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Septic peritonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632510/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-lungs-in-murine-polymicrobial-sepsis-with-hydrogen-gas-treatment
#1
Yingxue Bian, Chao Qin, Yuchang Xin, Yang Yu, Hongguang Chen, Guolin Wang, Keliang Xie, Yonghao Yu
Sepsis-associated acute lung injury (ALI), which carries a high morbidity and mortality in patients, has no effective therapeutic strategies to date. Our group have already reported that hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a protective effect against sepsis in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying H2 treatment are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of H2 on lung injuries in septic mice through the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. Male ICR mice used in this study were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation...
June 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617696/should-hyperoxia-be-avoided-during-sepsis-an-experimental-study-in-ovine-peritonitis
#2
Xinrong He, Fuhong Su, Keliang Xie, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Katia Donadello, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Optimizing oxygen delivery is an important part of the hemodynamic resuscitation of septic shock, but concerns have been raised over the potentially deleterious effects of hyperoxia. We evaluated the impact of hyperoxia on hemodynamics, the microcirculation, and cerebral and renal metabolism in an ovine model of septic shock. DESIGN: Randomized animal study. SETTING: University hospital animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen adult female sheep...
June 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#3
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610918/cd155-blockade-improves-survival-in-experimental-sepsis-by-reversing-dendritic-cell-dysfunction
#4
Yan Meng, Zhenzhen Zhao, Wenzhong Zhu, Tao Yang, Xiaoming Deng, Rui Bao
Immunosuppression is involved in septic processes, and results in an inability to eradicate the primary infection as well as a propensity to acquire secondary infections. In the present study, we found that the expression of CD155 on dendritic cells (DCs) and TIGIT on T cells were strikingly increased in septic mice. Furthermore, anti-CD155 antibody treatment could improve survival rate in mouse sepsis models through deceasing bacterial burden in both blood and peritoneal lavage fluid. Meanwhile, CD155 blockade efficiently increased the expression of TNF-a, IL-6 and decreased the level of IL-10 in blood and peritoneal lavage fluid of septic mice...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607634/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-value-of-serum-level-of-total-bilirubin-in-patients-with-suspected-acute-appendicitis
#5
Mohammad Reza Motie, Minoosadat Mousavi Nik, Malihe Gharaee
INTRODUCTION: Clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis still remains a problem. Delays in diagnosis of acute appendicitis may cause perforation and septic peritonitis which result in increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic value of total serum bilirubin levels as a predictor of acute appendicitis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients who underwent appendectomy with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis from April 2012 to March 2013 at Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad (Iran) were enrolled...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601305/survival-benefits-of-remote-ischemic-conditioning-in-sepsis
#6
Bellal Joseph, Mazhar Khalil, Ammar Hashmi, Louise Hecker, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew Tang, Randall S Friese, Peter Rhee
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the surgical intensive care unit. Prior studies have demonstrated a survival benefit of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in many disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of RIC on survival in sepsis in an animal model and to assess alterations in inflammatory biochemical profiles. We hypothesized that RIC alters inflammatory biochemical profiles resulting in decreased mortality in a septic mouse model...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598830/tetrahydrobiopterin-improves-microcirculation-in-experimental-sepsis
#7
Tristan Dumbarton
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an endogenous nucleic acid derivative, acts as an important cofactor for several enzymes found within the vascular endothelium, which is deranged in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that BH4 would improve capillary density and decrease inflammation within the intestinal microcirculation of septic rats. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial using two previously validated models of sepsis in rats: 1) A fecal peritonitis model using a stent perforating the ascending colon, and 2) An endotoxemia model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxin from E...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598488/myosin-light-chain-kinase-knockout-improves-gut-barrier-function-and-confers-a-survival-advantage-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#8
