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Distal femur

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#1
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210775/risk-of-fragility-fracture-among-patients-with-sarcoidosis-a-population-based-study-1976-2013
#2
P Ungprasert, C S Crowson, E L Matteson
: Incidence of fragility fracture of a population-based cohort of 345 patients with sarcoidosis was compared with age and sex-matched comparators. The incidence of fragility fracture was higher among patients with sarcoidosis with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.18. INTRODUCTION: Several chronic inflammatory disorders increase the risk of fragility fracture. However, little is known about the risk of fragility fracture in patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS: This study was conducted using a previously identified population-based cohort of 345 patients with incident sarcoidosis from Olmsted County, Minnesota...
February 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208958/radiological-and-histopathological-outcome-of-giant-cell-tumor-of-femur-with-denosumab-treatment-a-case-report
#3
Preethi Dileep Menon, R Krishnakumar, Annie Jojo
Giant Cell Tumour of Bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive osteolytic skeletal neoplasm of young adults consisting of giant cells expressing RANK (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB) and mesenchymal spindle-like stromal cells expressing RANKL (RANK ligand). The interaction of these cells leads to bone resorption. Recently, the RANKL inhibitor, denosumab, has demonstrated activity against giant-cell tumours. The current article reports a case of a Giant cell tumour of left distal femur with pathological fracture...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199936/the-longitudinal-split-technique-for-narrow-canal-tibia-in-a-case-of-distal-femur-replacement-for-osteosarcoma
#4
Toru Akiyama, Shotaro Kanda, Kazuo Saita
INTRODUCTION: There are currently no available prostheses that can be used for extremely small femurs or tibias of adult patients in countries where allograft is unavailable. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 17-year-old girl requiring special limb salvage technique for distal femur reconstruction following resection of malignant tumor. This technique was needed because of a very narrow canal of the tibia. We split bilateral tibial cortices longitudinally with osteotomies to enlarge tibial canal enough to insert conventional endoprosthesis...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196121/prognostic-significance-of-chemotherapy-induced-necrosis-in-osteosarcoma-patients-receiving-pasteurized-autografts
#5
Min Wook Joo, Yong Koo Kang, Chang-Young Yoo, Sung Ho Cha, Yang-Guk Chung
BACKGROUND: Among various reconstruction methods after wide excision for osteosarcoma, pasteurized autograft is often preferred. While the whole area of the tumor can be assessed for chemotherapy-induced necrosis, one of the important prognostic factors, in other reconstructive techniques, only a portion removed from a wide-resection specimen is available when using pasteurized autograft method. The assessment, therefore, may be unreliable. We analyzed the prognostic significance of the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients who underwent reconstruction with pasteurized autografts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192826/the-management-of-bone-defects-in-periarticular-knee-injuries-a-review-article
#6
Brian Buck, Yvonne M Murtha
Traumatic bone defects of the distal femur and proximal tibia present treatment challenges for the orthopaedic traumatologist. In addition to bone loss, significant soft tissue compromise and cartilage defects leave the patient and surgeon with few reconstructive options for proper long-term joint function. These injuries are often complicated by delayed healing, nonunion, malunion, infection, and poor subjective patient outcomes. There are a variety of clinical problems associated with the treatment of periarticular fractures about the knee...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188083/ct-based-morphological-analysis-of-the-posterior-femoral-condyle-in-patients-with-trochlear-dysplasia
#7
Xiaohui Liu, Gang Ji, Xinmin Wang, Huijun Kang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: The anterior part of the distal femur in trochlear dysplasia has been well investigated; however, to date, posterior morphological characteristics have not been well studied. This study aimed to evaluate whether the posterior femoral condyle in patients with trochlear dysplasia differs from those without trochlear dysplasia. METHODS: Computed tomography scans of 75 knees with trochlear dysplasia and 55 knees with normal anatomy of the patellofemoral joint were analyzed retrospectively...
February 7, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183279/three-dimensional-comparison-of-intramuscular-fat-content-between-young-and-old-adults
#8
Akito Yoshiko, Maya Hioki, Nana Kanehira, Kiyoshi Shimaoka, Teruhiko Koike, Hisataka Sakakibara, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
BACKGROUND: Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is known as intramuscular fat (IMF), which increases with aging. Studies have assessed IMF content, using the mid-thigh as a representative location. However, three-dimensional IMF distribution is not well understood. The aim of this study was to compare the IMF content in young and old adults by assessing its distribution along the length of the thigh. METHODS: Consecutive transaxial images of the right thighs in 15 young (age, 21...
