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Coincidence detection

Francesca Rocchi, Margit E Dylla, Peter A Bohlen, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli (signals) increase in the presence of maskers. Natural environments contain maskers/distractors that can have a wide range of spatiotemporal properties relative to the signal. While these parameters have been well explored psychophysically in humans, they have not been well explored in animal models, and their neuronal underpinnings are not well understood. As a precursor to the neuronal measurements, we report the effects of systematically varying the spatial and temporal relationship between signals and noise in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata)...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
L Chasmer, C Hopkinson
This study demonstrates linkages between the 1997/98 El Niño/Southern Oscillation index and a threshold shift to increased permafrost loss within a southern Taiga Plains watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada. Three-dimensional contraction of permafrost plateaus and changes in vegetation structural characteristics are determined from multi-temporal airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys in 2008, 2011 and 2015. Morphological changes in permafrost cover are compared with optical image analogues from 1970, 1977, 2000, and 2008 and time-series hydro-climate data...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Ada J Hooghart, Corina Brussee, Paulus T V M de Jong, Albert Hofman, Johannes R Vingerling, Caroline C W Klaver
Purpose: Reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) are considered to be a distinct feature in AMD. Population studies have studied the epidemiology of RPD using standard color fundus photographs (CFP). However, recent studies have shown that RPD are better imaged using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. We studied the epidemiology of RPD in a large population-based study using NIR and CFP. Methods: Participants aged 65+ years from the Rotterdam Study underwent ophthalmologic examination including NIR and CFP...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jialin Zhang, Wenxing Liu, Weiye Chen, Cuicui Li, Meimei Xie, Zhigao Bu
From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations...
2016: PloS One
Hamse Kjerstadius, Jo de Vrieze, Jes la Cour Jansen, Åsa Davidsson
High-volume, low-strength industrial wastewaters constitute a large potential for biogas production, which could be realized by membrane bioreactors operating at the ambient temperature of the wastewater. However, the start-up of low-temperature anaerobic processes using unadapted inoculum can be sensitive to overloading, which results in acidification. This study assessed if a novel acidification limit test can be used to identify stable organic loading rates as well as process over-loading. The test is based on easy-to-apply batch experiments for determination of the hydrolysis rate constant and the specific methanogenic activity of the acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic pathways...
October 14, 2016: Water Research
Joanna Gola, Barbara Strzałka-Mrozik, Celina Kruszniewska-Rajs, Adrian Janiszewski, Bartłomiej Skowronek, Mariusz Gagoś, Grzegorz Czernel, Urszula Mazurek
BACKGROUND: A new form of amphotericin B (AmB)- complex with copper (II) ions (AmB-Cu(2+)) - is less toxic to human renal cells. Cytokines, including Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), are responsible for nephrotoxicity observed in patients treated with AmB. Another problem during therapy is the occurrence of oxidized forms of AmB (AmB-ox) in patients' circulation. To elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for the reduction of the toxicity of AmB-Cu(2+), we evaluated the expression of genes encoding TNF and its receptors alongside encoding proteins involved in TNF-induced signalization...
September 5, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Derrick E Mimbe, Bernard Erima, Edison A Mworozi, Monica Millard, Hannah Kibuuka, Luswa Lukwago, Josephine Bwogi, Jocelyn Kiconco, Titus Tugume, Sophia Mulei, Christine Ikomera, Sharon Tsui, Stephen Malinzi, Simon Kasasa, Rodney Coldren, Denis K Byarugaba
INTRODUCTION: Influenza surveillance was conducted in Uganda from October 2008 to December 2014 to identify and understand the epidemiology of circulating influenza strains in out-patient clinic attendees with influenza-like illness and inform control strategies. METHODOLOGY: Surveillance was conducted at five hospital-based sentinel sites. Nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples, epidemiological and clinical data were collected from enrolled patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify and subtype influenza strains...
2016: PloS One
Aleksija S Neimanis, Charlotta Moraeus, Anders Bergman, Anders Bignert, Johan Höglund, Karl Lundström, Annika Strömberg, Britt-Marie Bäcklin
The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002-2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties...
2016: PloS One
Janis L Vahldiek, Stefan Thieme, Bernd Hamm, Stefan M Niehues
BACKGROUND: The use of computed tomography (CT) scans of the head and cervical spine has markedly increased in patients with blunt minor trauma. The actual likelihood of a combined injury of head and cervical spine following a minor trauma is estimated to be low. PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of such combined injuries in patients with a blunt minor trauma in order to estimate the need to derive improved diagnostic guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1854 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
October 17, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Rachel Boxio, Julien Wartelle, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Brice Lagrange, Laurette Malleret, Timothee Hirche, Clifford Taggart, Yves Pacheco, Gilles Devouassoux, Abderrazzaq Bentaher
BACKGROUND: In acutely injured lungs, massively recruited polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) secrete abnormally neutrophil elastase (NE). Active NE creates a localized proteolytic environment where various host molecules are degraded leading to impairment of tissue homeostasis. Among the hallmarks of neutrophil-rich pathologies is a disrupted epithelium characterized by the loss of cell-cell adhesion and integrity. Epithelial-cadherin (E-cad) represents one of the most important intercellular junction proteins...
