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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454225/low-power-lasers-on-genomic-stability
#1
Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Ana Carolina Stumbo, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Exposure of cells to genotoxic agents causes modifications in DNA, resulting to alterations in the genome. To reduce genomic instability, cells have DNA damage responses in which DNA repair proteins remove these lesions. Excessive free radicals cause DNA damages, repaired by base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair pathways. When non-oxidative lesions occur, genomic stability is maintained through checkpoints in which the cell cycle stops and DNA repair occurs. Telomere shortening is related to the development of various diseases, such as cancer...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454073/the-accumulation-of-assembly-intermediates-of-the-mitochondrial-complex-i-matrix-arm-is-reduced-by-limiting-glucose-uptake-in-a-neuronal-like-model-of-melas-syndrome
#2
Guillaume Geffroy, Rayane Benyahia, Samuel Frey, Valerie Desquiret-Dumas, Naig Gueguen, Celine Bris, Sophie Belal, Aurore Inisan, Aurelie Renaud, Arnaud Chevrollier, Daniel Henrion, Dominique Bonneau, Franck Letournel, Guy Lenaers, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio
Ketogenic diet (KD) which combined carbohydrate restriction and the addition of ketone bodies has emerged as an alternative metabolic intervention used as an anticonvulsant therapy or to treat different types of neurological or mitochondrial disorders including MELAS syndrome. MELAS syndrome is a severe mitochondrial disease mainly due to the m.3243A > G mitochondrial DNA mutation. The broad success of KD is due to multiple beneficial mechanisms with distinct effects of very low carbohydrates and ketones...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453568/a-method-for-in-vivo-induction-and-ultrastructural-detection-of-mitophagy-in-sertoli-cells
#3
Nabil Eid, Yuko Ito, Akio Horibe, Hitomi Hamaoka, Yoichi Kondo
An emerging body of evidences based on in vitro studies indicate that mitophagy (selective autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria) is a prosurvival mechanism, specifically under exposure to various stressors. Sertoli cells (SCs) play essential roles in maintenance of spermatogenesis via paracrine interactions with germ cells and other somatic cells in the testis; however, studies investigating mitophagy in SCs are still very few. In this chapter, we give a brief review of mechanisms and detection methods of mitophagy in SCs based on our recent publications on animal models of ethanol toxicity and current literature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453532/the-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-to-human-endothelial-cells
#4
Yi Cao
The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in commercially available products and as biomedicinal materials could lead to increasing contact of human blood vessels with NPs, and it is necessary to assess the potential adverse effects of NPs to cells lining blood vessels. Of them, endothelial cells (ECs) are of particular relevance as they play a crucial role in the regulation of function of blood vessels. In this book chapter, I discussed studies that used human ECs to study the toxicity and mechanisms of NPs. It has been shown that exposure of human ECs to NPs could lead to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, endothelial activation and impaired NO signaling...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453257/a-facile-arsenazo-iii-based-assay-for-monitoring-rare-earth-element-depletion-from-cultivation-media-of-methanotrophic-and-methylotrophic-bacteria
#5
Carmen Hogendoorn, Paula Roszczenko-Jasińska, N Cecilia Martinez-Gomez, Johann de Graaff, Patrick Grassl, Arjan Pol, Huub J M Op den Camp, Lena J Daumann
Recently, methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria were found to utilize rare earth elements (REE). To monitor the REE-content in culture media of these bacteria we have developed a rapid screening method using the Arsenazo III (AS III) dye for spectrophotometric REE-detection in the low μM (0.1-10 μM) range. We designed this assay to follow La III and Eu III depletion from the culture medium by the acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. The assay can also be modified to screen the uptake of other REE such as Pr III or to monitor the depletion of La III from growth media in neutrophilic methylotrophs such as Methylobacterium extorquens AM1...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452935/e3-ligase-vhl-promotes-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-maturation-and-function-via-glycolysis-inhibition-and-induction-of-interleukin-33-receptor
#6
Qian Li, Dulei Li, Xian Zhang, Qingqing Wan, Wen Zhang, Mingke Zheng, Le Zou, Chris Elly, Jee H Lee, Yun-Cai Liu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a specialized subset of lymphoid effector cells that are critically involved in allergic responses; however, the mechanisms of their regulation remain unclear. We report that conditional deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL in innate lymphoid progenitors minimally affected early-stage bone marrow ILC2s but caused a selective and intrinsic decrease in mature ILC2 numbers in peripheral non-lymphoid tissues, resulting in reduced type 2 immune responses. VHL deficiency caused the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and attenuated interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor ST2 expression, which was rectified by HIF1α ablation or inhibition...
