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Paediatric and Anaesthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334510/comparing-peri-operative-complications-of-paediatric-and-adult-anaesthesia-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-81%C3%A2-267-cases
#1
Andrie C Westerkamp, A Fred de Geus, Bouwe Molenbuur, Peter Meyer, J K Götz Wietasch, Michel M R F Struys, Herman G D Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Comparisons of peri-operative complications associated with paediatric (≤16 years) and adult anaesthesia are poorly available, especially in which cardiac surgery, organ transplantation and neurosurgery are involved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature and incidence of peri-operative complications that might be due to anaesthesia and to identify independent risk factors for complications in children and adults, including those undergoing cardiac surgery, organ transplantation and neurosurgery...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306854/successful-management-of-a-24-year-old-pregnant-woman-with-necrotising-fasciitis-of-the-forearm
#2
Sam Nahas, Anne McKirdy, Arjuna Imbuldeniya
A 24-year-old woman who was 24 weeks pregnant presented to the emergency department with septic shock and an elbow wound that had become infected. She sustained an injury to the tip of the right elbow on a light switch 4 days prior. In the space of 1 day, she developed a necrotising soft tissue infection, which was rapidly spread to the forearm with florid sepsis. Her initial serum C reactive protein was 392 mg/L, and white cell count was 32×109/L. The patient was treated promptly with aggressive surgical debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotics...
January 6, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213167/pain-assessment-and-management-the-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-sudanese-paediatric-residents
#3
Mohammed A A Alhassan, Fathelrahman E Ahmed, Abdolmoneim A Bannaga
This was a prospective, descriptive, cross sectional study that was conducted in 9 major paediatric hospitals accredited for training of residents in Sudan to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of residents in paediatrics on issues related to pain assessment and pain management in children A semi-structured and validated questionnaire was distributed to 174 residents working in these hospitals. One hundred and twenty residents, out of 174, responded by filling the questionnaire, with a response rate of 68%...
2017: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174210/ultrasound-guided-spinal-catheter-insertion-in-piglet-preliminary-results
#4
Noemi Romagnoli, Carlotta Lambertini, Domenico Ventrella, Dario Floriano, Alberto Elmi, Francesca Barone, Maria L Bacci
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ultrasound (US) evaluation of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal tracts in piglets and to evaluate the feasibility of the ultrasound guided spinal catheter placement in newborn and paediatric piglets. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of two piglet cadavers (age, 7 and 14 days) and eight commercial crossbreed piglets divided into four groups according to age: 7 (P7), 14 (P14), 21 (P21) and 28 (P28) days...
June 7, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168575/cuffed-vs-uncuffed-tracheal-tubes-in-children-a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-leak-tidal-volume-and-complications
#5
N A Chambers, A Ramgolam, D Sommerfield, G Zhang, T Ledowski, M Thurm, M Lethbridge, M Hegarty, B S von Ungern-Sternberg
Cuffed tracheal tubes are increasingly used in paediatric anaesthetic practice. This study compared tidal volume and leakage around cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes in children who required standardised mechanical ventilation of their lungs in the operating theatre. Children (0-16 years) undergoing elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to receive either a cuffed or an uncuffed tracheal tube. Assessments were made at five different time-points: during volume-controlled ventilation 6 ml...
