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Septic peritonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675476/peritoneal-tuberculosis-after-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-with-extended-lymph-node-dissection
#1
Suruga Saito, Katsuhiro Ito, Keiyu Matsumoto, Motofumi Tajima, Takayuki Goto, Haruki Ito, Yumi Manabe, Mutsuki Mishina, Hiroshi Okuno
Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively uncommon presentation of extrapulmonary TB. Early diagnosis of peritoneal TB is difficult because of its nonspecific clinical manifestation such as abdominal pain, fever, or ascites. Especially early after surgery of abdomen or pelvis, these symptoms can be misdiagnosed as septic peritonitis. There are few reports of peritoneal TB as a postoperative complication of laparoscopic surgery. Here, we describe a first case of peritoneal TB after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) with extended lymph node dissection...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669785/-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe18-protein-reduces-inflammation-and-increases-survival-in-animal-model-of-sepsis
#2
Asma Ahmed, Komal Dolasia, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE18 is a member of the PPE family. Previous studies have shown that recombinant PPE18 (rPPE18) protein binds to TLR2 and triggers a signaling cascade which reduces levels of TNF-α and IL-12, and increases IL-10 in macrophages. Because TNF-α is a major mediator of the pathophysiology of sepsis and blocking inflammation is a possible line of therapy in such circumstances, we tested the efficacy of rPPE18 in reducing symptoms of sepsis in a mouse model of Escherichia coli- induced septic peritonitis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664835/phagocytosis-by-fibrocytes-as-a-mechanism-to-decrease-bacterial-burden-and-increase-survival-in-sepsis
#3
Dalis Collins, Christopher Fry, Bethany B Moore, Jean A Nemzek
Fibrocytes are unique cells with innate and adaptive immune functions, but these mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism by which adoptive transfer of exogenous fibrocytes improved bacterial clearance and increased sepsis survival. Initial flow cytometry-based, in vitro assays demonstrated phagocytosis by fibrocytes and intracellular bacterial killing was confirmed by direct plating of cell lysates after exposure to live bacteria. Intravenous adoptive transfer of fibrocytes at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or two hours after CLP in mice increased survivability...
April 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662682/delayed-intestinal-perforation-secondary-to-blunt-force-abdominal-trauma-in-a-cat
#4
A Taylor, E Cooper, K Ham
Case summary: A 7-month-old intact male domestic shorthair cat was presented 4 h after being hit by a car. It had bilateral inguinal hernias and a mesenteric rent that were repaired surgically and a hematoma in the left retroperitoneal space. No other intra-abdominal abnormalities were identified on abdominal surgical exploration. Approximately 72 h after presentation, the cat started vomiting and developed severe abdominal discomfort. A sudden decrease in mentation and elevation of respiratory rate and effort ensued...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649586/nephrotoxicity-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-combined-with-vancomycin-should-it-be-a-concern
#5
Cafer Balcı, Ömrüm Uzun, Mustafa Arıcı, Sibel Aşçıoğlu Hayran, Deniz Yüce, Serhat Ünal
The combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (pip-tazo) and vancomycin provides a wide spectrum of activity against many pathogens acquired in the health-care setting. However, there have been reports of increased potential for nephrotoxicity with this combination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of pip-tazo plus vancomycin and compare it with that of pip-tazo and vancomycin alone, and meropenem plus vancomycin, another broad-spectrum combination. A total of 402 patients receiving either antimicrobial regimen for more than 48 hours were evaluated retrospectively in a two-year period...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608550/amitriptyline-treatment-mitigates-sepsis-induced-tumor-necrosis-factor-expression-and-coagulopathy
#6
Brent T Xia, Nadine Beckmann, Leah K Winer, Young Kim, Holly S Goetzman, Rosalie E Veile, Erich Gulbins, Michael D Goodman, Vanessa Nomellini, Charles C Caldwell
During sepsis, the early innate response and inflammatory cytokine cascade are associated with activation of the coagulation cascade. Acute hypercoagulability can contribute to lethal sequela of vascular thrombosis, tissue ischemia, and organ failure. We investigated if amitriptyline (AMIT), an antidepressant drug with a number of anti-inflammatory effects, could ameliorate sepsis in a murine model of sepsis - cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We hypothesized that AMIT treatment would reduce inflammation and mitigate sepsis-induced coagulopathy...
