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clear cell cancer

Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Vijay Sharma, Tanja Gagliardi, Fiona Payne, Mahalakshmi Gurumurthy
Background: Primary small cell ovarian cancer of pulmonary type (SCCOPT) is a rare aggressive ovarian tumour with an incidence of <1%, usually occurring in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women and known to have a poor prognosis. Current treatment is platinum based but has not resulted in long term survival. Case presentation: We report a case of a 77-year old Caucasian woman who presented initially with a one-week history of abdominal discomfort with raised inflammatory markers and Ca125 of 50 μ/ml...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Xuechun Yu, Chaojian Ma, Ling Fu, Jingwu Dong, Jie Ying
The expression, function and underlying mechanisms of microRNA-139 (miR-139) in gastric cancer were investigated in the present study. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect miR-139 expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The effects of miR-139 overexpression on gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated. ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) was predicted as a downstream target of miR-139 and its role in gastric cancer was assessed by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Hoang Thi My Nhung, Bui Viet Anh, Truong Linh Huyen, Doan Trung Hiep, Chu Thi Thao, Phung Nam Lam, Nguyen Thanh Liem
Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with the highest cancer-associated mortality rates worldwide, as well as in Vietnam. Numerous studies have demonstrated that higher numbers and higher rate of activity of infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the tumor are closely correlated with positive prognosis, tumor size decrease and longer survival of lung cancer patients. In the present study, the effectiveness of BINKIT® kit in the ex vivo expansion of NK cells and CTLs in the peripheral blood of 7 patients aged between 30 and 84 years with metastatic lung cancer was evaluated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Marieke Hogervorst, Marion Rietveld, Frank de Gruijl, Abdoelwaheb El Ghalbzouri
BACKGROUND: Tumour stroma consists of a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts and related mesenchymal cells, collectively dubbed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are key players in cancer invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As we have shown earlier, papillary and reticular fibroblasts (Pfs and Rfs, respectively) have distinct effects on epidermal and dermal homeostasis, but their role in cancer invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains to be determined...
March 19, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Leslie Duplaquet, Zoulika Kherrouche, Simon Baldacci, Philippe Jamme, Alexis B Cortot, Marie-Christine Copin, David Tulasne
Targeted therapies against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are currently used with success on a small proportion of patients displaying clear oncogene activation. Lung cancers with a mutated EGFR provide a good illustration. The efficacy of targeted treatments relies on oncogene addiction, a situation in which the growth or survival of the cancer cells depends on a single deregulated oncogene. MET, a member of the RTK family, is a promising target because it displays many deregulations in a broad panel of cancers...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Laura Buggio, Sofia Makieva, Giovanna Scarfone, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Fabio Parazzini, Edgardo Somigliana
In women with endometriosis, the lifetime risk of ovarian cancer is increased from 1.4% to about 1.9%. The risk of clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer is, respectively, tripled and doubled. Atypical endometriosis, observed in 1-3% of endometriomas excised in premenopausal women, is the intermediate precursor lesion linking typical endometriosis and clear cell/endometrioid tumors. Prolonged oral contraceptive use is associated with a major reduction in ovarian cancer risk among women with endometriosis...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Shakeel Uz Zaman, Shakil Aqil, Mohammad Ahsan Sulaiman
OBJECTIVE: To identify the significant predictors of locoregional recurrence in early stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of buccal mucosa with pathologically clear surgical margins and negative neck. METHOD: Seventy-three patients who underwent per oral wide excision and supraomohyoid neck dissection for early stage buccal SCC with clear surgical margins (>5mm margins each) and negative neck (N0) were included. None of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy...
March 15, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Steven A Rosenzweig
Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs exemplifies the greatest hindrance to effective treatment of cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms responsible have been investigated for over 50 years and have revealed the lack of a single cause, but instead, multiple mechanisms including induced expression of membrane transporters that pump drugs out of cells (multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype), changes in the glutathione system, and altered metabolism. Treatment of cancer patients/cancer cells with chemotherapeutic agents and/or molecularly targeted drugs is accompanied by acquisition of resistance to the treatment administered...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
C P Hawkes, S Mostoufi-Moab
The relationship between fat, bone and systemic metabolism is a growing area of scientific interest. Marrow adipose tissue is a well-recognized component of the bone marrow milieu and is metabolically distinct from current established subtypes of adipose tissue. Despite recent advances, the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue is still not clearly delineated. Bone and fat cells share a common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) within the bone marrow, and hormones and transcription factors such as growth hormone, leptin, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ influence MSC differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes...
