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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342986/oncogenic-roles-of-dna-hypomethylation-through-the-activation-of-cancer-germline-genes
#1
Aurélie Van Tongelen, Axelle Loriot, Charles De Smet
Global loss of DNA methylation is frequently observed in the genome of human tumors. Although this epigenetic alteration is clearly associated with cancer progression, the way it exerts its pro-tumoral effect remains incompletely understood. A remarkable consequence of DNA hypomethylation in tumors is the aberrant activation of "cancer-germline" genes (also known as "cancer-testis" genes), which comprise a diverse group of germline-specific genes that use DNA methylation as a primary mechanism for repression in normal somatic tissues...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342812/a-laparo-endoscopic-single-site-surgical-approach-to-laparoscopic-salpingectomy
#2
Stacey A Scheib
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgical approach to salpingectomy. DESIGN: Technical video demonstrating step-by-step a LESS surgical approach to salpingectomy. (Canadian Task Force classification level III). IRB approval was not required for this study. SETTING: Of all gynecologic cancer types, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate and is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342790/lipocalin-2-and-iron-trafficking-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#3
REVIEW
Michaela Jung, Christina Mertens, Rebekka Bauer, Claudia Rehwald, Bernhard Brüne
Iron is an essential element for virtually all organisms. It facilitates cell proliferation and growth but also contributes to major hallmarks of cancer such as tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Often, iron handling of tumor cells is disturbed, with altered iron acquisition, efflux, and storage. Targeting perturbed iron metabolic pathways might open opportunities towards novel approaches in cancer treatment. It is becoming clear that cells of the tumor microenvironment such as macrophages contribute to tumor progression...
March 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342728/comparative-analysis-for-diagnostic-yield-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-cytology-and%C3%A2-histology-during-the-same-bronchoscopic%C3%A2-procedure
#4
Wei-Nan Li, Di-Fei Wang, Ya-Bin Zhao, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang, Guang-Ping Wu
BACKGROUND: Biopsy, brushing, and transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) are the most common methods used for the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer during the same diagnostic bronchoscopic procedure. However, it is not clear which method provides better results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 140 patients who had undergone video bronchoscopy for diagnostic purposes. Bronchial brushings were obtained from all subjects. Biopsy specimens were also obtained from all subjects, except for 6 cases that could not be sampled; the TBNA method was used for some special lesions...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339085/integrated-analysis-of-mrna-and-mirna-expression-profiles-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Hongwei Sun, Liang Zhao, Kehua Pan, Zhao Zhang, Mengtao Zhou, Guoquan Cao
In the present study, to investigate the potential molecular mechanism of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), mRNA and miRNA expression profiles were integrated for systematic analysis. Results showed that a total of 76 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from 2 mRNA expression profiles that contained 39 tumor and 15 normal samples. Notably, the tumor and normal samples were able to be clearly classified into 4 groups based on the DEGs. mRNA‑miRNA regulation network analysis indicated that 22 out of the 76 DEGs including MUC4, RRM2 and CCL2 are regulated by 5 reported miRNAs...
March 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#6
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337964/targeting-cd47-enhances-the-efficacy-of-anti-pd-1-and-ctla-4-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-cancer-preclinical-model
#7
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Feijiang Wang, Hongliang Yu, Yesong Guo
Esophageal squamous cell cancer is a highly aggressive cancer with dismal five-year survival rate. CD47 is a cell transmembrane protein that is involved in cell apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and antigen presenting of the immune system. Via interacting with signal regulatory protein-alpha expressed in antigen presenting cells (APCs), CD47 acts as an antiphagocytic mechanism to inhibit APCs dependent antigen presenting. Overxpression of CD47 was found in various cancer types. However, its role in esophageal squamous cell cancer is not clear yet...
