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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040944/inhaled-glucocorticoid-treatment-prevents-the-response-of-cd8-t-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma-and-causes-their-depletion-outside-the-respiratory-system
#1
Monika Zuśka-Prot, Tomasz Maślanka
The principal objective of this research has been to determine the safety of inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) in respect of their effect on CD8(+) T cells within respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues, and to compare it with systemic GC treatment. Another purpose has been to identify whether inhaled and systemic GCs affect the CD8(+) T cell response in the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) and lungs in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Ciclesonide and methylprednisolone were used as a model for inhaled and systemic GCs, respectively...
October 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040725/protein-s-nitrosylation-regulates-xylem-vessel-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis
#2
Harunori Kawabe, Misato Ohtani, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Taku Demura
Post-translational modifications of proteins have important roles in the regulation of protein activity. One such modification, S-nitrosylation, involves the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO)-related species to a cysteine residue. Recent work showed that protein S-nitrosylation has crucial functions in plant development and environmental responses. In the present study, we investigated the importance of protein S-nitrosylation for xylem vessel cell differentiation using a forward-genetics approach. We performed ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of a transgenic Arabidopsis 35S::VND7-VP16-GR line in which the activity of VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7), a key transcription factor involved in xylem vessel cell differentiation, can be induced posttranslationally by glucocorticoid treatment, with the goal of obtaining suppressor mutants that failed to differentiate ectopic xylem vessel cells; we named these mutants suppressor of ectopic vessel cell differentiation induced by VND7 (seiv) mutants...
October 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036586/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlie-the-crosstalk-between-growth-factors-and-a-steroid-hormone
#3
Yehoshua Enuka, Morris E Feldman, Animesh Chowdhury, Swati Srivastava, Moshit Lindzen, Aldema Sas-Chen, Renaud Massart, David Cheishvili, Matthew J Suderman, Yoav Zaltsman, Chiara A Mazza, Kirti Shukla, Cindy Körner, Noa Furth, Mattia Lauriola, Moshe Oren, Stefan Wiemann, Moshe Szyf, Yosef Yarden
Crosstalk between growth factors (GFs) and steroid hormones recurs in embryogenesis and is co-opted in pathology, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Our data from mammary cells imply that the crosstalk between the epidermal GF and glucocorticoids (GCs) involves transcription factors like p53 and NF-κB, along with reduced pausing and traveling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at both promoters and bodies of GF-inducible genes. Essentially, GCs inhibit positive feedback loops activated by GFs and stimulate the reciprocal inhibitory loops...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036345/phase-ii-study-of-cabozantinib-in-patients-with-progressive-glioblastoma-subset-analysis-of-patients-with-prior-antiangiogenic-therapy
#4
Timothy F Cloughesy, Jan Drappatz, John de Groot, Michael D Prados, David A Reardon, David Schiff, Marc Chamberlain, Tom Mikkelsen, Annick Desjardins, Jerry Ping, Jaymes Holland, Ron Weitzman, Patrick Y Wen
Background: Cabozantinib is a potent, multi-target inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). This open-label, phase II trial evaluated cabozantinib in patients with recurrent or progressive glioblastoma (GBM; NCT00704288). Methods: Patients were initially enrolled to a starting cabozantinib dose of 140 mg/day, but the starting dose was amended to 100 mg/day because of safety concerns. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
October 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035782/opposing-effects-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-low-dose-prednisolone-on-arginine-metabolomics
#5
Anjana Radhakutty, Brenda L Mangelsdorf, Sophie M Drake, Andrew Rowland, Malcolm D Smith, Arduino A Mangoni, Campbell H Thompson, Morton G Burt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of low dose prednisolone on circulating markers of endothelial function, the arginine metabolites asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), mono methyl arginine (MMA), and homoarginine, are uncertain. We assessed whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis have perturbations in arginine metabolite concentrations that are reversed by low dose prednisolone. METHODS: Eighteen rheumatoid arthritis patients who had not taken prednisolone for >6 months (non-glucocorticoid (GC) users), 18 rheumatoid arthritis patients taking continuous oral prednisolone (6...