March 14, 2018: Bone
Long Cui, Juan Zhao, Jingjing Liu
BACKGROUND: Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin activation has been shown to play essential roles in cancer, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this work, we demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin inhibition by a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, pyrvinium, effectively targets clear cell RCC and enhances chemotherapy agent's efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed in vitro cell culture assays and in vivo xenograft tumor model to evaluate the effects of pyrvinium alone and its combination with paclitaxel, and analyzed the underlying mechanism(s) of pyrvinium's action in RCC...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Siqi Feng, Jingwei Zhang, Ying Wang, Runbin Sun, Dong Feng, Ying Peng, Na Yang, Yue Zhang, Haoxue Gao, Huilin Gu, Guangji Wang, Jiye Aa, Fang Zhou
Apatinib, a highly selective small-molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), has attracted many attentions due to its anticancer activity in various malignancies containing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our previous preclinical study confirmed the enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of combined treatment between apatinib and docetaxel for NSCLC. However, the effects of docetaxel on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of apatinib are not clear. In present study, a reliable HPLC-MS/MS method was established for determination of apatinib...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Emma V Morris, Claire M Edwards
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable haematological malignancy and is the second most common blood cancer in adults; it is caused by the clonal expansion of abnormal plasma cells within the bone marrow characterized by osteolytic bone lesions, bone pain, renal disease, and immunodeficiency. MM cells infiltrate the bone marrow where they hijack the microenvironment to sustain growth and survival. The contribution to this process by resident bone cells is well defined. However, the role of bone marrow adipocytes is less clear...
March 13, 2018: Bone
Erwan Goy, Corinne Abbadie
When ageing, cells profoundly reprogram to enter a state called senescence. Although the link between senescence and cancer is well established, the nature of this link remains unclear and debated. We will describe in this article the properties of senescent cells and make clear on how they could promote or oppose to cancer initiation and progression. We will also consider senescence as a response to classical anti-cancer therapies and discuss how to take advantage of senescence to improve the efficacy of these therapies while decreasing their toxicity...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Aldo Berti, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
A case of an extremely healthy, active, 96-year-old patient, nonsmoker, is reviewed. He was initially treated for left V1, V2, and V3 trigeminal neuralgia in 2001, at age 80, with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a dose of 80 Gy to the left retrogasserian trigeminal nerve. He remained asymptomatic for nine years until his trigeminal pain recurred in 2010. He was first treated medically but was intolerant to increasing doses of carbamazepine and gabapentin. He underwent a second SRS in 2012 with a dose of 65...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Tomoyuki Yoshikawa, Morikazu Miyamoto, Tadashi Aoyama, Hiroaki Soyama, Tomoko Goto, Junko Hirata, Ayako Suzuki, Isao Nagaoka, Hitoshi Tsuda, Kenichi Furuya, Masashi Takano
The activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway has been reported to have critical roles in several solid tumors. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between JAK2/STAT3 activation and clinicopathological parameters in ovarian cancer types. Tissue microarrays made from the patients treated at the National Defense Medical College Hospital between 1984 and 2008 were evaluated using immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings. Medical charts of these patients including IHC results were retrospectively analyzed, and prognostic factors for progression-free survival and overall survival were evaluated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
S Wang, Z Zou, X Luo, Y Mi, H Chang, D Xing
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1) has been shown to promote tumor proliferation and development. However, the functions of LRH1 in mediating cancer cells chemoresistance are still not clear. Here, we found LRH1 levels were significantly elevated in primary breast cancer tissues in patients who developed early recurrence. Similarly, adriamycin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cell lines also exerted high LRH1 expression. Indeed, overexpression of LRH1 attenuated cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs ADR and cisplatin (DDP) in breast cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice tumor model...
March 16, 2018: Oncogene
Zhijian Zhao, Mengping Zhang, Xiaolu Duan, Yiwen Chen, Ermao Li, Lianming Luo, Wenqi Wu, Zhenwei Peng, Hui-Juan Qiu, Guohua Zeng
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is important for the tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers. However, little is known about TRPM7 expression and its clinical significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The expression dynamics of TRPM7 was examined in a clinical cohort of RCC specimens by quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunoblotting and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to elucidate the function of TRPM7 in RCC and the underlying mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
X Melody Qu, Vikram M Velker, Eric Leung, Janice S Kwon, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Iwa Kong, Natalie A Logie, Lucas C Mendez, Louis J van der Putten, Elysia K Donovan, Adnan R Munkarah, Ericka M Wiebe, Carlos Parra-Herran, Andrew Warner, Alexander V Louie, David P D'Souza
OBJECTIVE: As the optimal adjuvant management of stage IA serous or clear cell endometrial cancer is controversial, a multi-institutional review was conducted with the objective of evaluating the appropriateness of various strategies including observation. METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews for 414 consecutive patients who underwent hysterectomy for FIGO stage IA endometrial cancer with serous, clear cell or mixed histology between 2004 and 2015 were conducted in 6 North American centers...
March 12, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Jake K Nikota, Qian N Hu, Andrew Nguyen, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer is a significant global health burden and despite the presence of viral transforming antigens within neoplastic cells, therapeutic vaccinations are ineffective for advanced disease. HPV positive TC1 cells are susceptible to viral oncolysis by MG1-E6E7, a custom designed oncolytic Maraba virus. Epitope mapping of mice vaccinated with MG1-E6E7 enabled the rational design of synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines against HPV16 and HPV18 antigens. SLPs were able to induce specific CD8+ immune responses and the magnitude of these responses significantly increased when boosted by MG1-E6E7...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
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