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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691490/cgrp-as-the-target-of-new-migraine-therapies-successful-translation-from-bench-to-clinic
#1
REVIEW
Lars Edvinsson, Kristian Agmund Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Diana N Krause
Treatment of migraine is on the cusp of a new era with the development of drugs that target the trigeminal sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor. Several of these drugs are expected to receive approval for use in migraine headache in 2018 and 2019. CGRP-related therapies offer considerable improvements over existing drugs as they are the first to be designed specifically to act on the trigeminal pain system, they are more specific and they seem to have few or no adverse effects...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688920/mixed-treatment-comparisons-for-nonsurgical-treatment-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
David S Jevsevar, Peter B Shores, Kyle Mullen, Danielle M Schulte, Gregory A Brown, Deborah S Cummins
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a significant health problem with lifetime risk of development estimated to be 45%. Effective nonsurgical treatments are needed for the management of symptoms. METHODS: We designed a network meta-analysis to determine clinically relevant effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids, IA platelet-rich plasma, and IA hyaluronic acid compared with each other as well as with oral and IA placebos...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686806/unintentional-lumbar-facet-joint-injection-guided-by-fluoroscopy-during-interlaminar-epidural-steroid-injection-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Min Jae Kim, Yun Suk Choi, Hae Jin Suh, You Jin Kim, Byeong Jin Noh
Background: An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a commonly administered procedure in pain clinics. An unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during interlaminar ESI was reported in a previous study, but there has not been much research on the characteristics of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection. This study illustrated the imaging features of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during an interlaminar ESI and analyzed characteristics of patients who underwent this injection...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685465/concurrent-spontaneous-pneumomediastinum-and-pneumorrhachis
#4
Alexander J Heckman, Michael Mohseni, Armando Villanueva, Jennifer B Cowart, Charles G Graham
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with concurrent pneumorrhachis (air in the spinal canal) and subcutaneous emphysema can be an alarming presentation, both clinically and radiographically. These clinical entities often require only conservative measures after ruling out any worrisome underlying causes. Management often involves appropriate imaging, hospital admission, and sub-specialty consultation as needed to help determine any potential causes for the presentation that may require anything more than a period of medical observation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685099/facilitation-of-a-person-centered-approach-in-health-assessment-of-patients-with-chronic-pain-an-ethnographic-study
#5
Kristín Thórarinsdóttir, Kristján Kristjánsson, Thóra Jenný Gunnarsdóttir, Kristín Björnsdóttir
A phenomenologically derived assessment tool, Hermes, was developed in a rehabilitation setting for adopting the central ideals of person-centered care and patient participation into health-assessment practices in nursing. This focused ethnographic study aimed at exploring the feasibility of using Hermes for enabling the application of these ideals into assessment of patients with chronic pain upon admission to a rehabilitation center. Participants were patients with chronic pain, enrolled in rehabilitation, and their nurses...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684996/low-grade-chronic-inflammation-mediated-by-mast-cells-in-fibromyalgia-role-of-il-37
#6
F Mastrangelo, I Frydas, G Ronconi, S K Kritas, L Tettamanti, Al Caraffa, C D Ovidio, A Younes, C E Gallenga, P Conti
It has been observed that acute stress causes the activation of TH1 cells, while TH2 cells regulate and act on chronic inflammation. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic, idiopathic disorder which affects about twelve million people in the United States. FM is characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, aching, joint stiffness, depression, cognitive dysfunction and non-restorative sleep. The mechanism of induction of muscle pain and inflammation is not yet clear. In FM there is an increase in reactivity of central neurons with increased sensitivity localized mainly in the CNS...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684987/effects-of-nefopam-on-catheter-related-bladder-discomfort-in-patients-undergoing-ureteroscopic-litholapaxy
#7
Yong Woo Cheon, Seon Hwan Kim, Jin Hyub Paek, Jin A Kim, Yong Kyung Lee, Jin Hye Min, Hyung Rae Cho
Background: Patients who undergo urinary catheterization may experience postoperative catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD). Previous studies have indicated that drugs with antimuscarinic effects could reduce the incidence and severity of CRBD. Accordingly, this study was carried out to investigate whether nefopam, a centrally acting analgesic with concomitant antimuscarinic effect, reduces the incidence and severity of CRBD. Methods: Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II and aged 18-70 years who were scheduled to undergo elective ureteroscopic litholapaxy participated in this double-blinded study...