February 10, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179062/smartphone-assessment-of-knee-flexion-compared-to-radiographic-standards
#9
Matthew J Dietz, Daniel Sprando, Andrew E Hanselman, Michael D Regier, Benjamin M Frye
BACKGROUND: Measuring knee range of motion (ROM) is an important assessment for the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty. Recent technological advances have led to the development and use of accelerometer-based smartphone applications to measure knee ROM. The purpose of this study was to develop, standardize, and validate methods of utilizing smartphone accelerometer technology compared to radiographic standards, visual estimation, and goniometric evaluation. METHODS: Participants used visual estimation, a long-arm goniometer, and a smartphone accelerometer to determine range of motion of a cadaveric lower extremity; these results were compared to radiographs taken at the same angles...
February 5, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178228/imaging-evaluation-of-the-safe-region-for-distal-locking-screw-of-proximal-femoral-nail-anti-rotation-in-patients-with-proximal-femoral-fracture
#10
Jinpeng Gong, Pengcheng Liu, Ming Cai
BACKGROUND Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) is a standard femoral intertrochanteric fracture operation. Iatrogenic vascular injury, although uncommon, is a reported complication of PFNA surgery as well as a complication of hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to compare the safety and best use of the distal locking screw in 170 mm PFNA and 240 mm PFNA devices, and to determine the safe region for placement of the distal locking screw in PFNA surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 100 patients with 170 mm PFNA and 80 patients with 240 mm PFNA were retrospectively analyzed...
February 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177645/conventional-radiographs-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-analysis-of-trochlear-dysplasia
#11
Philippe Matthias Tscholl, Florian Wanivenhaus, Sandro F Fucentese
BACKGROUND: Trochlear dysplasia is one of the most important risk factors for recurrent patellar instability. It is defined on true lateral conventional radiographs (CR) and axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The type of trochlear dysplasia is decisive for surgical treatment; however, low agreement between CR and MRI has been reported. PURPOSE: To compare the Dejour classification of trochlear dysplasia on CR and axial MRI using differing levels defined in the literature...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169937/outcomes-of-distal-femur-nonunions-treated-with-a-combined-nail-plate-construct-and-autogenous-bone-grafting
#12
Basem Attum, Diana Douleh, Paul S Whiting, Gabrielle A White-Dzuro, Ashley C Dodd, Michelle S Shen, William T Obremskey, Manish K Sethi
SummaryIn this study, we sought to retrospectively evaluate union and infection rates after treatment of distal femur nonunions using a combined nail/plate construct with autogenous bone grafting. 10 patients treated at a Level I Trauma Center for nonunion of a femoral fracture using a combined nail/plate construct from 2004 to 2014 were included in the study. Union rate and postoperative infection rate were recorded.10 patients underwent treatment for nonunion of the distal femur. Mean interval from index surgery to nonunion repair was 12 months (range 4-36 months)...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168640/3d-computer-graphical-anatomy-study-of-the-femur-a-basis-for-a-new-nail-design
#13
Beat Schmutz, Stanley Kmiec, Martin E Wullschleger, Martin Altmann, Michael Schuetz
BACKGROUND: Current intramedullary nails with a radius of curvature (ROC) of 1500-2000 mm sometimes cause distal anterior cortical encroachment. Furthermore, clinical data indicate that the proximal nail end is too long for some Asian patients. The objective of our study was to develop a comprehensive 3D measurement protocol that measures both the anatomy of the canal and the proximal region. The protocol was used to obtain measurements from Caucasian and Asian (Japanese and Thai) specimens...
February 6, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168137/arthroscopically-assisted-evacuation-of-brodie-s-abscess-of-distal-femur
#14
Rajeev R Manandhar, Shisir Lakhey, Sagar Panthi, Kiran P Rijal
Brodie's abscess is a type of subacute osteomyelitis. Opinions differ as to whether treatment should be surgical or medical for these classic lesions. Failure of symptoms to resolve after six weeks of antibiotics or worsening of the condition during treatment should be followed by surgical treatment. Clinical signs of subperiosteal pus or synovitis indicate that the subacute infection has transformed into an acute component, and it must be drained surgically. Surgical treatment is comprised of evacuation and curettage for small lesions and evacuation, packing with cancellous bone chips, for large cavities...