C Adam Lorentz, Zhe Liang, Mei Meng, Ching-Wen Chen, Benyam P Yoseph, Elise R Breed, Rohit Mittal, Nathan J Klingensmith, Alton B Farris, Eileen M Burd, Michael Koval, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Sepsis-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is mediated by disruption of the epithelial tight junction, which is closely associated with the peri-junctional actin-myosin ring. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the myosin regulatory light chain, resulting in increased permeability. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic deletion of MLCK would alter gut barrier function and survival from sepsis. MLCK(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and assayed for both survival and mechanistic studies...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587368/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-recombinant-thrombomodulin-on-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-sepsis-model
#9
Kazuhiro Takehara, Taisuke Murakami, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Toshiaki Iba, Isao Nagaoka, Kazuhiro Sakamoto
To evaluate the effect of recombinant human thrombomodulin (rTM) on sepsis, the levels of nucleosome as well as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and cytokines in sera and peritoneal fluids were measured in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis after administration of rTM. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (15 mg/kg; Escherichia coli O111:B4) with or without the intravenous administration of rTM (3 mg/kg; 30 min prior to or 2 h after LPS injection). The survival rates were evaluated and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, HMGB1 and nucleosome in sera and peritoneal fluids were analyzed by ELISA...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583555/veno-arterial-venous-hybrid-mode-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-combined-with-septic-shock-in-a-liver-transplant-patient-a-case-report
#10
J-I Park, B-H Jung, S-G Lee
BACKGROUND: Post-operative respiratory failure is common in liver transplant patients, with a direct effect on graft and recipient outcomes. We present a case of successful treatment for a patient who had acute respiratory distress syndrome combined with septic shock after living-donor liver transplantation with veno-arterial-venous hybrid mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHODS: A 49-year-old male patient underwent successful emergency living-donor liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure associated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569187/the-effects-of-acute-renal-denervation-on-kidney-perfusion-and-metabolism-in-experimental-septic-shock
#11
Emiel Hendrik Post, Fuhong Su, Koji Hosokawa, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Antoine Herpain, Jacques Creteur, Daniel De Backer, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Perfusion deficits likely play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in sepsis. Renal denervation may improve kidney perfusion and metabolism. METHODS: We randomized 14 female sheep to undergo bilateral surgical renal denervation (n = 7) or sham procedure (n = 7) prior to induction of sepsis. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with a pre-calibrated flowprobe. Laser Doppler probes were implanted to measure cortical and medullary perfusion...
May 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569136/molecular-differences-in-susceptibility-of-the-kidney-to-sepsis-induced-kidney-injury
#12
Martin Matejovic, Lenka Valesova, Jan Benes, Roman Sykora, Roman Hrstka, Jiri Chvojka
BACKGROUND: Septic acute kidney injury affects 40-50% of all septic patients. Molecular differences between septic patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI) are only poorly understood. Here, we investigated gene expression changes that differentiated the subjects who developed septic AKI from those who did not and coupled this approach with traditional parameters of renal physiology. METHODS: In 15 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs, progressive sepsis was induced either by peritonitis or by continuous intravenous infusion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
May 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562479/sepsis-up-regulates-cd14-expression-in-a-myd88-dependent-and-trif-independent-pathway
#13
Zhixia Chen, Zhenzhen Shao, Shuya Mei, Zhengzheng Yan, Xibing Ding, Timothy Billiar, Quan Li
An overwhelming immune response, particularly from macrophages, plays a critical role in survival and organ damage in sepsis patients. TLRs are important receptors to recognize the conserved motifs expressed by invading bacteria. The TLRs except TLR3 signal via a MyD88 dependent pathway. TLR3 uses a TRIF dependent pathway, while TLR4 uses both MyD88 and TRIF dependent pathways. Previous studies indicated that CD14 was necessary for TLRs dependent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Blocking CD14 protected against the deleterious systemic inflammatory response associated with sepsis...
