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Septic peritonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694562/expression-and-function-of-granzymes-a-and-b-in-escherichia-coli-peritonitis-and-sepsis
#1
M Isabel García-Laorden, Ingrid Stroo, Sanne Terpstra, Sandrine Florquin, Jan Paul Medema, Cornelis van T Veer, Alex F de Vos, Tom van der Poll
Escherichia (E.) coli is the most common causative pathogen in peritonitis, the second most common cause of sepsis. Granzymes (gzms) are serine proteases traditionally implicated in cytotoxicity and, more recently, in the inflammatory response. We here sought to investigate the role of gzms in the host response to E. coli-induced peritonitis and sepsis in vivo. For this purpose, we used a murine model of E. coli intraperitoneal infection, resembling the clinical condition commonly associated with septic peritonitis by this bacterium, in wild-type and gzmA-deficient (gzmA(-/-) ), gzmB(-/-) , and gzmAxB(-/-) mice...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689399/sphingomonas-paucimobilis-a-rare-infectious-agent-found-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#2
Tuncer Göker, Rahile Zülal Aşık, Muhammet Bahadır Yılmaz, İlhami Çelik, Ayhan Tekiner
Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S. paucimobilis) is a gram negative bacillus. It has existed in soil, drinking water and plants. It has been isolated from distilled water tanks, respirators, and hemodialysis devices at the hospital setting. Patients with chronic disorders or immune suppression may be susceptible to infections with it. This microorganism has also been reported to infect healthy persons. Both nosocomial and community-acquired infections have been reported. So far, a variety of infections have been reported, including sepsis, septic pulmonary embolism, septic arthritis, peritonitis, and endophthalmitis...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680609/hydrocortisone-therapy-in-a-cat-with-vasopressor-refractory-septic-shock-and-suspected-critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency
#3
Simone R R Pisano, Judith Howard, Horst Posthaus, Alan Kovacevic, Ivayla D Yozova
A 27-month-old female cat was presented with septic peritonitis secondary to a ruptured pyometra and subsequent pyothorax. Vasopressor-refractory septic shock led to a suspicion of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, successfully treated with intravenous hydrocortisone. Previous megestrol acetate administration may have played a role in the development of adrenocortical dysfunction.
July 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663567/systemic-blockade-of-p2x7-receptor-protects-against-sepsis-induced-intestinal-barrier-disruption
#4
Xiuwen Wu, Jianan Ren, Guopu Chen, Lei Wu, Xian Song, Guanwei Li, Youming Deng, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Jieshou Li
Sepsis, during which the intestinal epithelial barrier is frequently disrupted, remains a challenging and life-threatening problem in clinical practice. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective adenosine triphosphate-gated cation channel present in macrophages that is involved in inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the role of P2X7R in macrophages during sepsis-induced intestinal barrier disruption. In this study, mice were treated with the P2X7R antagonist A740003 or the agonist BzATP by intra-peritoneal injection after the induction of gut-origin sepsis...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655892/disrupting-ceramide-cd300f-interaction-prevents-septic-peritonitis-by-stimulating-neutrophil-recruitment
#5
Kumi Izawa, Akie Maehara, Masamichi Isobe, Yuka Yasuda, Makoto Urai, Yasutaka Hoshino, Keigo Ueno, Toshihiro Matsukawa, Mariko Takahashi, Ayako Kaitani, Emiko Shiba, Ayako Takamori, Shino Uchida, Koichiro Uchida, Keiko Maeda, Nobuhiro Nakano, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Toshihiko Oki, David Voehringer, Axel Roers, Susumu Nakae, Junko Ishikawa, Yuki Kinjo, Toshiaki Shimizu, Hideoki Ogawa, Ko Okumura, Toshio Kitamura, Jiro Kitaura
Sepsis is a serious clinical problem. Negative regulation of innate immunity is associated with sepsis progression, but the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Here we show that the receptor CD300f promotes disease progression in sepsis. CD300f (-/-) mice were protected from death after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a murine model of septic peritonitis. CD300f was highly expressed in mast cells and recruited neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity. Analysis of mice (e.g., mast cell-deficient mice) receiving transplants of wild-type or CD300f (-/-) mast cells or neutrophils indicated that CD300f deficiency did not influence intrinsic migratory abilities of neutrophils, but enhanced neutrophil chemoattractant production (from mast cells and neutrophils) in the peritoneal cavity of CLP-operated mice, leading to robust accumulation of neutrophils which efficiently eliminated Escherichia coli...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650926/hypercapnia-induced-amelioration-of-the-intestinal-microvascular-oxygenation-in-sepsis-is-independent-of-the-endogenous-sympathetic-nervous-system
#6
Jan Schulz, Sabrina Schöneborn, Christian Vollmer, Richard Truse, Anna Herminghaus, Inge Bauer, Christopher Beck, Olaf Picker