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683475/pharmacological-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-insufficiency-fractures-and-avascular-necrosis-associated-with-pelvic-radiotherapy-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Qurrat U van den Blink, Kate Garcez, Caroline C Henson, Susan E Davidson, Claire E Higham
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment delivered to an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people annually across high-income countries. Fractures due to normal stresses on weakened bone due to radiotherapy are termed insufficiency fractures. Pelvic radiotherapy-related interruption of the blood supply to the hip is termed avascular necrosis and is another recognised complication. The reported incidences of insufficiency fractures are 2.7% to 89% and risk of developing avascular necrosis is 0...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682851/effects-of-papacarie-on-children-with-dental-caries-in-primary-teeth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Yuejia Deng, Ge Feng, Bo Hu, Yunchun Kuang, Jinlin Song
BACKGROUND: Caries in primary teeth hinder the child to bite and chew and influence their development. Papacarie has the characteristics of selective removal of decayed tissue and can preserve healthy dentine to the maximum, but its efficiency has not been critically evaluated compared to conventional method. AIM: This review is aiming at comparing the Papacarie and traditional method in caries removal in primary dental caries with children. DESIGN: Comprehensive literature searching at PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science to January 2018...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682056/occipital-neuralgia-from-c2-cavernous-malformation
#10
Sang-Woo Ha, Jin-Gyu Choi, Byung-Chul Son
A unique case is presented of chronic occipital neuralgia (ON) caused by cavernous malformation (CM) in the intramedullary C2 spinal cord and subsequent pain relief and remodeling of allodynic pain following dorsal root rhizotomy. A 53-year-old male presented with a 30-year history of chronic allodynic, paroxysmal lancinating pain in the greater and lesser occipital nerves. Typically, the pain was aggravated with neck extension and head movement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a CM in the right posterolateral side of the intramedullary C2 cord...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681177/-preemptive-and-preventive-analgesia-an-important-element-in-perioperative-pain-management
#11
Balázs Szedlák, Calin Mitre, Béla Fülesdi
In this review, the definition and history of preemptive analgesia and the progress of its conception will be summarized. In the physiology-pathophysiology chapter, central sensitization, the key component of the evolution of postoperative pain, and the neurochemical processes in its background will be explored. Tissue damage caused by surgical incision consists of mechanical and inflammatory components, and it has high importance in the postoperative pain management. The preemptive approach of pain management means more than just preincisional analgesia, it includes the application of multifactious synergistic medication at the same time accordingly...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679117/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-is-a-dynamic-and-mobile-structure-which-deforms-during-knee-motion-and-has-proximal-extensions-which-wrap-around-the-patella
#12
Joanna M Stephen, Ran Sopher, Sebastian Tullie, Andrew A Amis, Simon Ball, Andy Williams
PURPOSE: The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) is a common cause of knee pain and loss of knee flexion and extension. However, its anatomy and behavior are not consistently defined. METHODS: Thirty-six unpaired fresh frozen knees (median age 34 years, range 21-68) were dissected, and IFP attachments and volume measured. The rectus femoris was elevated, suprapatellar pouch opened and videos recorded looking inferiorly along the femoral shaft at the IFP as the knee was flexed...
April 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678745/neurobehavioral-and-biochemical-modulation-following-administration-of-mgo-and-zno-nanoparticles-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-acute-stress
#13
Mozhgan Torabi, Mahnaz Kesmati, Nahid Pourreza, Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi, Hamid Galehdari
In this work, the effects of MgO and ZnO nanoparticles were investigated on some behavioral, hormonal and biochemical changes following acute stress. Wistar male rats were divided into groups of control, different times of restraint stress (90, 180 and 360 min), nano-MgO or nano-ZnO alone and with acute restraint stress. Anxiety-like behaviors and pain perception were evaluated by elevated plus maze and hot plate apparatus respectively. Levels of corticosterone hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase activity, Mg, Zn, Fe and Ca were evaluated in the serum and hippocampus...