May 29, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554875/cd39-limits-p2x7-receptor-inflammatory-signaling-and-attenuates-sepsis-induced-liver-injury
#14
Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Paola de Andrade Mello, Vanessa R Figliuolo, Thiago F de Avelar Almeida, Patrícia T Santana, Suellen D S Oliveira, Claudia L M Silva, Linda Feldbrügge, Eva Csizmadia, Richard D Minshall, Maria Serena Longhi, Yan Wu, Simon C Robson, Robson Coutinho-Silva
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of sepsis can be linked to excessive inflammatory responses resulting in hepatic injury with progressive cholestasis. Monocyte/macrophages have been linked to the pathogenesis of cholestasis, cellular injury, and liver failure. P2X7 receptor activation by extracellular ATP (eATP) exacerbates inflammation by augmenting cytokine production; while CD39 scavenges eATP to generate adenosine, thereby limiting P2X7 activation and resulting in A2A receptor stimulation...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548199/-acute-small-bowel-diverticulitis-in-a-patient-with-crohn%C3%A2-s-disease
#15
Macarena Hevia, Rodrigo Quera, Leonardo Soto, Tomás Regueira, Andrés O'Brien, Andrés Larach, Udo Kronberg
Diverticular disease of the small intestine is rare, especially when it is located in the jejunum. It is generally asymptomatic, but in some patients it may have complications such as acute diverticulitis with peritonitis, gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. In such cases, the recommended treatment is surgery. We report a 77-year-old patient with ileal Crohn’s disease with a long-standing inflammatory phenotype, who developed acute diverticulitis of the jejunum presenting a severe septic shock and secondary multiple-organ failure...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538086/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-agonist-sew2871-causes-severe-cardiac-side-effects-and-does-not-improve-microvascular-barrier-breakdown-in-sepsis
#16
Sven Flemming, Natalie Burkard, Michael Meir, Martin Alexander Schick, Christoph-Thomas Germer, Nicolas Schlegel
BACKGROUND: Endothelial barrier dysfunction is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been proposed to be critically involved in the maintenance of endothelial barrier function predominately by activating S1P receptor-1 (S1P1). Previous studies have shown that the specific S1P1 agonist SEW2871 improves endothelial barrier function under inflammatory conditions. However, the effectiveness of SEW2871 and potential side effects remained largely unexplored in a clinically relevant model of sepsis...
May 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533998/ipilimumab-as-a-cause-of-severe-pan-colitis-and-colonic-perforation
#17
Raj Shah, Danielle Witt, Talal Asif, Fahad F Mir
Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that functions as a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor that is used to treat malignant melanoma. Due to ipilimumab's removal of immune regulation, specifically through the inactivation of CTLA-4, it is commonly associated with inflammatory and autoimmune events. Gastrointestinal (GI) related immune-related adverse events such as diarrhea occur in 29% of patients with 7.6% of patients specifically suffering from colitis. We describe a case of colonic perforation with ipilimumab use...
April 20, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515178/a-model-specific-role-of-microrna-223-as-a-mediator-of-kidney-injury-during-experimental-sepsis
#18
James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Kristen C Allison, Viola Neudecker, Christopher M Evans, Vanessa L Richardson, Kelley Brodsky, Sarah Faubel, Holger K Eltzschig, Eric P Schmidt, Adit A Ginde
Sepsis outcomes are heavily dependent on the development of septic organ injury, but no interventions exist to interrupt or reverse this process. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) is known to be involved in both inflammatory gene regulation and host-pathogen interactions key to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The goal of this study was to determine the role of miR-223 as a mediator of septic kidney injury. Using miR-223 knockout mice and multiple models of experimental sepsis, we found that miR-223 differentially influences acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the model used...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511674/predictors-of-fifty-days-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-with-culture-negative-neutrocytic-ascites
#19
Chinmaya Kumar Bal, Vikram Bhatia, Ripu Daman
BACKGROUND: Culture negative neutrocytic ascites is a variant of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. But there are conflicting reports regarding the mortality associated with culture negativeneutrocytic ascites. Therefore we aim to determine the predictors of mortality associated with culture negativeneutrocytic ascites in a larger sample population. METHODS: We analysed 170 patients consecutively admitted to intensive care unit with diagnosis of culture negative neutrocytic ascites...
May 16, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501124/effects-of-endotoxin-absorber-hemoperfusion-on-microcirculation-in-septic-pigs
#20
Yu-Chang Yeh, Linda Chia-Hui Yu, Chun-Yu Wu, Ya-Jung Cheng, Chen-Tse Lee, Wei-Zen Sun, Jui-Chang Tsai, Tzu-Yu Lin
BACKGROUND: Endotoxins contribute to systemic inflammatory response and microcirculatory dysfunctions under conditions of sepsis. Polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) is used to remove circulating endotoxins and improve clinical outcomes. This study aims to investigate the effect of PMX-HP on microcirculation in septic pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using a septic pig model, we tested the hypothesis that PMX-HP can correct intestinal microcirculation, tissue oxygenation saturation, and histopathologic alterations...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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