March 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337841/yeast-aquaporin-regulation-by-4-hydroxynonenal-is-implicated-in-oxidative-stress-response
#8
Claudia Rodrigues, Ivana Tartaro Bujak, Branka Mihaljević, Graça Soveral, Ana Cipak Gasparovic
Reactive oxygen species, especially hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), contribute to functional molecular impairment and cellular damage, but also are necessary in normal cellular metabolism, and in low doses play stimulatory role in cell proliferation and stress resistance. In parallel, reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are lipid peroxidation breakdown products which also contribute to regulation of numerous cellular processes. Recently, channeling of H2 O2 by some mammalian aquaporin isoforms has been reported and suggested to contribute to aquaporin involvement in cancer malignancies, although the mechanism by which these membrane water channels are implicated in oxidative stress is not clear...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337374/polypyrimidine-tract-binding-protein-1-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-regulating-alternative-splicing-of-pkm
#9
Junyi Jiang, Xu Chen, Hao Liu, Jing Shao, Ruihui Xie, Peng Gu, Chaohui Duan
Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1) is an essential RNA-binding protein that regulates diverse biological events through regulating alternative splice of mRNA. PTBP1 induces cancer-promoting splice variants and is related to tumorigenesis in several cancers. However, both the expression patterns and biological mechanisms of PTBP1 in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are unclear. We investigated PTBP1 expression in 533 ccRCC patients from TCGA and 30 ccRCC patients by immunohistochemistry, and found that PTBP1 expression levels were significantly increased in ccRCC tissues and that high PTBP1 expression was closely correlated with advanced tumor stage, AJCC stage and poor prognosis...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337266/long-non-coding-rna-uca1-promotes-cell-progression-by-acting-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-of-atf2-in-prostate-cancer
#10
Shilong Zhang, Xinxin Dong, Tongyu Ji, Guoxiao Chen, Lei Shan
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in elder men. This disease has limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis as the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. LncRNA UCA1 functions as an oncogene in many types of cancers. However, the role of UCA1 in PCa remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that UCA1 was significantly up-regulated in PCa cell lines and tissue samples. High UCA1 expression was positively associated with high gleason score, advanced TNM stage and shorter overall survival of PCa patients...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336809/lectin-galactoside-binding-soluble-3-binding-protein-promotes-17-n-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin-resistance-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-lung-cancer-cell-line
#11
Jong Kyu Woo, Jeong-Eun Jang, Ju-Hee Kang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon, Hyoung-Chin Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Seun Hyun Oh
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) stabilizing oncoproteins has been an attractive target in cancer therapy. 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), HSP90 inhibitor, was tested in phase II/III clinical trials, but due to lack of efficacy, clinical evaluation of 17-AAG has achieved limited success which led to resistance to 17-AAG. However, the mechanism of 17-AAG resistance has not clearly been identified. Here, we identified LGALS3BP (Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 binding protein), a secretory glycoprotein, as a 17-AAG resistance factor...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336398/modulation-of-mammary-tumor-vascularization-by-mast-cells-ultrasonographic-and-histopathological-approaches
#12
Ana I Faustino-Rocha, Adelina Gama, Paula A Oliveira, Katrien Vanderperren, Jimmy H Saunders, Maria J Pires, Rita Ferreira, Mário Ginja
AIMS: The inhibition of mast cells' degranulation may be an approach to prevent the formation of new vessels during the mammary carcinogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Mammary tumors were induced by intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals from group II were treated with ketotifen for 18weeks immediately after the MNU administration, while animals from group III only received the ketotifen after the development of the first mammary tumor...
March 20, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336365/breast-cancer-cells-focus-on-the-consequences-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Alice H L Bong, Gregory R Monteith
Breast cancers are highly heterogeneous and successful treatment of those subtypes with a high frequency of metastases and resistance to clinically available therapies remains a challenge. An understanding of mechanisms which may contribute to this heterogeneity and generation of more resilient cancer cells is therefore essential. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic two-way process that occurs during embryonic development and wound healing whereby epithelial cells can gain plasticity and switch to a mesenchymal-like phenotype...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336231/tnf-%C3%AE-inhibits-the-migration-of-oral-squamous-cancer-cells-mediated-by-mir-765-emp3-p66shc-axis
#14
Zhichao Zheng, Xiuwen Luan, Jun Zha, Zhengmao Li, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Haiyan Wang, Dan Hou, Liwen Huang, Feng Huang, Huade Zheng, Linhu Ge, Hongbing Guan
Whereas TNF-α can facilitate the metastasis of oral squamous cancer cells (OSCC), whether it inhibits the metastasis is not clear so far. In this study, we demonstrated that high dose TNF-α at 100ng/mL could in vitro significantly inhibit the migration of two OSCC cell lines, CAL-27 and SCC-25. To explore the related mechanisms, we focused on the involvement of the microRNAs and found that TNF-α increased the expression of miR-765. The upregulation of miR-765 was attributed to the inhibition of the migration...
