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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334414/association-of-a-haplotype-in-the-nr3c2-gene-encoding-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-with-chronic-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#2
Elon H C van Dijk, Rosa L Schellevis, Maaike G J M van Bergen, Myrte B Breukink, Lebriz Altay, Paula Scholz, Sascha Fauser, Onno C Meijer, Carel B Hoyng, Anneke I den Hollander, Camiel J F Boon, Eiko K de Jong
Importance: Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) is a chorioretinal disease with unknown disease etiology. The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor, 2 glucocorticoid-binding receptors, might be involved in the pathogenesis of cCSC. Objective: To assess the association of functional variants and haplotypes in the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2) genes with cCSC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control genetic association study, 336 patients with cCSC and 1314 unaffected controls, collected at 3 university medical centers from September 1, 2009, to May 1, 2016, underwent KASP genotyping for selected variants in NR3C1 (rs56149945, rs41423247, and rs6198) and NR3C2 (rs2070951 and rs5522)...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334178/inter-regional-variations-in-gene-expression-and-age-related-cortical-thinning-in-the-adolescent-brain
#3
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong, Leon French, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, G Bruce Pike, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Zdenka Pausova, Tomáš Paus
Age-related decreases in cortical thickness observed during adolescence may be related to fluctuations in sex and stress hormones. We examine this possibility by relating inter-regional variations in age-related cortical thinning (data from the Saguenay Youth Study) to inter-regional variations in expression levels of relevant genes (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas); we focus on genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2)...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#4
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
STUDY QUESTION: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332876/evaluation-and-management-of-adrenal-insufficiency-in-critically-ill-patientsdisease-state-review
#5
Amir H Hamrahian, Maria Fleseriu
Definition of normal adrenal function in critically ill patients remains controversial, despite a large body of literature. Furthermore, evaluation of adrenal function in these patients is complex. A decrease in cortisol breakdown rather than an increase in cortisol production has been suggested as the main contributor to elevated cortisol levels in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency has multiple pathophysiological flaws and is not supported by current evidence. Patients with septic shock who are pressor-dependent or refractory to fluid resuscitation should receive a short course of hydrocortisone regardless of their serum cortisol levels or their response to a Cosyntropin stimulation test (CST)...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#6
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330503/caffeine-modulates-glucocorticoid-induced-expression-of-ctgf-in-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#7
Markus Fehrholz, Kirsten Glaser, Christian P Speer, Silvia Seidenspinner, Barbara Ottensmeier, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Although caffeine and glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat chronic lung disease in preterm neonates, potential interactions are largely unknown. While anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are well defined, their impact on airway remodeling is less characterized. Caffeine has been ascribed to positive effects on airway inflammation as well as remodeling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants...
March 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330327/role-of-gnb3-net-kcnj11-tcf7l2-and-grl-genes-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-risk-prediction-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Saliha Rizvi, Syed Tasleem Raza, Qamar Rahman, Farzana Mahdi
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia occurring as a result of impaired insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Various environmental and genetic factors interact and increase the risk of T2DM and its complications. Among the various genetic factors associated with T2DM, single nucleotide polymorphism in different candidate genes have been studied intensively and the resulting genetic variants have been found to have either positive or negative association with T2DM thereby increasing or decreasing the risk of T2DM, respectively...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329550/a-case-of-perniosis
#9
Euphemia W Mu, Vitaly Terushkin, Shane A Meehan, Marie Leger, Alisa Femia
Perniosis is a localized, inflammatory reaction that ischaracterized by erythematous papules and nodulesthat often are located on the acral surfaces in youngwomen. The lesions of perniosis are thought to bedue to cold-induced vasoconstriction that leadsto hypoxemia and inflammation of the vessel wall.Histopathologic and laboratory studies are indicatedfor patients with suspected perniosis to distinguishbetween idiopathic perniosis and secondaryperniosis. Treatment includes adequate heating andclothing, proper food intake, nifedipine, ultravioletA1 phototherapy, topical glucocorticoids, andvasodilators...