January 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166168/evaluation-of-intra-articular-fracture-extension-following-gunshot-wounds-to-the-lower-extremity-plain-radiographs-versus-computer-tomography
#15
John S Hwang, Kenneth L Koury, George Gorgy, Michael S Sirkin, Mark C Reilly, Valdis Lelkes, Mark R Adams
OBJECTIVE: This study was to compare the use of computer tomography to plain radiographs for the evaluation of intra-articular extension of long bone fractures in the lower extremity following low-energy gunshot wounds. DESIGN: Retrospective chart and radiographic review SETTING:: Level 1 Trauma CenterPatients/Participants: Data was collected from a single institution from 2000 to 2014. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients aged greater than 17 years, low-velocity gunshot injuries causing fracture of the femur or tibia, plain radiographs with adequate films and CT imaging of the fracture...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165605/rotational-alignment-of-the-knee-is-different-in-osteological-specimens-with-and-without-a-large-cam-deformity-of-the-proximal-femur
#16
Jeremy J Gebhart, Jonathan J Streit, Avi Goodman, Jordan Etscheidt, Douglas S Weinberg, Asheesh Bedi, Shane J Nho, Michael J Salata
PURPOSE: We studied a large osteological collection for differences in knee rotation based upon the presence or absence of a large cam deformity of the proximal femur. METHODS: We obtained 357 matched tibiae and femora from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection and measured: femoral head-neck alpha angle, anteroposterior axis (or Whiteside's line) at the distal femur relative to the posterior condylar axis, and position of the tibial tubercle with respect to the posterior condylar axis of the proximal tibia...
February 2, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164079/short-stature-and-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-a-girl-with-encephalocraniocutaneous-lipomatosis-and-jaffe-campanacci-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Eun Mi Choi, Nani Jung, Ye Jee Shim, Hee Joung Choi, Joon Sik Kim, Heung Sik Kim, Kwang Soon Song, Hee Jung Lee, Sang Pyo Kim
A 9-year-old Tajikistani girl presented to Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center for evaluation of a skin lesion on her left eyelid, focal alopecia, unilateral ventricular dilatation, and aortic coarctation. She was diagnosed with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) according to Moog's diagnostic criteria. Café-au-lait spots were found on the left side of her trunk. Multiple nonossifying fibromas were found on her left proximal humerus, left distal femur, both proximal tibias, and left proximal fibula, suggesting Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome (JCS), following imaging of the extremities...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164053/long-term-bisphosphonate-therapy-induced-periprosthetic-femoral-stress-fracture-in-a-sliding-hip-screw-implant-a-unique-case-report
#18
Mark R Adams, Conor Dunn, Michael S Sirkin, Mark C Reilly
INTRODUCTION: Long-term bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk of low-to-no energy atypical subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures with characteristic radiologic findings. There are few reports of patients with long-term bisphosphonate-induced periprosthetic fractures, all of them had a hip arthroplasty prosthesis. In this report, we present a unique case of a 90-year-old Caucasian female on long-term bisphosphonate therapy with a sliding hip screw implant who sustained a periprosthetic fracture of the femoral shaft at the distal aspect of the plate...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164048/rare-giant-cell-tumor-of-olecranon-bone
#19
Pawan Goyal, Vishal Gautam, Narender Saini, Yogesh Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a bone tumor involving epiphyseal area of bone abutting the subchondral bone. Commonly found in long bones such as proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of GCT of olecranon bone in a 23-year-old male. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old patient presented to our outpatient department with pain and mild swelling at the elbow from last 2 to 3 months. On examination, it was seen that there was a moderate swelling at the tip of the olecranon...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164044/accidental-bolt-gun-injury-to-femur-a-case-report
#20
Ravi Prasad Kattimani, Sanath Shetty, Humayun Mirza
INTRODUCTION: Bolt gun or slaughterer's guns are used in meat industry for "humane killing" of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. CASE REPORT: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
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