March 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334884/improvement-in-the-prognosis-of-ovarian-cancer-in-the-era-before-addition-of-molecular-targeting-therapy
#15
Takako Shimada, Toshiaki Saito, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Kumi Shimamoto, Shuhei Matsushita, Shinichiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Ariyoshi, Masao Okadome
Objective: The prognosis of ovarian cancer has improved because of platinum- and taxane-containing chemotherapy. We investigated the 5-year disease-specific overall survival and prognostic factors of patients with advanced ovarian cancer to elucidate the change in clinical course of ovarian cancer with the advance of chemotherapy for patients who developed relapse in the era before the addition of molecular targeting therapy. Methods: We reviewed the clinical course of 134 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (FIGO Stage III and IV) treated in the past 11 years (1999-2010)...
February 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334733/mhc-class-i-chain-related-protein-a-and-b-mica-and-micb-are-predominantly-expressed-intracellularly-in-tumour-and-normal-tissue
#16
Hormas Ghadially, Lee Brown, Chris Lloyd, Leeanne Lewis, Arthur Lewis, Janette Dillon, Richard Sainson, Jelena Jovanovic, Natalie J Tigue, David Bannister, Lisa Bamber, Viia Valge-Archer, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A (MICA) and MHC class I chain-related protein B (MICB) are polymorphic proteins that are induced upon stress, damage or transformation of cells which act as a 'kill me' signal through the natural-killer group 2, member D receptor expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes. MICA/B are not thought to be constitutively expressed by healthy normal cells but expression has been reported for most tumour types. However, it is not clear how much of this protein is expressed on the cell surface...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334623/rapid-on-chip-apoptosis-assay-on-human-carcinoma-cells-based-on-annexin-v-quantum-dot-probes
#17
Helena Montón, Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Joan Antoni Soler, Andrzej Chałupniak, Carme Nogués, Arben Merkoçi
Despite all the efforts made over years to study the cancer expression and the metastasis event, there is not a clear understanding of its origins and effective treatment. Therefore, more specialized and rapid techniques are required for studying cell behaviour under different drug-based treatments. Here we present a quantum dot signalling-based cell assay carried out in a segmental microfluidic device that allows studying the effect of anti-cancer drugs in cultured cell lines by monitoring phosphatidylserine translocation that occurs in early apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333977/transition-into-inflammatory-cancer-associated-adipocytes-in-breast-cancer-microenvironment-requires-microrna-regulatory-mechanism
#18
Jiwoo Lee, Bok Sil Hong, Han Suk Ryu, Han-Byoel Lee, Minju Lee, In Ae Park, Jisun Kim, Wonshik Han, Dong-Young Noh, Hyeong-Gon Moon
The role of adipocytes in cancer microenvironment has gained focus during the recent years. However, the characteristics of the cancer-associated adipocytes (CAA) in human breast cancer tissues and the underlying regulatory mechanism are not clearly understood. We reviewed pathology specimens of breast cancer patients to understand the morphologic characteristics of CAA, and profiled the mRNA and miRNA expression of CAA by using indirect co-culture system in vitro. The CAAs in human breast cancers showed heterogeneous topographic relationship with breast cancer cells within the breast microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333438/nuclear-membrane-targeted-gold-nanoparticles-inhibit-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#19
Moustafa R K Ali, Yue Wu, Deepraj Ghosh, Brian H Do, Kuangcai Chen, Michelle R Dawson, Ning Fang, Todd A Sulchek, Mostafa A El-Sayed
Most cancer patients die from metastasis. Recent studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can slow down the migration/invasion speed of cancer cells and suppress metastasis. Since nuclear stiffness of the cell largely decreases cell migration, our hypothesis is that targeting AuNPs to the cell nucleus region could enhance nuclear stiffness, and therefore inhibit cell migration and invasion. Our results showed that upon nuclear targeting of AuNPs, the ovarian cancer cell motilities decrease significantly, compared with nontargeted AuNPs...
March 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333300/comparison-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-of-microdissected-human-foetal-leydig-cells-with-their-normal-and-hyperplastic-adult-equivalents
#20
Grete Lottrup, Kirstine Belling, Henrik Leffers, John E Nielsen, Marlene D Dalgaard, Anders Juul, Niels E Skakkebæk, Søren Brunak, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts
STUDY QUESTION: Do human adult Leydig cells (ALCs) within hyperplastic micronodules display characteristics of foetal LCs (FLCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The gene expression profiles of FLCs and all ALC subgroups were clearly different, but there were no significant differences in expressed genes between the normally clustered and hyperplastic ALCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: LCs are the primary androgen producing cells in males throughout development and appear in chronologically distinct populations; FLCs, neonatal LCs and ALCs...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
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