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Neonates and Anaesthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814087/effects-of-sevoflurane-on-apoptosis-bdnf-and-cognitive-functions-in-neonatal-rats
#1
A B Ozer, S Ceribasi, A O Ceribasi, I Demirel, M K Bayar, B Ustundag, A Ileri, O L Erhan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the early and late effects of sevoflurane on the neonatal brain. BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most used anaesthetics in neonatal subjects. METHODS: The study included 7-day-old male Wistar-Albino rats (n = 30), which were divided into the two groups according to the anaesthetic received: sevoflurane (S) and control group (C). Half of each group was sacrificed six hours after anaesthesia (early, E) while the remaining subjects were sacrificed six weeks later (late, L)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794527/the-effect-of-addition-of-dexamethasone-to-levobupivacaine-in-parturients-receiving-combined-spinal-epidural-for-analgesia-for-vaginal-delivery
#2
Amr Samir Wahdan, Ahmed Ibrahim El-Sakka, Hassan Mostafa Ismail Gaafar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Regional analgesia is commonly used for the relief of labour pain, Prolongation of analgesia can be achieved by adjuvant medications. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal levobupivacaine with dexamethasone for labour analgesia. METHODS: A total of 80 females were included in this study, all were primigravidas undergoing vaginal delivery with cervical dilatation ≥4 cm and 50% or more effacement...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743959/continual-conscious-bioluminescent-imaging-in-freely-moving-somatotransgenic-mice
#3
Rajvinder Karda, Dany P Perocheau, Natalie Suff, Joanne Ng, Juliette M K M Delhove, Suzanne M K Buckley, Samantha Richards, John R Counsell, Henrik Hagberg, Mark R Johnson, Tristan R McKay, Simon N Waddington
Luciferase bioimaging in living animals is increasingly being applied in many fields of biomedical research. Rodent imaging usually involves anaesthetising the animal during data capture, however, the biological consequences of anaesthesia have been largely overlooked. We have evaluated luciferase bioimaging in conscious, unrestrained mice after neonatal intracranial or intravascular administration of lentiviral, luciferase reporter cassettes (biosensors); we present real-time analyses from the first day of life to adulthood...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711179/immediate-birth-an-analysis-of-women-and-their-babies-undergoing-time-critical-birth-in-a-tertiary-referral-obstetric-hospital
#4
M H Warren, J Kamania, A T Dennis
BACKGROUND: At our institution, the emergency obstetric 'code green' activates the system for immediate birth, usually by caesarean section. This study aimed to determine the incidence of immediate birth, indications, modes of anaesthesia, and short-term neonatal and maternal outcomes. METHOD: A review was performed for all women at the Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Australia who underwent immediate birth over a two-year period: January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676256/neurotoxicity-of-propofol-on-rat-hypoglossal-motoneurons-in-vitro
#5
Laura Monni, Filippo Ghezzi, Silvia Corsini, Andrea Nistri
Although propofol is a widely used intravenous general anaesthetic, many studies report its toxic potential, particularly on the developing central nervous system. We investigated its action on hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) that control two critical functions in neonates, namely tongue muscle activity and airway patency. Thus, clinically relevant concentrations of propofol (1 and 5μM) were applied (4h) to neonatal rat brainstem slices to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) as biomarker of toxicity...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675564/activation-of-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-medullary-caudal-raphe-shortens-the-laryngeal-chemoreflex-in-anaesthetized-neonatal-rats
#6
William T Donnelly, Luxi Xia, Donald Bartlett, J C Leiter
What is the central question of this study? Does activation of serotonergic neurons in the caudal medullary raphe, some of which project to the nucleus of the solitary tract, shorten the laryngeal chemoreflex? What is the main finding and its importance? We found that serotonin originating from neurons in the caudal raphe acts through a 5-HT3 receptor located in the nucleus of the solitary tract to terminate reflex apnoea. Failure or deficiency of this arousal-related process is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648454/disinfection-of-gloved-hands-for-multiple-activities-with-indicated-glove-use-on-the-same-patient
#7
REVIEW
G Kampf, S Lemmen
Most hand hygiene guidelines recommend that gloves should be changed during patient care when an indication for hand disinfection occurs. Observational studies indicate that the majority of healthcare workers (HCWs) do not disinfect their hands at all during continued glove wear. The aim of this narrative review is to assess the potential benefits and risks for disinfecting gloved hands during patient care for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient. Continued glove wear for multiple activities on the same patient often results in performing procedures, including aseptic procedures with contaminated gloves, especially in a setting where there are many indications in a short time, e...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625557/-more-than-3-hours-and-less-than-3-years-safety-of-anaesthetic-procedures-in-infants-less-than-3-years-old-subected-to-surgery-for-more-the-3-hours
#8
Julián Álvarez Escudero, Rosa María Paredes Esteban, Francisco José Cambra Lasaosa, Máximo Vento, Maite López Gil, Juan Carlos de Agustín Asencio, María Teresa Moral Pumarega
An FDA alert in December 2016 on the safety of general anesthesia and sedations in patients less than 3 years of age and pregnant women has raised doubts in relation to the attitude that professionals implicated in these procedures should adopt in relation to these specific group of patients. Confronted with this situation, the following medical scientific societies: Sociedad Española de Anestesia y Reanimación (SEDAR), Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica (SECP), Sociedad Española de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (SECIP) y Sociedad Española de Neonatología (SENeo), have established a working group to analyze and clarify the safety of these techniques...
