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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812319/evaluating-the-effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-disorders-of-consciousness-by-using-tms-eeg
#1
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Jiannan Kang, Xiaoxiao Yin, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
Background: The modulation efficacy of Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on consciousness improvement of patient with disorder of consciousness (DOC) has not been definitely confirmed. Objective: This study proposes TMS-EEG to assess effects of repetitive TMS (rTMS) on brain modulation of DOC. Methods: Twenty sessions of 10 Hz rTMS were applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for a patient with DOC. Measures of Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score, TMS-evoked potential (TEP), perturbation complexity index (PCI), and global mean field power (GMFP) were used to evaluate the consciousness level of the patient at three intervals: before the rTMS protocol (T0), immediately after one session rTMS (T1), and immediately after 20 sessions (T2)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793075/does-modafinil-improve-the-level-of-consciousness-for-people-with-a-prolonged-disorder-of-consciousness-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#2
Samira Kashinath Dhamapurkar, Barbara A Wilson, Anita Rose, Peter Watson, Agnes Shiel
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Modafinil is best known as a sleep regulator among healthy individuals, but studies suggest that it reduces excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with brain injury. This retrospective pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of Modafinil for people with a prolonged disorder of consciousness and whether those with a traumatic brain injury did better than those with a non-traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Twenty four prolonged disorder of consciousness patients who were prescribed Modafinil, were assessed at least four times both before and during treatment...
October 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773729/do-you-see-me-the-role-of-visual-fixation-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-differential-diagnosis
#3
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738996/the-neural-correlates-of-lexical-processing-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#4
Anna Nigri, Eleonora Catricalà, Stefania Ferraro, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ludovico D'Incerti, Davide Sattin, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Silvana Franceschetti, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Matilde Leonardi, Stefano F Cappa
There is a growing interest in the use of functional imaging to assess brain activity in the absence of behavioural responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). In the present study, we applied a hierarchical auditory stimulation paradigm to functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) in a group of long-term DOC adult patients. Brain response to pairs of pseudowords, of unrelated words and of semantically related words, i.e. stimuli differing in lexical status (words vs. pseudowords) and semantic relatedness (related vs...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695233/evaluation-of-pituitary-function-in-cases-with-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-cross-sectional-study
#5
Hakan Aylanç, Filiz Tütüncüler, Necdet Süt
BACKGROUND: This study was to determine whether pituitary dysfunction occurs after head trauma in children or not and which axis is affected more; to define the association of pituitary dysfunction with the severity of head trauma and duration time after the diagnosis of head trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 24 children who were diagnosed with head trauma were evaluated regarding pituitary dysfunction. In all cases, after 12 h fasting, serum cortisol, fT3, fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serum sodium, urine density, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, in female cases E2, in male cases, TT levels were determined...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639840/steroid-responsive-encephalopathy-associated-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis-sreat-characteristics-treatment-and-outcome-in-251-cases-from-the-literature
#6
Charlotte Laurent, Jean Capron, Bluenn Quillerou, Guy Thomas, Sonia Alamowitch, Olivier Fain, Arsène Mekinian
BACKGROUND: Steroid-responsive encephalopathy and associated autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) is characterized by encephalopathy and the presence of antithyroid antibodies. We describe the clinical presentation, outcome and treatments for SREAT by a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published until 2015. Inclusion criteria were unexplained encephalopathy with antithyroid antibodies...
September 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631398/myxedema-coma-secondary-to-central-hypothyroidism-a-rare-but-real-cause-of-altered-mental-status-in-pediatrics
#7
Michael D Thompson, Rohan K Henry
BACKGROUND: Myxedema coma (MC), a medical emergency defined as severe hypothyroidism leading to altered mental status, is more common in older women with hypothyroidism. METHODS/RESULTS: A 7-year-old Caucasian male with chromosome 1q deletion presented with altered mental status preceded by milestone regression. His presenting labs results were: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.501 μIU/ml and free thyroxine (T4) <0.5 ng/dl. His morning cortisol level was 8...
