METHODS: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) from 2004 to 2014 to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288049/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-combined-with-lateral-flow-dipstick-assay-for-detection-of-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus
#20
Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Chengqiang He, Yanjun Huan, Hongbin He
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
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