November 23, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149469/cuffed-versus-uncuffed-endotracheal-tubes-for-general-anaesthesia-in-children-aged-eight-years-and-under
#6
REVIEW
Flavia A De Orange, Rebeca Gac Andrade, Andrea Lemos, Paulo Sgn Borges, José N Figueiroa, Pete G Kovatsis
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endotracheal intubation in paediatrics, uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) have been the standard of care for children under eight years old, based on the presumption that complications, particularly postoperative stridor, are higher with cuffed ETTs. The major disadvantages of uncuffed ETTs cited for this shift in procedure include the difficulty in achieving tidal volumes due to leakage around an uncuffed ETT. To seal the airway adequately, uncuffed tubes may need to be exchanged for another tube with a larger diameter, which sometimes requires several attempts before the appropriate size is found...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132259/costs-associated-with-the-management-of-waste-from-healthcare-facilities-an-analysis-at-national-and-site-level
#7
Mentore Vaccari, Terry Tudor, Andrea Perteghella
Given rising spend on the provision of healthcare services, the sustainable management of waste from healthcare facilities is increasingly becoming a focus as a means of reducing public health risks and financial costs. Using data on per capita healthcare spend at the national level, as well as a case study of a hospital in Italy, this study examined the relationship between trends in waste generation and the associated costs of managing the waste. At the national level, healthcare spend as a percentage of gross domestic product positively correlated with waste arisings...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121307/humour-therapy-intervention-to-reduce-stress-and-anxiety-in-paediatric-anaesthetic-induction-a-pilot-study
#8
C Romero Leguizamon, A Osorio Castaño, C Guarin Morales, L Neira Cifuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119061/emla-anaesthetic-cream-for-debridement-of-burns-a-study-of-plasma-concentrations-of-lidocaine-and-prilocaine-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
Stefan Lillieborg, Leif Aanderud
The lidocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA(TM)) effectively reduces the pain from debridement of chronic leg ulcers. Studies have demonstrated that when applied to leg ulcers, plasma concentrations of the local anaesthetics are well below the threshold for CNS toxicity. However, there are minimal pharmacokinetic data available from EMLA application to burn wounds. This study evaluated EMLA cream for debridement of burns with regard to plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine, and reviewed the published literature on safety and efficacy of lidocaine-prilocaine applied epicutaneously to burns...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114412/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-deficiency-the-hidden-risk-in-paediatric-anaesthesia
#10
Zeynep Nur Orhon, Emine Nursen Koltka, Sevil Tüfekçi, Çiğdem Buldağ, Alperen Kısa, Çiğdem Ulukaya Durakbaşa, Melek Çelik
Objective: Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in increased homocysteine levels in the body. Hyperhomocysteinemia causes a predisposition to venous and arterial thrombosis and ischaemic insults. The incidence of the deficiency is around 40% in some countries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of anaesthetic agents in children with MTHFR deficiency. Methods: Twelve paediatric patients with an MTHFR enzyme deficiency who underwent surgery in a ten-month period in a single centre were retrospectively evaluated...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081997/implementation-of-effective-practices-in-health-facilities-a-systematic-review-of-cluster-randomised-trials
#11
Emma R Allanson, Özge Tunçalp, Joshua P Vogel, Dina N Khan, Olufemi T Oladapo, Qian Long, Ahmet Metin Gülmezoglu
BACKGROUND: The capacity for health systems to support the translation of research in to clinical practice may be limited. The cluster randomised controlled trial (cluster RCT) design is often employed in evaluating the effectiveness of implementation of evidence-based practices. We aimed to systematically review available evidence to identify and evaluate the components in the implementation process at the facility level using cluster RCT designs. METHODS: All cluster RCTs where the healthcare facility was the unit of randomisation, published or written from 1990 to 2014, were assessed...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051328/how-does-sevoflurane-induction-followed-by-a-ketamine-maintenance-infusion-affect-intraocular-pressure-establishment-of-an-anaesthetic-protocol-for-paediatric-glaucoma-examinations-under-anaesthesia
#12
Jessica Gwendoline van der Walt, Francois Roodt, Christopher Tinley
Accurate measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) is essential in paediatric glaucoma management. Children require serial measurements and examination under anaesthesia (EUA). Most anaesthetic agents reduce IOP, and the ideal time to measure IOP under anaesthesia is questionable. STUDY PURPOSE: To determine the effect of sevoflurane induction, followed by intravenous ketamine infusion on IOP, in children undergoing EUA for glaucoma or suspected glaucoma, and to establish the earliest time point at which reliable, repeatable IOP measurements can be obtained under anaesthesia...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994677/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-ketamine-versus-propofol-and-ketamine-for-procedural-sedation-in-children-undergoing-minor-cardiac-procedures-in-cardiac-catheterization-laboratory
#13
Vidya Sagar Joshi, Sandeep S Kollu, Ram Murti Sharma
BACKGROUND: The ideal anaesthetic technique for management of paediatric patients scheduled to undergo cardiac catheterisation is still not standardised. AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine-propofol and ketamine-dexmedetomidine combinations on hemodynamic parameters and recovery time in paediatric patients undergoing minor procedures and cardiac catheterisation under sedation for various congenital heart diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 children of either sex undergoing cardiac catheterisation were randomly assigned into two groups Dexmedetomidine-ketamine group (DK) and Propofol-ketamine (PK) of 30 patients each...