February 6, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452387/oas1-2-and-3-significance-during-active-tb
#7
Gina Leisching, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker
Evidence to-date collectively points to a detrimental role of the type I IFN response during tuberculosis. The mechanisms underpinning the IFNαβ-mediated exacerbation of the disease is unclear. The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS), namely OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3 are part of the interferon-induced genes which until now have been synonymous with an anti-viral function. Blood transcriptome profiling has continuously observed their upregulation in a number of gene expression signatures which discriminate active TB from latent TB infection, however the role of the OASs and the effect that their expression has on the pathogenesis and persistence of TB is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452207/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-promotes-liver-innate-immune-activation-by-restraining-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#8
Haoming Zhou, Han Wang, Ming Ni, Shi Yue, Yongxiang Xia, Ronald W Busuttil, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski, Ling Lu, Xuehao Wang, Yuan Zhai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase with distinctive functions in different types of cells. Although its roles in regulating innate immune activation and ischemia and reperfusion injuries (IRI) have been well documented, underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous, due in part to the lack of cell-specific tools in vivo. METHODS: We created a myeloid-specific Gsk3β KO strain to study its function in macrophages in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452138/exposure-to-low-level-of-lead-during-preweaning-period-increases-metallothionein-3-expression-and-dysregulates-divalent-cation-levels-in-the-brain-of-young-rats
#9
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451901/the-novel-antibiotic-rhodomyrtone-traps-membrane-proteins-in-vesicles-with-increased-fluidity
#10
Dennapa Saeloh, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Kin Ki Jim, Marien P Dekker, Wilbert Bitter, Supayang P Voravuthikunchai, Michaela Wenzel, Leendert W Hamoen
The acylphloroglucinol rhodomyrtone is a promising new antibiotic isolated from the rose myrtle Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, a plant used in Asian traditional medicine. While many studies have demonstrated its antibacterial potential in a variety of clinical applications, very little is known about the mechanism of action of rhodomyrtone. Preceding studies have been focused on intracellular targets, but no specific intracellular protein could be confirmed as main target. Using live cell, high-resolution, and electron microscopy we demonstrate that rhodomyrtone causes large membrane invaginations with a dramatic increase in fluidity, which attract a broad range of membrane proteins...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451877/influence-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-biomechanics-and-structural-bone-matrix-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-rats
#11
Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira Limirio, Huberth Alexandre da Rocha Junior, Richarlisson Borges de Morais, Karen Renata Nakamura Hiraki, Ana Paula Coelho Balbi, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Paula Dechichi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanics and structural bone matrix in diabetic rats subjected to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). METHODS: Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following groups: Control; Control + HBO; Diabetic, and Diabetic + HBO. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in the diabetic Groups. After 30 days, HBO was performed every 48h in HBO groups and all animals were euthanized 60 days after diabetic induction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451063/epithelial-tumors-growing-from-within
#12
Mariana Muzzopappa, Marco Milán
The growth of epithelial tumors is often governed by cell interactions with the surrounding stroma. Drosophila has been instrumental in identifying the relevant molecular elements mediating these interactions. Of note is the role of the TNF ligand Eiger, released from recruited blood cells, in activating the JNK tumor-promoting pathway in epithelial tumors. JNK drives the transcriptional induction of mitogenic molecules, matrix metalloproteases and systemic signals that lead to tumor growth, tissue invasiveness and malignancy...
February 16, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450658/modified-allergens-for-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Pattraporn Satitsuksanoa, Anna Głobińska, Kirstin Jansen, Willem van de Veen, Mübeccel Akdis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT. RECENT FINDINGS: In-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450619/immediate-response-mechanisms-of-gram-negative-solvent-tolerant-bacteria-to-cope-with-environmental-stress-cis-trans-isomerization-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-and-outer-membrane-vesicle-secretion
#14
REVIEW
Christian Eberlein, Thomas Baumgarten, Stephan Starke, Hermann J Heipieper
Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents...