April 17, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677019/mu-opioid-receptors-in-nociceptive-afferents-produce-a-sustained-suppression-of-hyperalgesia-in-chronic-pain
#14
Amie Severino, Wenling Chen, Joshua K Hakimian, Brigitte L Kieffer, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff, Wendy Walwyn, Juan Carlos Marvizon
The latent sensitization model of chronic pain reveals that recovery from some types of long-term hyperalgesia is an altered state in which nociceptive sensitization persists but is suppressed by the ongoing activity of analgesic receptors such as µ-opioid receptors (MORs). To determine whether these MORs are the ones present in nociceptive afferents, we bred mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the Nav1.8 channel promoter (Nav1.8cre) with MOR-floxed mice (flMOR). These Nav1.8cre/flMOR mice had reduced MOR expression in primary afferents, as revealed by quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence colocalization with the neuropeptide CGRP...
April 17, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675050/analgesic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-80-methanol-extract-of-leonotis-ocymifolia-burm-f-iwarsson-leaves-in-rodent-models
#15
Asnakech Alemu, Wondmagegn Tamiru, Teshome Nedi, Workineh Shibeshi
Background: Pain and inflammation are the major health problems commonly treated with traditional remedies mainly using medicinal plants. Leonotis ocymifolia is one of such medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the 80% methanol leaves extract of Leonotis ocymifolia using rodent models. Method: The central and peripheral analgesic effect of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels was evaluated using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing rodent models, whereas carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma methods were used to screen anti-inflammatory effect of the extract at the same dose levels...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672748/biopsychosocial-profiles-and-functional-correlates-in-older-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-preliminary-study
#16
Debra K Weiner, Angela Gentili, Katherine Coffey-Vega, Natalia Morone, Michelle Rossi, Subashan Perera
Objective: To describe key peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) conditions in a group of older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and their association with pain severity and self-reported and performance-based physical function. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Outpatient VA clinics. Subjects: Forty-seven community-dwelling veterans with CLBP (age 68.0 ± 6.5 years, range = 60-88 years, 12.8% female, 66% white) participated...
April 16, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672449/cortical-astrocytes-prime-the-induction-of-spine-plasticity-and-mirror-image-pain
#17
Tatsuya Ishikawa, Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Hiroaki Wake, Ikuko Takeda, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Andrew J Moorhouse, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Junichi Nabekura
Peripheral nerve injury causes maladaptive plasticity in the central nervous system and induces chronic pain. In addition to the injured limb, abnormal pain sensation can appear in the limb contralateral to the injury, called mirror image pain. Since synaptic remodeling in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has critical roles in the induction of chronic pain, cortical reorganization in the S1 ipsilateral to the injured limb may also accompany mirror image pain. To elucidate this, we conducted in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuron and astrocyte activity in the ipsilateral S1 following a peripheral nerve injury...
April 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671419/trpm2-a-candidate-therapeutic-target-for-treating-neurological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Jillian Corinne Belrose, Michael Frederick Jackson
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium (Ca2+ )-permeable non-selective cation channel belonging to the TRP ion channel family. Oxidative stress-induced TRPM2 activation provokes aberrant intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and cell death in a variety of cell types, including neurons. Aberrant TRPM2 function has been implicated in several neurological disorders including ischemia/stroke, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease and bipolar disorder. In addition to research identifying a role for TRPM2 in disease, progress has been made in the identification of physiological functions of TRPM2 in the brain, including recent evidence that TRPM2 is necessary for the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression, an important form of synaptic plasticity at glutamate synapses...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670513/altered-brain-excitability-and-increased-anxiety-in-mice-with-experimental-colitis-consideration-of-hyperalgesia-and-sex-differences
#19
Kewir D Nyuyki, Nina L Cluny, Mark G Swain, Keith A Sharkey, Quentin J Pittman
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are incurable lifelong inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) with a rising worldwide incidence. IBD is characterized by diarrhea, rectal bleeding, severe cramping and weight loss. However, there is a growing evidence that IBD is also associated with anxiety- and depression-related disorders, which further increase the societal burden of these diseases. Given the limited knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) changes in IBD, we investigated CNS-related comorbidities in a mouse model of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in drinking water for 5 days...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670396/sustained-analgesic-effect-of-clonidine-co-polymer-depot-in-a-porcine-incisional-pain-model
#20
Jared T Wilsey, Julie H Block
Background: Previous research suggests that the α2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
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