September 16, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598995/granzyme-a-contributes-to-inflammatory-arthritis-through-stimulation-of-osteoclastogenesis
#8
Llipsy Santiago, Cheikh Menaa, Maykel Arias, Praxedis Martin, Paula Jaime-Sánchez, Sunil Metkar, Laura Comas, Nadina Erill, Victor Gonzalez-Rumayor, Erica Esser, Eva Ma Galvez, Sri Raja, Markus M Simon, Stuart M Sprague, Cem Gabay, Luis Martinez-Lostao, Julian Pardo, Christopher J Froelich
OBJECTIVE: Granzyme A (GzmA) is elevated in the plasma and synovium in RA patients suggesting the involvement of the protease in its pathogenesis. GzmA contributes to sepsis by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We evaluated the contribution of GzmA to the pathogenesis of RA in vivo and the possibility that GzmA via TNF-α stimulates osteoclastogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Inflammatory arthritis induced by type II collagen was evaluated in wild type, GzmA deficient and perforin deficient mice...
September 6, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585057/helping-persons-in-a-minimally-conscious-state-develop-responding-and-stimulation-control-through-a-microswitch-aided-program
#9
Giulio E Lancioni, Nirbhay Singh, Mark F O'Reilly, Jeff Sigafoos, Fiora D'Amico, Francesca Buonocunto, Jorge Navarro, Crocifissa Lanzilotti, Pietro Fiore, Marisa Megna, Sabino Damiani, Riccardo Marvulli
BACKGROUND: Post-coma persons in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and with extensive motor impairment cannot independently access and control environmental stimulation. AIM: Assessing the effects of a microswitch-aided program aimed at helping MCS persons develop responding and stimulation control and conducting a social validation/evaluation of the program. DESIGN: A single-subject ABAB design was used for each participant to determine the impact of the program on his or her responding...
September 1, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581664/presentations-to-an-urban-emergency-department-in-switzerland-due-to-acute-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-toxicity
#10
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabio Walther, Christian H Nickel, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with dose-dependent sedative effects. Systematic data on the acute toxicity of GHB from emergency department (ED) presentations over a long period of time are currently missing from the literature. The present study described the clinical features of GHB toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case series of GHB intoxications seen in an urban ED. RESULTS: From January 2002 to September 2015, 78 GHB-related intoxication cases were recorded (71 % male patients)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494756/neurobehavioural-assessment-and-diagnosis-in-disorders-of-consciousness-a-preliminary-study-of-the-sensory-tool-to-assess-responsiveness-star
#11
Verity Stokes, Sarah Gunn, Katie Schouwenaars, Derar Badwan
The Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR) is an interdisciplinary neurobehavioural diagnostic tool for individuals with prolonged disorders of consciousness. It utilises current diagnostic criteria and is intended to improve upon the high misdiagnosis rate in this population. This study assesses the inter-rater reliability of the STAR and its diagnostic validity in comparison with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Participants were patients with severe acquired brain injury resulting in a disorder of consciousness, who were admitted to the Royal Leamington Spa Rehabilitation Hospital between 1999 and 2009...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491799/consciousness-and-cortical-responsiveness-a-within-state-study-during-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#12
Jaakko O Nieminen, Olivia Gosseries, Marcello Massimini, Elyana Saad, Andrew D Sheldon, Melanie Boly, Francesca Siclari, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma...
August 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472636/coma-aberrations-in-combined-two-and-three-dimensional-sted-nanoscopy
#13
Jacopo Antonello, Emil B Kromann, Daniel Burke, Joerg Bewersdorf, Martin J Booth
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopes, like all super-resolution methods, are sensitive to aberrations. Of particular importance are aberrations that affect the quality of the depletion focus, which requires a point of near-zero intensity surrounded by strong illumination. We present analysis, modeling, and experimental measurements that show the effects of coma aberrations on depletion patterns of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) STED configurations. Specifically, we find that identical coma aberrations create focal shifts in opposite directions in 2D and 3D STED...