October 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970636/post-cardiac-transplant-recipient-implications-for-anaesthesia
#14
REVIEW
Minati Choudhury
The annual heart transplant rate is gradually increasing worldwide. A proportion of this patient population present for an elective or emergency surgery which may or may not be related to the transplanted heart. A MEDLINE search for heart transplant, anaesthesia, adult, paediatric and surgery was conducted to review anaesthetic management for heart transplant recipients. Anaesthesia and perioperative management are different in these cases. A thorough understanding of the physiology of denervated heart, post-transplant morbidities and pharmacology of immunosuppressants is essential for best perioperative management and improved post-operative outcome...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969320/isoflurane-exposure-for-three-hours-triggers-apoptotic-cell-death-in-neonatal-macaque-brain
#15
K K Noguchi, S A Johnson, G A Dissen, L D Martin, F M Manzella, K J Schenning, J W Olney, A M Brambrink
Background: Retrospective clinical studies suggest there is a risk for neurodevelopmental impairment following early childhood exposure to anaesthesia. In the developing animal brain, including those of non-human primates (NHPs), anaesthetics induce apoptotic cell death. We previously reported that a 5 h isoflurane (ISO) exposure in infant NHPs increases apoptosis 13-fold compared with control animals. However, the majority of paediatric surgeries requiring anaesthesia are of shorter durations...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969317/dexmedetomidine-mediated-neuroprotection-against-sevoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-extends-to-several-brain-regions-in-neonatal-rats
#16
J F Perez-Zoghbi, W Zhu, M R Grafe, A M Brambrink
Background: Exposure of infant animals to clinically used anaesthetics is associated with acute structural brain abnormalities and development functional alterations. The α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) induces sedation, analgesia, and provides neuroprotection in experimental brain injury models. However, it is unknown whether DEX also affords protection in the developing brain against anaesthesia using sevoflurane (SEVO), which is commonly used in paediatric anaesthesia...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969310/what-do-recent-human-studies-tell-us-about-the-association-between-anaesthesia-in-young-children-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#17
J D O'Leary, D O Warner
Anaesthetic and sedative drugs transiently disrupt normal neural activity to facilitate healthcare procedures in children, but they can also cause long-term brain injury in experimental animal models. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently advised that repeated or lengthy exposures to anaesthetic and sedative drugs prior to 3 yr of age have the potential to harm the development of children's brains and added warnings to these drug labels. Paediatric anaesthesia toxicity could represent a significant public health issue, and concern about this potential injury in children has become an important issue for families, paediatric clinicians and healthcare regulators...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969235/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-therapeutic-challenge-in-paediatrics
#18
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807061/the-incidence-of-hyperthermia-during-cochlear-implant-surgery-in-children
#19
A Schwartz, D Kaplan, V Rosenzweig, M Klein, B F Gruenbaum, S E Gruenbaum, M Boyko, A Zlotnik, E Brotfain
BACKGROUND: Inadvertent hyperthermia during anaesthesia is a rare but life-threatening complication. We have encountered several cases of severe hyperthermia in paediatric patients undergoing anaesthesia for cochlear implantation. METHODS: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of children who developed hyperthermia while undergoing cochlear implantation, and to explore possible mechanisms and predisposing factors. The anaesthetic charts of all patients aged under 18 years who underwent cochlear implantation, or mastoid or ophthalmic surgery, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, at Soroka Medical Center in Beer Sheva, Israel, were reviewed...
October 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727180/why-was-a-local-anaesthetic-used-before-administering-intranasal-ketamine-for-paediatric-injuries
#20
Sabine Lemoine, Daniel Jost, Kilian Bertho, Jean Pierre Tourtier
We were very interested to read Scheier et al's brief report on the use of intranasal ketamine in their pediatric emergency department, specifically for pain and anxiety in children who had resisted venipuncture or intravenous placement (1). Intravenous access can be difficult for pre-hospital medical teams that are not specialised in paediatric care, namely when children complain of pain from, for example suspected fractures and burns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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