December 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329548/sarcoidosis-with-prominent-necrosis-on-histopathology
#10
Rachel Rosenstein, Charisse Orme, Randie H Kim, Shane A Meehan, Alisa Femia
Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan inflammatory diseasewith variable clinical presentations and the commonhistopathologic finding of noncaseating granulomas.The etiology of the disease is not known, butevidence suggests both environmental and geneticcontributions to the pathogenesis. Depending onthe severity of cutaneous disease and extent ofextracutaneous involvement, therapies range fromtopical and intralesional glucocorticoids to systemicimmunomodulatory and immunosuppressiveagents. We present the case of a patient withcutaneous sarcoidosis with prominent necrosis onhistopathologic examination in the setting of severepulmonary sarcoidosis...
December 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329436/prospective-evaluation-of-a-week-one-overnight-metyrapone-test-with-subsequent-dynamic-assessments-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-after-pituitary-surgery
#11
Katherine English, Warrick J Inder, Zara Weedon, Goce Dimeski, Jane Sorbello, Anthony W Russell, Emma L Duncan, Ross Cuneo
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an overnight metyrapone test (OMT) within the first week post pituitary surgery can definitively assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, compared with subsequent dynamic tests and glucocorticoid requirement at 6 months. DESIGN: Prospective study measuring morning cortisol levels on day 3 and 4 post-operatively, OMT day 5-7 and week 6, 250μg short Synacthen test (SST) week 6 and insulin tolerance test (ITT) week 7. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Forty participants who underwent pituitary surgery at a single centre (Cushing's disease excluded) and were followed for at least 6 months...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329022/annexin-a1-in-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-its-association-with-inflammatory-status-and-glucocorticoid-sensitivity
#12
Ida Bergström, Anna K Lundberg, Simon Jönsson, Eva Särndahl, Jan Ernerudh, Lena Jonasson
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a key player in resolution of inflammation and a mediator of glucocorticoid actions. In atherosclerotic tissue, increased expression of AnxA1 has been associated with protective plaque-stabilizing effects. Here, we investigated the expression of AnxA1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood was collected from 57 patients with stable CAD (SCAD) and 41 healthy controls. We also included a minor group (n = 10) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328159/improved-disease-activity-with-fosdagrocorat-pf-04171327-a-partial-agonist-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-phase-2-randomized-study
#13
Thomas Stock, Dona Fleishaker, Xin Wang, Arnab Mukherjee, Charles Mebus
AIM: To assess efficacy and safety of fosdagrocorat (PF-04171327), a potential dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled Phase 2 study (NCT00938587) randomized 86 patients (1 : 1 : 1 : 1) to receive fosdagrocorat 10 mg, fosdagrocorat 25 mg, prednisone 5 mg or placebo, all with stable background methotrexate therapy. The primary outcome was change from baseline in Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28-4[C-reactive protein (CRP)]) after 2 weeks of treatment...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327602/glucocorticoid-suppression-of-osteocyte-perilacunar-remodeling-is-associated-with-subchondral-bone-degeneration-in-osteonecrosis
#14
Tristan W Fowler, Claire Acevedo, Courtney M Mazur, Faith Hall-Glenn, Aaron J Fields, Hrishikesh A Bale, Robert O Ritchie, Jeffrey C Lotz, Thomas P Vail, Tamara Alliston
Through a process called perilacunar remodeling, bone-embedded osteocytes dynamically resorb and replace the surrounding perilacunar bone matrix to maintain mineral homeostasis. The vital canalicular networks required for osteocyte nourishment and communication, as well as the exquisitely organized bone extracellular matrix, also depend upon perilacunar remodeling. Nonetheless, many questions remain about the regulation of perilacunar remodeling and its role in skeletal disease. Here, we find that suppression of osteocyte-driven perilacunar remodeling, a fundamental cellular mechanism, plays a critical role in the glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327171/the-association-of-time-and-medications-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-density-in-the-2%C3%A2-years-after-critical-illness
#15
Neil R Orford, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Julie A Pasco, Claire Cattigan, Tania Elderkin, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, David J Cooper, Mark A Kotowicz
BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with increased risk of fragility fracture and loss of bone mineral density (BMD), although the impact of medication exposures (bone anti-fracture therapy or glucocorticoids) and time remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the association of time after ICU admission, and post-ICU administration of bone anti-fracture therapy or glucocorticoids after critical illness, with change in BMD. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, conducted in a tertiary hospital ICU, we studied adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours and measured BMD annually for 2 years after ICU discharge...
