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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166586/the-broad-spectrum-of-human-natural-killer-cell-diversity
#1
REVIEW
Aharon G Freud, Bethany L Mundy-Bosse, Jianhua Yu, Michael A Caligiuri
Natural killer (NK) cells provide protection against infectious pathogens and cancer. For decades it has been appreciated that two major NK cell subsets (CD56(bright) and CD56(dim)) exist in humans and have distinct anatomical localization patterns, phenotypes, and functions in immunity. In light of this traditional NK cell dichotomy, it is now clear that the spectrum of human NK cell diversity is much broader than originally appreciated as a result of variegated surface receptor, intracellular signaling molecule, and transcription factor expression; tissue-specific imprinting; and foreign antigen exposure...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165639/human-cancer-tissues-exhibit-reduced-a-to-i-editing-of-mirnas-coupled-with-elevated-editing-of-their-targets
#2
Yishay Pinto, Ilana Buchumenski, Erez Y Levanon, Eli Eisenberg
A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification, known to be altered in tumors. It targets dozens of sites within miRNAs, some of which impact miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as many miRNA recognition sites. However, the full extent of the effect of editing on regulation by miRNAs and its behavior in human cancers is still unknown. Here we systematically characterized miRNA editing in 10 593 human samples across 32 cancer types and normal controls. We find that the majority of previously reported sites show little to no evidence for editing in this dataset, compile a list of 58 reliable miRNA editing sites, and study them across normal and cancer samples...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165391/micrornas-associated-with-von-hippel-lindau-pathway-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Lisa-Maria Schanza, Maximilian Seles, Michael Stotz, Johannes Fosselteder, Georg C Hutterer, Martin Pichler, Verena Stiegelbauer
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most common renal neoplasia and can be divided into three main histologic subtypes, among which clear cell RCC is by far the most common form of kidney cancer. Despite substantial advances over the last decade in the understanding of RCC biology, surgical treatments, and targeted and immuno-therapies in the metastatic setting, the prognosis for advanced RCC patients remains poor. One of the major problems with RCC treatment strategies is inherent or acquired resistance towards therapeutic agents over time...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165358/understanding-the-molecular-genetics-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Pellegrini, Maria Giovanna Maturo, Lucia Di Nardo, Valeria Ciciarelli, Carlota Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Maria Concetta Fargnoli
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO, the TP53 tumor suppressor, and members of the RAS proto-oncogene family. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway represents the molecular driver in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis, with the majority of BCCs carrying somatic point mutations, mainly ultraviolet (UV)-induced, and/or copy-loss of heterozygosis in the PTCH1 gene...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164633/capillarisin-blocks-prostate-specific-antigen-expression-on-activation-of-androgen-receptor-in-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#5
Ke-Hung Tsui, Ying-Ling Chang, Tsui-Hsia Feng, Chen-Pang Hou, Yu-Hsiang Lin, Pei-Shan Yang, Bing-Wei Lee, Horng-Heng Juang
BACKGROUND: Capillarisin (Cap), an active ingredient of Artemisia capillaris extracts, has known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Functions of Cap in prostate cancer are not clear. We investigate effects of Cap on downregulation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) via modulation of androgen receptor (AR) in prostate carcinoma cells. METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) cell proliferation assays...