June 15, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551594/awake-caudal-anaesthesia-in-neonates-young-infants-for-improved-patient-safety
#9
Wan Yen Lim, Sujani Anuruddhika Wijeratne, Evangeline Hua Ling Lim
Caudal epidural block in a conscious infant is a recognised technique that allows the avoidance of general anaesthesia and risks associated with it. It is also technically easier to perform reliably compared with an awake subarachnoid block in skilled hands.(1) While local anaesthetic systemic toxicity is a rare complication of caudal anaesthesia, this case illustrates the potential for caudal anaesthesia done awake in enhancing patient safety through early recognition of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity...
May 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480608/metabolomic-analysis-for-the-study-of-maturation-in-paediatrics-effect-of-confounding-factors-in-a-pilot-study
#10
María Encarnación Blanco, Oskar González, Oihane Elena Albóniga, M Luz Alonso, Rosa M Alonso
A pilot study for the investigation of the maturation grade of children has been carried out using plasma samples already analyzed in a previous pharmacokinetic study. By using a meticulous data treatment, possible confounding factors that may hinder the obtained results were identified. By doing so, it was possible to obtain enough evidence to support the feasibility of performing a larger study eluding some unwanted variability and minimizing not only the number of subjects involved but also the time and money spent on the study...
May 8, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294340/neuroprotective-effects-of-artemisinin-against-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-impairments-and-neuronal-cell-death-involve-jnk-erk1-2-signalling-and-improved-hippocampal-histone-acetylation-in-neonatal-rats
#11
Guang Xu, Yun-Li Huang, Ping-le Li, Hai-Ming Guo, Xue-Ping Han
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the effect of artemisinin against isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Artemisinin (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg b.wt/day; oral gavage) was administered to separate groups of neonatal rats starting from postnatal day 3 (P3) to postnatal day 21 (P21). On postnatal day 7 (P7), animals were exposed to inhalation anaesthetic isoflurane (0.75%) for 6 h. KEY FINDINGS: Neuronal apoptosis following anaesthetic exposure was significantly reduced by artemisinin...
June 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283552/anaesthetic-considerations-for-surgery-in-newborns
#12
Constance S Houck, Amy E Vinson
Almost 30 years ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn coauthored a policy statement strongly advocating for the use of anaesthesia in all neonates stating 'local or systemic pharmacologic agents now available permit relatively safe administration of anesthesia or analgesia to neonates undergoing surgical procedures and that such administration is indicated according to the usual guidelines for the administration of anesthesia to high-risk, potentially unstable patients'. With current techniques and advanced monitoring, preterm and full-term infants routinely undergo surgical procedures under general anaesthesia to repair congenital defects that were lethal in years past...
July 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160271/topical-anaesthesia-for-needle-related-pain-in-newborn-infants
#13
REVIEW
Jann P Foster, Christine Taylor, Kaye Spence
BACKGROUND: Hospitalised newborn neonates frequently undergo painful invasive procedures that involve penetration of the skin and other tissues by a needle. One intervention that can be used prior to a needle insertion procedure is application of a topical local anaesthetic. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical anaesthetics such as amethocaine and EMLA in newborn term or preterm infants requiring an invasive procedure involving puncture of skin and other tissues with a needle...