October 17, 2016: Respiratory Research
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1 infected individuals aged 15 to 39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 with immunosuppression and the use of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA)...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
W Kyle Mitchell, Bethan E Phillips, Daniel J Wilkinson, John P Williams, Debbie Rankin, Jonathan N Lund, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Postprandial limb blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion reduce with aging. Here we tested the impact of providing bolus essential amino acids (EAA) in the presence and absence of the nitric oxide precursor, l-Arginine (ARG), upon skeletal muscle blood flow and anabolism in older men. Healthy young (YOUNG: 19.7 ± 0.5 y, N = 8) and older men (OLD, 70 ± 0.8 y, N = 8) received 15 g EAA or (older only) 15 g EAA +3 g ARG (OLD-ARG, 69.2 ± 1.2 y, N = 8). We quantified responses in muscle protein synthesis (MPS; incorporation of (13)C phenylalanine into myofibrillar proteins), leg and muscle microvascular blood flow (Doppler/contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)) and insulin/EAA in response to EEA ± ARG...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jeffrey Ma, Anita Patel, Kathryn Tinckam
This review paper discusses the impact of de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA) to donor HLA antigens in kidney transplantation and summarizes the benefits and challenges that exist with DSA monitoring. Post-transplant DSA is associated with worse allograft outcomes and its detection may precede or coincide with clinical, biochemical, and histologic allograft dysfunction. There are no absolute features of DSA testing results that perfectly discriminate between states of disease and health. In a state of antibody-associated graft dysfunction, removal or reduction in DSA may only provide clinical benefit for some...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Hideharu Domoto, Keiichi Iwaya, Fumitaka Ikomi, Hirotaka Matsuo, Yutaka Tadano, Shigenori Fujii, Kazuyoshi Tachi, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Michiya Sato, Kimitoshi Inoue, Nariyoshi Shinomiya
Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4...
2016: PloS One
Amy Hammond-Kenny, Victoria M Bajo, Andrew J King, Fernando R Nodal
Enhanced detection and discrimination, along with faster reaction times, are the most typical behavioural manifestations of the brain's capacity to integrate multisensory signals arising from the same object. In this study, we examined whether multisensory behavioural gains are observable across different components of the localization response that are potentially under the command of distinct brain regions. We measured the ability of ferrets to localize unisensory (auditory or visual) and spatiotemporally coincident auditory-visual stimuli of different durations that were presented from one of seven locations spanning the frontal hemifield...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
G M Hansford
A powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) method to enhance the signal of a specific crystalline phase within a mixture is presented for the first time. Specificity to the targeted phase relies on finding coincidences in the ratios of crystal d spacings and the ratios of elemental characteristic X-ray energies. Such coincidences can be exploited so that the two crystal planes diffract through the same scattering angle at two different X-ray energies. An energy-resolving detector placed at the appropriate scattering angle will detect a significantly enhanced signal at these energies if the target mineral or phase is present in the sample...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Florian Geisler, Harald Gerhardus, Katrin Carberry, Wayne Davis, Erik Jorgensen, Christine Richardson, Olaf Bossinger, Rudolf E Leube
Intermediate filaments are major cytoskeletal components whose assembly into complex networks and isotype-specific functions are still largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model system to study intermediate filament organization and function in vivo Its intestinal intermediate filaments localize exclusively to the endotube, a circumferential sheet just below the actin-based terminal web. A genetic screen for defects in the organization of intermediate filaments identified a mutation in the catalytic domain of the MAP kinase 7 ortholog sma-5(kc1) In sma-5(kc1) mutants pockets of lumen penetrate the cytoplasm of the intestinal cells...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Adam Michael Scheer, Arkke J Eskola, David L Osborn, Leonid Sheps, Craig Allen Taatjes
The pulsed photolytic chlorine-initiated oxidation of diethyl ketone [DEK; (CH3CH2)2C=O], 2,2,4,4-d4-DEK [d4-DEK; (CH3CD2)2C=O] and 1,1,1,5,5,5-d6-DEK [d6-DEK; (CD3CH2)2C=O] is studied at 8 Torr and 1 - 2 atm and from 400 - 625 K. Cl atoms produced by laser photolysis react with diethyl ketone to form either primary (3-pentan-on-1-yl, RP) or secondary (3-pentan-on-2-yl, RS¬¬) radicals, which in turn react with O2. Multiplexed time of flight mass spectrometry, coupled to either a hydrogen discharge lamp or tunable synchrotron photoionizing radiation, is used to detect products as a function of mass, time and photon energy...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Alfredo Seijo, Sergio Giamperetti, Sonia M Ortiz Mayor, María B González, Eugenia S Ortega, Rossana C González
On the fifth day after leaving the Parque Nacional El Rey, province of Salta, Argentina, where she made rural tourism, a woman of Italian origin, aged 47, developed an acute fever followed by a petechial and purpuric rash that progressed rapidly to multiorgan failure. She died on the sixth day after hospitalization. There were references to tick bites and a skin lesion similar to tache noire was found. The autopsy showed generalized vasculitis, ascites, pulmonary edema, acute tubular necrosis and portal centrilobular necrosis...
2016: Medicina
Christie Mayo, Bradley Mullens, E Paul Gibbs, N James MacLachlan
Within Northern California, Culicoides sonorensis is the major vector of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and annual infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (typically July‑November). Our recent studies compare the population dynamics of C. sonorensis midges with occurrence of BTV infection of C. sonorensis and sentinel dairy cattle throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal ('overwintering') periods of BTV activity. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on the sampled farms coincided with rising vernal temperature...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
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