November 22, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163810/myeloid-ecotropic-viral-integration-site-1-inhibits-cell-proliferation-invasion-or-migration-in-human-gastric-cancer
#6
Fei Song, Hong Wang, Yingying Wang
Myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (MEIS1) has been identified to be a potential tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying MEIS1-induced cancer development and progression were not clear. Here, we investigated the expression and role of MEIS1 in gastric cancer. In vivo, we analyzed tumor growth using nude mice model. In the present study, MEIS1 expression was obviously decreased in GC cell lines compared with that in normal gastric cell lines (all p<0.001). MEIS1 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and G1/S transition accompanied by decreased Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A expression...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163752/cytotoxicity-oxidative-stress-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mitochondrial-apoptosis-after-combined-treatment-of-hepatocarcinoma-cells-with-maleic-anhydride-derivatives-and-quercetin
#7
Gabriela Carrasco-Torres, Rafael Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Erik Andrade-Jorge, Saúl Villa-Treviño, José Guadalupe Trujillo-Ferrara, Verónica Rocío Vásquez-Garzón
The inflammatory condition of malignant tumors continually exposes cancer cells to reactive oxygen species, an oxidizing condition that leads to the activation of the antioxidant defense system. A similar activation occurs with glutathione production. This oxidant condition enables tumor cells to maintain the energy required for growth, proliferation, and evasion of cell death. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells of a combination treatment with maleic anhydride derivatives (prooxidants) and quercetin (an antioxidant)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163707/n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-2-restrains-glycolysis-and-glutaminolysis-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Wei Shi, Xinyuan Xu, Fei Yan, Bao Wang, Hang Zhao, Aaron Chan, Zhen Ren, Yongzheng Ma, Fuli Wang, Jianlin Yuan
Glycolysis and glutaminolysis are heavily involved in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. The activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes has a marked effect on the cellular metabolic processes glycolysis and glutaminolysis. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a tumor suppressor gene that previous studies have demonstrated can inhibit the growth, proliferation and metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. However, the function of NDRG2 in ccRCC metabolism remains unknown...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162539/modulation-of-diverse-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-thymoquinone-an-essential-oil-compound-isolated-from-the-seeds-of-nigella-sativa-linn
#9
REVIEW
Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar, Lingzhi Wang, Boon Cher Goh, Kwang Seok Ahn, Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi
Thymoquinone (TQ), isolated almost fifty years ago, is the main bioactive constituent of black seed essential oil extracted from the seed of Nigella sativa. TQ has been shown to have promising effects against a variety of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Cancer development is a multistep process where normal cells acquire qualities that enable the cells to proliferate continuously and migrate to distant sites in the human body. Drugs that interfere with this process are considered potential anti-cancer therapeutics, which may ultimately result in their clinical usage...
November 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161753/improving-the-efficacy-of-proteasome-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-combination-with-the-hiv-protease-inhibitors-lopinavir-or-nelfinavir
#10
Dominik Abt, Andrej Besse, Lenka Sedlarikova, Marianne Kraus, Juergen Bader, Tobias Silzle, Martina Vodinska, Ondrej Slaby, Hans-Peter Schmid, Daniel Stephan Engeler, Christoph Driessen, Lenka Besse
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of second-generation proteasome inhibition by carfilzomib and its combination with the HIV-protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs) lopinavir and nelfinavir in vitro for improved treatment of clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and unfolded protein response (UPR) activation of proteasome inhibitors, HIV-PIs and their combination was assessed in 3 cell lines and primary cells derived from 3 ccRCC tumors by MTS assay, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR and western blot, respectively...
November 21, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160154/staging-neck-dissection-and-transoral-robotic-surgery-treatment-algorithm-in-palatine-tonsil-cancer
#11
Joseph Spellman, Ryan Sload, Paul Kim, Peter Martin, Gabriel Calzada
Objective This study introduces a treatment algorithm based on staging neck dissection to identify patients with palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma who can be effectively treated with single-modality transoral robotic surgery while maintaining quality of life. Study Design Retrospective case series. Setting Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Group from 2012 to 2017. Subjects and Methods Patients with early-stage (T1/2) palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma with clinically and radiographically N0 necks underwent staging neck dissection...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159069/co-expression-network-analysis-identified-six-hub-genes-in-association-with-progression-and-prognosis-in-human-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-ccrcc
#12
Lushun Yuan, Liang Chen, Kaiyu Qian, Guofeng Qian, Chin-Lee Wu, Xinghuan Wang, Yu Xiao
Human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the most common types of malignant adult kidney tumors. We constructed a weighted gene co-expression network to identify gene modules associated with clinical features of ccRCC (n = 97). Six hub genes (CCNB2, CDC20, CEP55, KIF20A, TOP2A and UBE2C) were identified in both co-expression and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, which were highly correlated with pathologic stage. The significance of expression of the hub genes in ccRCC was ranked top 4 among all cancers and correlated with poor prognosis...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158991/ndufa4l2-is-associated-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-malignancy-and-is-regulated-by-elk1
#13