August 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375316/factors-affecting-morbidity-in-solid-organ-injuries
#14
Serdar Baygeldi, Oktay Karakose, Kazım Caglar Özcelik, Hüseyin Pülat, Sedat Damar, Hüseyin Eken, İsmail Zihni, Alpaslan Fedai Çalta, Bilsel Baç
Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347265/the-role-of-neuroimaging-techniques-in-establishing-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapy-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#15
Olivia Gosseries, Francesca Pistoia, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Antonio Carolei, Simona Sacco, Steven Laureys
Non-communicative brain damaged patients raise important clinical and scientific issues. Here, we review three major pathological disorders of consciousness: coma, the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and the minimally conscious state. A number of clinical studies highlight the difficulty in making a correct diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness based only on behavioral examinations. The increasing use of neuroimaging techniques allows improving clinical characterization of these patients. Recent neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation can help assess diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333872/epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-putative-genetic-basis-of-carbamazepine-and-oxcarbazepine-induced-hyponatremia
#16
REVIEW
B Berghuis, G-J de Haan, M P H van den Broek, J W Sander, D Lindhout, B P C Koeleman
The use of carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) as first-line antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of focal epilepsy is limited by hyponatremia, a known adverse effect. Hyponatremia occurs in up to half of people taking CBZ or OXC and, although often assumed to be asymptomatic, it can lead to symptoms ranging from unsteadiness and mild confusion to seizures and coma. Hyponatremia is probably due to the antidiuretic properties of CBZ and OXC that are, at least partly, explained by stimulation of the vasopressin 2 receptor/aquaporin 2 pathway...
September 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266662/burst-suppression-is-reactive-to-photic-stimulation-in-comatose-children-with-acquired-brain-injury
#17
Dragos A Nita, Mihai Moldovan, Roy Sharma, Sinziana Avramescu, Hiroshi Otsubo, Cecil D Hahn
OBJECTIVE: Burst-suppression is an electroencephalographic pattern observed during coma. In individuals without known brain pathologies undergoing deep general anesthesia, somatosensory stimulation transiently increases the occurrence of bursts. We investigated the reactivity of burst-suppression in children with acquired brain injury. METHODS: Intensive care unit electroencephalographic monitoring recordings containing burst-suppression were obtained from 5 comatose children with acquired brain injury of various etiologies...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260125/pharmacological-characterization-of-emerging-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-hek293t-cells-and-hippocampal-neurons
#18
Willard J Costain, Joseph S Tauskela, Ingrid Rasquinha, Tanya Comas, Melissa Hewitt, Vincent Marleau, Evelyn C Soo
There has been a worldwide proliferation of synthetic cannabinoids that have become marketed as legal alternatives to cannabis (marijuana). Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information about the pharmacological effects of many of these emerging synthetic cannabinoids (ESCs), which presents a challenge for regulatory authorities that need to take such scientific evidence into consideration in order to regulate ECSs as controlled substances. We aimed to characterize the pharmacological properties of ten ESCs using two cell based assays that enabled the determination of potency and efficacy relative to a panel of well-characterized cannabinoids...
September 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247315/reduced-l-type-ca2-current-and-compromised-excitability-induce-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-function-during-acute-cooling-in-locust
#19
Anders Findsen, Johannes Overgaard, Thomas Holm Pedersen
Low temperature causes most insects to enter a state of neuromuscular paralysis, termed chill coma. The susceptibility of insect species to chill coma is tightly correlated to their distribution limits and for this reason it is important to understand the cellular processes that underlie chill coma. It is known that muscle function is markedly depressed at low temperature and this suggests that chill coma is partly caused by impairment in the muscle per se. To find the cellular mechanism(s) underlying muscle dysfunction at low temperature, we examined the effect of low temperature (5°C) on several events in excitation-contraction coupling in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241789/effectiveness-of-direct-and-non-direct-auditory-stimulation-on-coma-arousal-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Soohyun Park, Alice E Davis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on arousal in coma patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to compare the effects of direct vs. non-direct auditory stimulation. A crossover intervention study design was used. Nine participants who were comatose after a severe traumatic brain injury underwent direct and non-direct auditory stimulation. Direct auditory stimulation requires a higher level of interpersonal interaction between the patient and stimuli such as voices of family members, orientation by a nurse or family member and familiar music...
August 2016: International Journal of Nursing Practice
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