INTRODUCTION: Insufficient microvascular oxygenation (μHBO2) of the intestinal mucosa worsens outcome of septic patients. Hypercapnia ameliorates μHBO2, mediated via endogenous vasopressin release. Under physiological conditions, blockade of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system abolishes this protective effect of hypercapnia. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the role of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system during hypercapnia on intestinal μHBO2 under septic conditions...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648928/pg2-a-botanically-derived-drug-extracted-from-astragalus-membranaceus-promotes-proliferation-and-immunosuppression-of-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Yu-Hua Chao, Kang-Hsi Wu, Chiao-Wen Lin, Shun-Fa Yang, Wan-Ru Chao, Ching-Tien Peng, Han-Ping Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus is used to manage the deficiency of vital energy in traditional Chinese medicine and confirmed to have many biological functions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunosuppressive effects, and are widely used for regenerative medicine and immune disorders. AIMS OF STUDY: This study investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs), including morphology, surface marker expression, proliferation, differentiation, and in-vitro and in-vivo immunosuppressive capacities...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632510/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-lungs-in-murine-polymicrobial-sepsis-with-hydrogen-gas-treatment
#8
Yingxue Bian, Chao Qin, Yuchang Xin, Yang Yu, Hongguang Chen, Guolin Wang, Keliang Xie, Yonghao Yu
Sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI), which carries a high morbidity and mortality in patients, has no effective therapeutic strategies to date. Our group have already reported that hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a protective effect against sepsis in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying H2 treatment are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of H2 on lung injuries in septic mice through the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. Male ICR mice used in this study were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation...
June 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617696/should-hyperoxia-be-avoided-during-sepsis-an-experimental-study-in-ovine-peritonitis
#9
Xinrong He, Fuhong Su, Keliang Xie, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Katia Donadello, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Optimizing oxygen delivery is an important part of the hemodynamic resuscitation of septic shock, but concerns have been raised over the potentially deleterious effects of hyperoxia. We evaluated the impact of hyperoxia on hemodynamics, the microcirculation, and cerebral and renal metabolism in an ovine model of septic shock. DESIGN: Randomized animal study. SETTING: University hospital animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen adult female sheep...
June 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#10
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610918/cd155-blockade-improves-survival-in-experimental-sepsis-by-reversing-dendritic-cell-dysfunction
#11
Yan Meng, Zhenzhen Zhao, Wenzhong Zhu, Tao Yang, Xiaoming Deng, Rui Bao
Immunosuppression is involved in septic processes, and results in an inability to eradicate the primary infection as well as a propensity to acquire secondary infections. In the present study, we found that the expression of CD155 on dendritic cells (DCs) and TIGIT on T cells were strikingly increased in septic mice. Furthermore, anti-CD155 antibody treatment could improve survival rate in mouse sepsis models through deceasing bacterial burden in both blood and peritoneal lavage fluid. Meanwhile, CD155 blockade efficiently increased the expression of TNF-a, IL-6 and decreased the level of IL-10 in blood and peritoneal lavage fluid of septic mice...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607634/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-value-of-serum-level-of-total-bilirubin-in-patients-with-suspected-acute-appendicitis
#12
Mohammad Reza Motie, Minoosadat Mousavi Nik, Malihe Gharaee
INTRODUCTION: Clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis still remains a problem. Delays in diagnosis of acute appendicitis may cause perforation and septic peritonitis which result in increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic value of total serum bilirubin levels as a predictor of acute appendicitis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients who underwent appendectomy with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis from April 2012 to March 2013 at Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad (Iran) were enrolled...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603226/infections-in-patients-affected-by-liver-cirrhosis-an-update
#13
Tiziana Ascione, Giusy Di Flumeri, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro
Patients with liver cirrhosis present an increased incidence of infections. The main cause has been founded in alterations of the enteric flora and of the intestinal barrier probably due to portal hypertension, in addition to a reticulo-endothelial system dysfunction. Furthermore, those living with cirrhosis can report a high predisposition to sepsis and septic shock, due to the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a complessive hemodynamic derangement. By the analysis in the experimental model of the cirrhotic rat, it was demonstrated that radio-labelled Escherichia coli given by the oral route resulted in the location of the bacteria in the gut, the ascitic fluid and mesenteric lymph nodes, a phenomenon known as bacterial translocation...