Lei Wang, Zhiqiang Peng, Kaizhen Wang, Yijun Qi, Ying Yang, Yue Zhang, Xinyuan An, Shudong Luo, Junfang Zheng
Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and lethal cancer of the adult kidney. However, its pathogenesis has not been fully understood till now, which hinders the therapeutic development of ccRCC. NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 4-like 2 (NDUFA4L2) was found to be upregulated and play an important role in ccRCC. We aimed to further investigate the underlying mechanisms by which NDUFA4L2 exerted function and its expression level was upregulated...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158875/a-gene-module-based-eqtl-analysis-prioritizing-disease-genes-and-pathways-in-kidney-cancer
#14
Mary Qu Yang, Dan Li, William Yang, Yifan Zhang, Jun Liu, Weida Tong
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and most aggressive form of renal cell cancer (RCC). The incidence of RCC has increased steadily in recent years. The pathogenesis of renal cell cancer remains poorly understood. Many of the tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and dysregulated pathways in ccRCC need to be revealed for improvement of the overall clinical outlook of the disease. Here, we developed a systems biology approach to prioritize the somatic mutated genes that lead to dysregulation of pathways in ccRCC...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158682/unbs5162-inhibits-proliferation-of-human-retinoblastoma-cells-by-promoting-cell-apoptosis
#15
Bing Wang, Jiaquan Shen, Jue Wang
Human retinoblastomas are malignant intraocular tumors and have a high incidence in children. Chemotherapy combined with local therapy is the principal means of retinoblastoma treatment, the application of which has saved the eye of many children and avoided external irradiation. UNBS5162, a naphthalimide, has broad prospects as a tumor treatment, with fewer toxic side effects and higher cancer-suppression efficiency. However, the efficacy of UNBS5162 in human retinoblastomas is still not clear. In the present study, we investigated the specific mechanism of UNBS5162 in the human retinoblastoma cell lines WERIRb1 and Y79...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158066/the-potential-role-of-leptin-in-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis
#16
REVIEW
Amitabha Ray, Margot P Cleary
The adipocyte-released hormone-like cytokine/adipokine leptin behaves differently in obesity compared to its functions in the normal healthy state. In obese individuals, elevated leptin levels act as a pro-inflammatory adipokine and are associated with certain types of cancers. Further, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher circulating leptin concentrations and/or elevated expression of leptin receptors (Ob-R) in tumors may be poor prognostic factors. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of leptin's association with poor prognosis are not clear, leptin can impact the tumor microenvironment in several ways...
November 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157834/16-hydroxycleroda-3-13-dien-15-16-olide-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-induces-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-through-akt-mtor-and-mek-erk-pathways-in-human-renal-carcinoma-cells
#17
Cheng Liu, Wei-Chang Lee, Bu-Miin Huang, Yi-Chen Chia, Yu-Chi Chen, Yung-Chia Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known that it cannot be treated with traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 16-Hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (CD), isolated from Polyalthia longifolia Benth. & Hook. f. var. pendula had been reported to display significant efficacy against cancer cell lines. PURPOSE: To determine the anti-tumour activities of CD in two clear cell type RCC (ccRCC) cell lines (A-498 and 786-O). In addition, the underlying mechanisms were also examined...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157078/evolving-paradigms-for-the-biological-response-to-low-dose-ionising-radiation-the-role-of-epigenetics
#18
Paul N Schofield, Monika Kondratowicz
PURPOSE: In the late 1990s it had become clear that the long-standing paradigm for the action of radiation on living cells and organisms did not have sufficient power to explain the observed effects of low dose ionising radiation. The purpose of this commentary is to examine the experiments that lead up to the modification of the classic paradigm consequent on these observations, their historical precedents, and the development of our understanding of the role of epigenetics in low dose radiation effects...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156755/escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-engineered-to-express-tum-5-can-restrain-murine-melanoma-growth
#19
Lian He, Huijun Yang, Fei Liu, Yiyan Chen, Sijia Tang, Wei Ji, Jianli Tang, Zhudong Liu, Yunjun Sun, Shengbiao Hu, Youming Zhang, Xiong Liu, Weitao Huang, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia
Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis. Thus, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has become promising cancer therapeutic strategy in recent years. Tumstatin is a more powerful angiogenesis inhibitor than endostatin. Anti-angiogenic active fragment encoding amino acids 45-132 (Tum-5) of tumstatin was subcloned into four different inducible expression vectors and successfully solubly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in this study. Subsequently, an anaerobic inducible expression vector was constructed under Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene promoter Pvhb in E...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156724/lncrna-pvt1-and-its-splicing-variant-function-as-competing-endogenous-rna-to-regulate-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-progression
#20
Tao Yang, Hui Zhou, Peijun Liu, Libin Yan, Weimin Yao, Ke Chen, Jin Zeng, Heng Li, Junhui Hu, Hua Xu, Zhangqun Ye
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert critical regulatory roles in the development and progression of several cancers. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), an lncRNA, was shown to be upregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in our study, while Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression analysis showed that high expression of PVT1 was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in ccRCC patients. In vitro experiments revealed that PVT1 promoted renal cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while in vivo studies confirmed its oncogenic roles in ccRCC...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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