February 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450111/the-binding-structure-and-affinity-of-photodamaged-duplex-dna-with-members-of-the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-a-computational-study
#15
Ryuma Sato, Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449584/crispr-whole-genome-screening-identifies-new-necroptosis-regulators-and-ripk1-alternative-splicing
#16
Marinella G Callow, Colin Watanabe, Katherine E Wickliffe, Russell Bainer, Sarah Kummerfield, Julie Weng, Trinna Cuellar, Vasantharajan Janakiraman, Honglin Chen, Ben Chih, Yuxin Liang, Benjamin Haley, Kim Newton, Michael R Costa
The necroptotic cell death pathway is a key component of human pathogen defense that can become aberrantly derepressed during tissue homeostasis to contribute to multiple types of tissue damage and disease. While formation of the necrosome kinase signaling complex containing RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL has been extensively characterized, additional mechanisms of its regulation and effector functions likely remain to be discovered. We screened 19,883 mouse protein-coding genes by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout for resistance to cytokine-induced necroptosis and identified 112 regulators and mediators of necroptosis, including 59 new candidate pathway components with minimal or no effect on cell growth in the absence of necroptosis induction...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449535/norisoboldine-a-natural-ahr-agonist-promotes-treg-differentiation-and-attenuates-colitis-via-targeting-glycolysis-and-subsequent-nad-sirt1-suv39h1-h3k9me3-signaling-pathway
#17
Qi Lv, Kai Wang, Simiao Qiao, Ling Yang, Yirong Xin, Yue Dai, Zhifeng Wei
Norisoboldine (NOR), a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, has been demonstrated to attenuate ulcerative colitis (UC) and induce the generation of Treg cells. Under UC condition, hypoxia widely exists in colonic mucosa, and secondary changes of microRNAs (miRs) expressions and glycolysis contribute to Treg differentiation. At present, we worked for exploring the deep mechanisms for NOR-promoted Treg differentiation in hypoxia and its subsequent anti-UC action from the angle of AhR/miR or AhR/glycolysis axis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449334/rgc-32-response-gene-to-complement-32-protein-deficiency-protects-endothelial-cells-from-inflammation-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis
#18
Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Kun Dong, Sisi Chen, Yongyi Wang, Wendy T Watford, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the role and underlying mechanisms of RGC-32 (response gene to complement 32 protein) in atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RGC-32 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice and human patients. RGC-32 deficiency (Rgc32 -/- ) attenuated the high-fat diet-induced and spontaneously developed atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE -/- mice without affecting serum cholesterol concentration...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449331/lipid-lowering-therapy-with-ezetimibe-decreases-spontaneous-atherothrombotic-occlusions-in-a-rabbit-model-of-plaque-erosion-a-role-of-serum-oxysterols
#19
Katsuya Honda, Tetsuya Matoba, Yoshibumi Antoku, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Ikuyo Ichi, Kaku Nakano, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kensuke Egashira
OBJECTIVE: Plaque erosion is increasing its importance as one of the mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes in this statin era. However, the clinical efficacy of currently used lipid-lowering agents in the prevention of thrombotic complications associated with plaque erosion has not been clarified. Therefore, we examined the therapeutic effects of ezetimibe or rosuvastatin monotherapy on spontaneous atherothrombotic occlusion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Femoral arteries of Japanese white rabbits, fed a high-cholesterol diet, were injured by balloon catheter, and then angiotensin II was continuously administrated...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449169/interaction-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-erk-pathways-involving-co-stabilization-of-both-%C3%AE-catenin-and-ras-plays-important-roles-in-the-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#20
REVIEW
Sang-Kyu Lee, Jeong-Ha Hwang, Kang-Yell Choi
Cancer development is usually driven by multiple genetic and molecular alterations rather than by a single defect. In the human colorectal cancer (CRC), series of mutations of genes are involved in the different stages of tumorigenesis. For example, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and KRAS mutations have been known to play roles in the initiation and progression of the tumorigenesis, respectively. However, many studies indicate that mutations of these two genes, which play roles in the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-extra-cellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, respectively, cooperatively interact in the tumorigenesis in several different cancer types including CRC...
January 10, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
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