March 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326738/-dental-implantation-in-a-patient-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#16
Luo Cuifen, Peng Guoguang, Feng Yuanhua, Huang Xingxiang
We reported one case of a patient with Sjögren's syndrome and dental implant. This patient was followed up for more than one year. The patient was diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome for 5 years and treated with long-term corticosteroid. Four implant-tissue interface hydrophilic implants were placed on 15, 16, 44, and 46 of the mandibular and maxillary areas. After the surgery was completed, the patient was treated with oral antibiotic and "shenggu pills" to prevent infection and glucocorticoid to manage Sjögren's syndrome...
February 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325824/persistence-of-myopathy-in-cushing-s-syndrome-evaluation-of-the-german-cushing-s-registry
#17
Christina Maria Berr, Mareike R Stieg, Timo Deutschbein, Marcus Quinkler, Ralf Schmidmaier, Andrea Osswald, Nicole Reisch, Katrin Ritzel, Christina Dimopoulou, Julia Fazel, Stefanie Hahner, Gunter K Stalla, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is characterized by an excessive secretion of glucocorticoids that results in a characteristic clinical phenotype. One feature of clinical hypercortisolism is breakdown of protein metabolism translating into clinical consequences including glucocorticoid induced myopathy. While surgery is effective in control of cortisol excess, the effect of biochemical remission on muscular function is yet unclear. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we analyzed 47 patients with CS during the florid phase (ActiveCS)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325773/cue-domain-containing-protein-2-promotes-the-warburg-effect-and-tumorigenesis
#18
Xiuying Zhong, Shengya Tian, Xiang Zhang, Xinwei Diao, Fangting Dong, Jie Yang, Zhaoyong Li, Linchong Sun, Lin Wang, Xiaoping He, Gongwei Wu, Xin Hu, Lihua Wang, Libing Song, Huafeng Zhang, Xin Pan, Ailing Li, Ping Gao
Cancer progression depends on cellular metabolic reprogramming as both direct and indirect consequence of oncogenic lesions; however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that CUEDC2 (CUE domain-containing protein 2) plays a vital role in facilitating aerobic glycolysis, or Warburg effect, in cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that CUEDC2 upregulates the two key glycolytic proteins GLUT3 and LDHA via interacting with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or 14-3-3ζ, respectively...
March 21, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325178/corticosteroids-and-immune-suppressive-therapies-in-horses
#19
REVIEW
Mathilde Leclere
Immune suppressive therapies target exaggerated and deleterious responses of the immune system. Triggered by exogenous or endogenous factors, these improper responses can lead to immune or inflammatory manifestations, such as urticaria, equine asthma, or autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Glucocorticoids are the most commonly used immune suppressive drugs and the only ones supported by robust evidence of clinical efficacy in equine medicine. In some conditions, combining glucocorticoids with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, such as azathioprine, antihistamine, bronchodilators, environmental management, or desensitization, can help to decrease dosages and associated side effects...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324065/neurod-factors-discriminate-mineralocorticoid-from-glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-binding-in-the-male-rat-brain
#20
Lisa T C M van Weert, Jacobus C Buurstede, Ahmed Mahfouz, Pamela S M Braakhuis, J Annelies E Polman, Hetty C M Sips, Benno Roozendaal, Judit Balog, E Ronald de Kloet, Nicole A Datson, Onno C Meijer
In the limbic brain, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) both function as receptors for the naturally occurring glucocorticoids (corticosterone/cortisol), but mediate distinct effects on cellular physiology via transcriptional mechanisms. The transcriptional basis for specificity of these MR- versus GR-mediated effects is unknown. To address this conundrum we have identified the extent of MR/GR DNA binding selectivity in the rat hippocampus using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
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