March 30, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590188/overview-of-systematic-reviews-assessing-the-evidence-for-shorter-versus-longer-duration-antibiotic-treatment-for-bacterial-infections-in-secondary-care
#7
Igho J Onakpoya, A Sarah Walker, Pui S Tan, Elizabeth A Spencer, Oghenekome A Gbinigie, Johanna Cook, Martin J Llewelyn, Christopher C Butler
Our objective was to assess the clinical effectiveness of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in adults and children in secondary care settings, using the evidence from published systematic reviews. We conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl. Our primary outcome was clinical resolution. The quality of included reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, and the quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE criteria. We included 6 systematic reviews (n = 3,162)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589840/the-atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr2-is-protective-against-sepsis
#8
Fernanda Vargas E Silva Castanheira, Vanessa Borges, Fabiane Sônego, Alexandre Kanashiro, Paula Barbim Donate, Paulo Henrique Melo, Kenneth Pallas, Remo Castro Russo, Flávio Almeida Amaral, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Fernando Silva Ramalho, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Foo Y Liew, José Carlos Alves-Filho, Gerard J Graham, Fernando Queiroz Cunha
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response as a result of uncontrolled infections. Neutrophils are the first cells to reach the primary sites of infection and chemokines play a key role in recruiting neutrophils. However, in sepsis chemokines could also contribute to neutrophil infiltration to vital organs leading to multiple organ failure. ACKR2 is an atypical chemokine receptor, which can remove and degrade inflammatory CC chemokines. The role of ACK2 in sepsis is unknown. Using a model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), we demonstrate here that ACKR2 deficient () mice exhibited a significant reduction in the survival rate compared to similarly treated wild type (WT) mice...
August 24, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580267/bevacizumab-induced-intestinal-perforation-in-a-patient-with-inoperable-breast-cancer-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Yusuke Fujii, Noriyuki Hirahara, Syunsuke Kaji, Takahito Taniura, Ryoji Hyakudomi, Tetsu Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Tajima
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal perforation is known as a serious adverse event, but, for breast cancer, there are very few reports of gastrointestinal perforation. This report highlights gastrointestinal perforation caused by bevacizumab for breast cancer, which is of special interest because gastrointestinal perforations caused by bevacizumab are very rare in breast cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of 54-year-old Japanese woman. She was diagnosed as having inoperable breast cancer T2 N1 M1 (pleura, peritoneum), Stage IV, and received chemotherapy by paclitaxel...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566694/4-acetylantroquinonol-b-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cytokine-release-and-alleviates-sepsis-through-of-mapk-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-suppression
#10
Chien-Hsin Chang, Chun-Chieh Hsu, An-Sheng Lee, Shih-Wei Wang, Kung-Tin Lin, Wei-Luen Chang, Hui-Chin Peng, Wen-Chiung Huang, Ching-Hu Chung
BACKGROUND: Antrodia cinnamomea is an indigenous medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, commonly used for the treatment of cancers and inflammatory disorders. 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4AAQB) is one of the active component isolated from the mycelium of A. cinnamomea. However, whether 4AAQB exhibits anti-inflammatory effect is not clear. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory activity of 4AAQB was examined by ELISA to measure the pro-inflammatory cytokines production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-simulated RAW264...
March 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529206/mechanical-bowel-preparation-mbp-prior-to-elective-colorectal-resections-in-crohn-s-disease-patients
#11
Igors Iesalnieks, Melanie Hoene, Theresa Bittermann, Hans J Schlitt, Christina Hackl
Background: Studies addressing the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are lacking. Methods: Consecutive elective colorectal resections for CD have been included in the present analysis. Exclusion criteria were small bowel resections not including colon, urgent surgeries, surgeries for cancer, and abdominoperineal resections for perianal disease. MBP was performed routinely between 1992 and 2004, omitted between 2005 and 2015, and reintroduced in 2016...
February 24, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503228/early-linezolid-associated-lactic-acidosis-in-a-patient-with-child-s-class-c-liver-cirrhosis-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
Chih-Ning Cheng, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, does not required dose adjustment in patients with Child's class A and B liver cirrhosis. The dose adjustment data for Child's class C liver cirrhosis is inadequate. We reported a case of Child's class C liver cirrhosis, in which lactic acidosis, an adverse effect related to prolonged use, occurred only after two weeks of linezolid treatment. A 63-year old male had underlying diseases, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and Child's class C liver cirrhosis, and was admitted for hepatic encephalopathy management and liver transplantation evaluation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488356/p2x-7-receptor-antagonism-ameliorates-renal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#13
Nishkantha Arulkumaran, Marije L Sixma, Sean Pollen, Elias Ceravola, Elisa Jentho, Maria Prendecki, Paul S Bass, Frederick W K Tam, Robert J Unwin, Mervyn Singer
Sepsis is a major clinical problem associated with significant organ dysfunction and high mortality. The ATP-sensitive P2X7 receptor activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and is a key component of the innate immune system. We used a fluid-resuscitated rat model of fecal peritonitis and acute kidney injury (AKI) to investigate the contribution of this purinergic receptor to renal dysfunction in sepsis. Six and 24 h time-points were chosen to represent early and established sepsis, respectively. A selective P2X7 receptor antagonist (A-438079) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was infused 2 h following induction of sepsis...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466409/il-7-treatment-augments-and-prolongs-sepsis-induced-expansion-of-il-10-producing-b-lymphocytes-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#14
Upasana Kulkarni, Christoph Herrmenau, Stephanie J Win, Michael Bauer, Thomas Kamradt
Immunological dysregulation in sepsis is associated with often lethal secondary infections. Loss of effector cells and an expansion of immunoregulatory cell populations both contribute to sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The extent and duration of this immunosuppression are unknown. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is important for the maintenance of lymphocytes and can accelerate the reconstitution of effector lymphocytes in sepsis. How IL-7 influences immunosuppressive cell populations is unknown. We have used the mouse model of peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI) to investigate the expansion of immunoregulatory cells as long-term sequelae of sepsis with or without IL-7 treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460952/effects-of-hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose-membranes-on-the-clinical-outcome-of-horses-undergoing-emergency-exploratory-celiotomy
#15
Jarrod R Troy, Susan J Holcombe, Callie A Fogle, Kira L Epstein, J Brett Woodie
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) membranes applied to intestinal anastomoses or enterotomies on postoperative complications after emergency exploratory celiotomy. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective case-controlled series. ANIMALS: Adult horses (59 in the HA-CMC group and 91 controls). METHODS: Medical records from 4 referral hospitals were searched for horses ≥1 year of age, treated between 2008 and 2014 with emergency exploratory celiotomy, and surviving at least 24 hours postoperatively...