June 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601305/survival-benefits-of-remote-ischemic-conditioning-in-sepsis
#14
Bellal Joseph, Mazhar Khalil, Ammar Hashmi, Louise Hecker, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew Tang, Randall S Friese, Peter Rhee
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the surgical intensive care unit. Prior studies have demonstrated a survival benefit of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in many disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of RIC on survival in sepsis in an animal model and to assess alterations in inflammatory biochemical profiles. We hypothesized that RIC alters inflammatory biochemical profiles resulting in decreased mortality in a septic mouse model...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598830/tetrahydrobiopterin-improves-microcirculation-in-experimental-sepsis
#15
Tristan Dumbarton
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an endogenous nucleic acid derivative, acts as an important cofactor for several enzymes found within the vascular endothelium, which is deranged in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that BH4 would improve capillary density and decrease inflammation within the intestinal microcirculation of septic rats. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial using two previously validated models of sepsis in rats: 1) A fecal peritonitis model using a stent perforating the ascending colon, and 2) An endotoxemia model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxin from E...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598488/myosin-light-chain-kinase-knockout-improves-gut-barrier-function-and-confers-a-survival-advantage-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#16
C Adam Lorentz, Zhe Liang, Mei Meng, Ching-Wen Chen, Benyam P Yoseph, Elise R Breed, Rohit Mittal, Nathan J Klingensmith, Alton B Farris, Eileen M Burd, Michael Koval, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Sepsis-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is mediated by disruption of the epithelial tight junction, which is closely associated with the peri-junctional actin-myosin ring. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the myosin regulatory light chain, resulting in increased permeability. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic deletion of MLCK would alter gut barrier function and survival from sepsis. MLCK(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and assayed for both survival and mechanistic studies...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587368/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-recombinant-thrombomodulin-on-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-sepsis-model
#17
Kazuhiro Takehara, Taisuke Murakami, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Toshiaki Iba, Isao Nagaoka, Kazuhiro Sakamoto
To evaluate the effect of recombinant human thrombomodulin (rTM) on sepsis, the levels of nucleosome as well as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and cytokines in sera and peritoneal fluids were measured in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis after administration of rTM. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (15 mg/kg; Escherichia coli O111:B4) with or without the intravenous administration of rTM (3 mg/kg; 30 min prior to or 2 h after LPS injection). The survival rates were evaluated and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, HMGB1 and nucleosome in sera and peritoneal fluids were analyzed by ELISA...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583555/veno-arterial-venous-hybrid-mode-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-combined-with-septic-shock-in-a-liver-transplant-patient-a-case-report
#18
J-I Park, B-H Jung, S-G Lee
BACKGROUND: Post-operative respiratory failure is common in liver transplant patients, with a direct effect on graft and recipient outcomes. We present a case of successful treatment for a patient who had acute respiratory distress syndrome combined with septic shock after living-donor liver transplantation with veno-arterial-venous hybrid mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHODS: A 49-year-old male patient underwent successful emergency living-donor liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure associated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569187/the-effects-of-acute-renal-denervation-on-kidney-perfusion-and-metabolism-in-experimental-septic-shock
#19
Emiel Hendrik Post, Fuhong Su, Koji Hosokawa, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Antoine Herpain, Jacques Creteur, Daniel De Backer, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Perfusion deficits likely play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in sepsis. Renal denervation may improve kidney perfusion and metabolism. METHODS: We randomized 14 female sheep to undergo bilateral surgical renal denervation (n = 7) or sham procedure (n = 7) prior to induction of sepsis. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with a pre-calibrated flowprobe. Laser Doppler probes were implanted to measure cortical and medullary perfusion...
May 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569136/molecular-differences-in-susceptibility-of-the-kidney-to-sepsis-induced-kidney-injury
#20
Martin Matejovic, Lenka Valesova, Jan Benes, Roman Sykora, Roman Hrstka, Jiri Chvojka
BACKGROUND: Septic acute kidney injury affects 40-50% of all septic patients. Molecular differences between septic patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI) are only poorly understood. Here, we investigated gene expression changes that differentiated the subjects who developed septic AKI from those who did not and coupled this approach with traditional parameters of renal physiology. METHODS: In 15 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs, progressive sepsis was induced either by peritonitis or by continuous intravenous infusion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
May 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
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