October 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035710/blunted-basal-corticosterone-pulsatility-predicts-post-exposure-susceptibility-to-ptsd-phenotype-in-rats
#6
Dor Danan, Michael A Matar, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
The basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is highly dynamic and is characterized by both circadian and ultradian (pulsatile) patterns of hormone secretion. Pulsatility of glucocorticoids has been determined to be critical for optimal transcriptional, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses. We used an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to assess whether stress-induced impairment of behavioral responses is correlated with aberrant secretion of corticosterone. Serial blood samples were collected manually via the jugular vein cannula during the light-(inactive)-phase in conscious male rats at 20-min intervals for a period of 5h before and 6...
October 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035323/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-modulation-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#7
REVIEW
Natalie G Burford, Natalia A Webster, Diana Cruz-Topete
The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation-known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034475/2d-4d-digit-ratio-is-not-a-biomarker-of-developmental-programming-in-baboons-papio-hamadryas-species
#8
Hillary F Huber, Cun Li, Peter W Nathanielsz
We hypothesized second-to-fourth hand digit ratio (2D:4D) is a biomarker of developmental programming in 3 baboon groups: intrauterine growth restriction (7 females, 8 males), exposure during fetal life to synthetic glucocorticoids (4 females, 5 males), and controls (66 females, 20 males). 2D:4D was similar between sexes and groups.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033931/plasmodium-berghei-nk65-in-combination-with-ifn-%C3%AE-induces-endothelial-glucocorticoid-resistance-via-sustained-activation-of-p38-and-jnk
#9
Karolina A Zielińska, Lode de Cauwer, Sofie Knoops, Kristof Van der Molen, Alexander Sneyers, Jonathan Thommis, J Brian De Souza, Ghislain Opdenakker, Karolien De Bosscher, Philippe E Van den Steen
Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is an often lethal complication of malaria. Currently, no adequate therapy for this syndrome exists. Although glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used to improve clinical outcome of ARDS, their therapeutic benefits remain unclear. We previously developed a mouse model of MA-ARDS, in which dexamethasone treatment revealed GC resistance. In the present study, we investigated GC sensitivity of mouse microvascular lung endothelial cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Plasmodium berghei NK65 (PbNK65)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033789/stress-and-corticosteroids-modulate-muscarinic-long-term-potentiation-mltp-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Efrat Shavit Stein, Ze'Ev Itsekson Hayosh, Andreas Vlachos, Nicola Maggio
Stress influences synaptic plasticity, learning and memory in a steroid hormone receptor dependent manner. Based on these findings it has been proposed that stress could be a major risk factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia. Interestingly, evidence has been provided that stress also affects muscarinic, i.e., acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated neurotransmission. To learn more about the impact of stress and steroids on synaptic plasticity, in this study, we investigated the effects of stress on muscarinic long term potentiation (mLTP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033349/a-polymorphism-in-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-refractory-hypotension-in-premature-infants
#11
Kei Ogasawara, Maki Sato, Koichi Hashimoto, Takashi Imamura, Hayato Go, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids play an important role in endocrine control. The association of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms with altered sensitivity to glucocorticoid therapy has been reported in adults. However, there are few such reports in infants. The present study analyzed the prevalence of four GR polymorphisms in preterm infants born before 30 weeks of gestation and determined the associations between these polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in the infants. METHODS: Totally, 41 preterm infants born at two hospitals in Fukushima were retrospectively screened for the presence of four GR gene polymorphisms, using a TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay...
September 27, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032417/clinical-evaluation-for-sublingual-immunotherapy-with-dermatophagoides-farinae-drops-in-adult-patients-with-allergic-asthma
#12
C Zhong, W Yang, Y Li, L Zou, Z Deng, M Liu, X Huang
PURPOSE: The efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in house dust mite-induced allergic asthma (AA) have yet to be firmly established, especially in adult patients. Our objective is to evaluate the efficacy of SLIT with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in adult patients with AA. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four adult patient data with house dust mite (HDM)-induced AA who had been treated for 2 years were collected. These patient data that we collected were divided into the SLIT group (n = 85) and control group (n = 49)...