February 20, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455288/mycophenolate-mofetil-protects-septic-mice-via-the-dual-inhibition-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-pd-1
#16
Shun-Wei Huang, Hao Chen, Mei-Ling Lu, Jin-Long Wang, Rong-Li Xie, Bing Zhao, Ying Chen, Zhi-Wei Xu, Jian Fei, En-Qiang Mao, Er-Zhen Chen
Due to the imbalance between hyper-inflammation and hypo-inflammation, which are characterized by excessive cytokine productions and programmed death 1 (PD-1) upregulation, respectively, sepsis remains a highly lethal inflammatory syndrome with limited effective therapies. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressant, has been reported to attenuate various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of MMF in sepsis therapy remains to be elucidated. C57BL-6J mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and were treated either with or without MMF...
February 17, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449198/a-rare-colonization-in-the-peritonitis-following-blunt-abdominal-trauma
#17
Oana Bulat, Cristian Bulat, Mihaela Blaj, Ioana Lupusoru, Viorel Scripcariu
BACKGROUND: Schewanella spp. is Gram-negative bacteria, saprophytes and rarely pathogenic. Initially isolated in 193, these belong to the marine environment; Schewanella (Pseudomonas) putrefaciens was found in water, soil and animal sources and produces hydrogen sulphide. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the well-known yeast used for fermentation in industry and in molecular biology for research. In humans, it is a very rare pathogen which colonises the digestive tract and its utility has been linked to the treatment and prevention of diarrhoea associated with Clostridium difficile...
February 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415028/polymicrobial-sepsis-and-non-specific-immunization-induce-adaptive-immunosuppression-to-a-similar-degree
#18
Katrin Schmoeckel, Daniel M Mrochen, Jochen Hühn, Christian Pötschke, Barbara M Bröker
Sepsis is frequently complicated by a state of profound immunosuppression, in its extreme form known as immunoparalysis. We have studied the role of the adaptive immune system in the murine acute peritonitis model. To read out adaptive immunosuppression, we primed post-septic and control animals by immunization with the model antigen TNP-ovalbumin in alum, and measured the specific antibody-responses via ELISA and ELISpot assay as well as T-cell responses in a proliferation assay after restimulation. Specific antibody titers, antibody affinity and plasma cell counts in the bone marrow were reduced in post-septic animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393741/intestinal-lymphoma-in-dogs-84-cases-1997-2012
#19
Naoko Sogame, Rebecca Risbon, Kristine E Burgess
OBJECTIVE To describe signalment, clinicopathologic features, and outcomes of dogs with confirmed primary intestinal lymphoma and assess factors associated with survival times in these patients. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 84 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records from 7 veterinary institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify dogs with primary intestinal lymphoma. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs, anatomic location of tumors, diagnostic procedures, treatment, outcome, and dates of diagnosis and death...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386307/a-retrospective-analysis-of-etiology-and-outcomes-of-refractory-capd-peritonitis-in-a-tertiary-care-center-from-north-india
#20
Venkatesh Thammishetti, Anupama Kaul, Dharmendra S Bhadauria, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta, Raj K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Refractory peritonitis is defined as failure of clearance of peritoneal fluid despite 5 days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Catheter removal decreases morbidity and mortality. Data on the outcomes of refractory peritonitis and of reinitiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this group of patients are sparse. The present study analyzed etiology, outcomes, and prognostic factors of refractory peritonitis as well as survival of the reinitiation of the technique. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study that included 90 patients of refractory continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) peritonitis at a tertiary care center in North India...
January 31, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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