February 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141842/dopamine-therapy-does-not-affect-cerebral-autoregulation-during-hypotension-in-newborn-piglets
#14
Vibeke Ramsgaard Eriksen, Martin Bo Rasmussen, Gitte Holst Hahn, Gorm Greisen
BACKGROUND: Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered "safe"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861919/consequences-of-maternal-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-respiratory-function-in-rat-pups
#15
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Océane Mercier, Olivier Pothier-Piccinin, Tommy Seaborn, Vincent Joseph, Isabelle Marc, Richard Kinkead
KEY POINTS: Incomplete development of the neural circuits that control breathing contributes to respiratory disorders in pre-term infants. Manifestations include respiratory instability, prolonged apnoeas and poor ventilatory responses to stimuli. Based on evidence suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) improves brain development, we determined whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (via the maternal diet) improves respiratory function in 10-11-day-old rat pups. n-3 PUFA treatment prolonged apnoea duration but augmented the relative pulmonary surface area and the ventilatory response to hypoxia...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792244/breastfeeding-for-procedural-pain-in-infants-beyond-the-neonatal-period
#16
REVIEW
Denise Harrison, Jessica Reszel, Mariana Bueno, Margaret Sampson, Vibhuti S Shah, Anna Taddio, Catherine Larocque, Lucy Turner
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) show that breastfeeding newborn infants during painful procedures reduces pain. Mechanisms are considered to be multifactorial and include sucking, skin-to-skin contact, warmth, rocking, sound and smell of the mother, and possibly endogenous opiates present in the breast milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk, formula milk, bottle feeding, sweet-tasting solutions (e...
October 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637278/sublingual-dermoid-causing-stertor-in-an-infant
#17
P Naina, Kamran Asif Syed, Lisa Koshy, Suma Susan Mathews
Sublingual dermoids are uncommon lesions in the floor of mouth. The most common age of presentation is early adulthood, but presentation in infancy has also been reported. This report highlights the clinical presentation and treatment challenges in infants. An 8-month-old infant presented with inability to close mouth, intermittent stertor and snoring. MRI suggested a sublingual dermoid which was confirmed on histopathology of the surgically enucleated specimen. Sublingual dermoids are uncommon lesions of the floor of mouth...
September 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630748/engagement-with-and-outcomes-of-a-midwifery-led-intervention-group-for-pregnant-women-of-high-body-mass-index
#18
Sarah R Chwah, Amanda Reilly, Beverley Hall, Anthony J O'Sullivan, Amanda Henry
AIMS: To compare pregnancy care, maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with Body Mass Index (BMI) >30 enrolled in a Weight Intervention Group versus other models of antenatal care. METHODS: Retrospective, case-control study of mothers with BMI >30 managed with a specialised programme versus age-matched women enrolled in standard models of care. RESULTS: One thousand, one hundred and fifteen of 9954 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, had a BMI >30, of whom 9...
September 2016: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604839/the-effect-of-a-multidisciplinary-obstetric-emergency-team-training-program-the-in-time-course-on-diagnosis-to-delivery-interval-following-umbilical-cord-prolapse-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Sean Copson, Katrina Calvert, Puvaneswary Raman, Elizabeth Nathan, Mathias Epee
BACKGROUND: Cord prolapse is an uncommon obstetric emergency, with potentially fatal consequences for the baby if prompt action is not taken. Simulation training provides a means by which uncommon emergencies can be practised, with the aim of improving teamwork and clinical outcomes. AIMS: This study aimed to determine if the introduction of a simulation-based training course was associated with an improvement in the management of cord prolapse, in particular the diagnosis to delivery interval...
September 7, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572468/naringenin-pre-treatment-inhibits-neuroapoptosis-and-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-exposed-to-isoflurane-anesthesia-by-regulating-the-pi3-akt-pten-signalling-pathway-and-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation
#20
Fu-Zhou Hua, Jun Ying, Jing Zhang, Xi-Feng Wang, Yan-Hui Hu, Ying-Ping Liang, Qin Liu, Guo-Hai Xu
The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane is one of the most frequently employed general anaesthetics in neonates, children and adults. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetics is associated with widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Thus, the identification and development of compounds capable of preventing or reducing these adverse effects is of great clinical importance. For this purpose, the present study aimed to assess the effects of a flavonoid, naringenin, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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