October 14, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031898/comparative-analysis-of-ginsenosides-in-human-glucocorticoid-receptor-binding-transactivation-and-transrepression
#13
Catherine Hu, Aik Jiang Lau, Rui Qi Wang, Thomas K H Chang
Conflicting data exist on the effect of ginsenosides on transactivation of human glucocorticoid receptor α (herein referred to as glucocorticoid receptor), and relatively little is known regarding the effect of these chemicals on transrepression of this receptor. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), PPD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rh2, and Compound K), 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), and PPT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, Rg1, and Rh1) on glucocorticoid receptor binding, transactivation, and transrepression...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031716/adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-important-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-resistance-due-to-exogenous-steroids-but-not-insulin-resistance-caused-by-high-fat-feeding
#14
Yachen Shen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Manju Kumari, Evan D Rosen
OBJECTIVE: The critical role of adipose tissue in energy and nutrient homeostasis is influenced by many external factors, including overnutrition, inflammation, and exogenous hormones. Prior studies have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) in particular are major drivers of physiological and pathophysiological changes in adipocytes. In order to determine whether these effects directly require the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific GR knockout (AGRKO) mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030659/cyclophosphamide-could-be-a-better-choice-than-methotrexate-as-induction-treatment-for-patients-with-more-severe-takayasu-s-arteritis
#15
Ying Sun, Lili Ma, Lingying Ma, Xiufang Kong, Huiyong Chen, Peng Lv, Jiang Lin, Hao Liu, Yan Yan, Zongfei Ji, Chengde Yang, Shengming Dai, Weiguo Wan, Yaohong Zou, Xuejuan Jin, Lindi Jiang
To assess the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide (CYC) versus methotrexate (MTX) for active Takayasu's arteritis (TA). The current study was based on a cohort of TA at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. TA was diagnosed using the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria. Fifty-eight subjects receiving induction treatment with CYC (n = 46) or MTX (N = 12) were included in the analysis. Effectiveness and toxicity were assessed in all 58 cases. Clinical remission was defined as: Kerr score reduction to ≤ 1 and glucocorticoids (GC) treatment at a dose of ≤ 0...
October 13, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030109/social-information-changes-stress-hormone-receptor-expression-in-the-songbird-brain
#16
Jamie M Cornelius, Gillian Perreau, Valerie R Bishop, Jesse S Krause, Rachael Smith, Thomas P Hahn, Simone L Meddle
Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted...
October 10, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030008/assessment-of-leukocyte-activity-in-mice-devoid-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-noradrenergic-system-gr-dbhcre
#17
Adam Roman, Justyna Kuśmierczyk, Grzegorz Kreiner, Irena Nalepa
Disturbances in brain monoamines, overactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory tendency in the immune system are the key features of depressive disorders. Recently, several murine lines with mutations in glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have been generated and these animals may be utilized for study depressive-like disorders. In the present study, we have investigated whether selective ablation of GRs in noradrenergic neurons affects functional properties of leukocytes and redirects them towards pro-inflammatory activity...
October 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029225/glucocorticoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease-insights-from-tissue-specific-gr-knockout-mice
#18
Shannon Whirledge, Donald B DeFranco
Glucocorticoids are adrenally produced hormones critically involved in development, general physiology, and control of inflammation. Since their discovery, glucocorticoids have been widely utilized to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. However, high doses or prolonged use leads to a number of side-effects throughout the body, which preclude their clinical utility. The primary actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor that regulates many complex signaling pathways...
October 5, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029106/iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-in-a-child-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-erroneous-compounding-of-hydrocortisone
#19
Julia E Barillas, Daniel Eichner, Ryan Van Wagoner, Phyllis W Speiser
Context: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) require lifelong treatment with glucocorticoids. In growing children the drug of choice is hydrocortisone. Commercially available hydrocortisone tablets do not conform to very low doses prescribed to infants and toddlers, and compounded hydrocortisone is often dispensed to meet therapeutic needs. However, safety, efficacy and uniformity of compounded products are not tested. We report a case of Cushing syndrome in a child with CAH who was inadvertently receiving excessive hydrocortisone in compounded form...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028111/dna-methylation-of-methylation-complex-genes-in-relation-to-stress-and-genome-wide-methylation-in-mother-newborn-dyads
#20
Christopher J Clukay, David A Hughes, Nicole C Rodney, Darlene A Kertes, Connie J Mulligan
OBJECTIVES: Early life stress is known to have enduring biological effects, particularly with respect to health. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are a possible mechanism to mediate the biological effect of stress. We previously found correlations between maternal stress, newborn birthweight, and genome-wide measures of DNA methylation. Here we investigate ten genes related to the methylation/demethylation complex in order to better understand the impact of stress on health...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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