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Medical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214790/sensitising-intern-doctors-to-ethical-issues-in-a-doctor-patient-relationship
#1
Nilima D Shah, Ritambhara Y Mehta, Kamlesh R Dave
There is a felt need in India to influence the ethical behaviour of doctors by giving students formal education in ethics in medical colleges. Since internship is the interface between learning and independent practice, it is important to sensitise intern doctors to ethical issues in a doctor-patient relationship at this stage.
February 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213602/understanding-the-epidemiology-of-avoidable-significant-harm-in-primary-care-protocol-for-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#2
Brian G Bell, Stephen Campbell, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Huw Prosser Evans, Alison Cooper, Christina Sheehan, Sarah Rodgers, Christine Johnson, Adrian Edwards, Sarah Armstrong, Rajnikant Mehta, Antony Chuter, Ailsa Donnelly, Darren M Ashcroft, Joanne Lymn, Pam Smith, Aziz Sheikh, Matthew Boyd, Anthony J Avery
INTRODUCTION: Most patient safety research has focused on specialist-care settings where there is an appreciation of the frequency and causes of medical errors, and the resulting burden of adverse events. There have, however, been few large-scale robust studies that have investigated the extent and severity of avoidable harm in primary care. To address this, we will conduct a 12-month retrospective cross-sectional study involving case note review of primary care patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct electronic searches of general practice (GP) clinical computer systems to identify patients with avoidable significant harm...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213601/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-of-post-trial-extensions-of-randomised-controlled-trials-using-individually-linked-administrative-and-registry-data
#3
Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Laure Perrier, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus, Peter Jüni, Merrick Zwarenstein, Lisa M Lix, Mark Smith, Laura C Rosella, David A Henry
INTRODUCTION: Well-conducted randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the least biased estimates of intervention effects. However, RCTs are costly and time-consuming to perform and long-term follow-up of participants may be hampered by lost contacts and financial constraints. Advances in computing and population-based registries have created new possibilities for increasing the value of RCTs by post-trial extension using linkage to routinely collected administrative/registry data in order to determine long-term interventional effects...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213599/health-information-needs-source-preferences-and-engagement-behaviours-of-women-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-across-the-care-continuum-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#4
Carol A Tucker, M Pilar Martin, Ray B Jones
INTRODUCTION: The health information needs, information source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) depend on personal characteristics such as education level, prior knowledge, clinical complications, comorbidities and where they are in the cancer journey. A thorough understanding of the information behaviours of women living with mBC is essential to the provision of optimal care. A preliminary literature review suggests that there is little research on this topic, but that there may be lessons from a slightly broader literature...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213593/randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-placebo-controlled-study-to-evaluate-the-analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-vvz-149-injections-for-postoperative-pain-following-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#5
Srdjan S Nedeljkovic, Darin J Correll, Xiaodong Bao, Natacha Zamor, Jose L Zeballos, Yi Zhang, Mark J Young, Johanna Ledley, Jessica Sorace, Kristen Eng, Carlyle P Hamsher, Rajivan Maniam, Jonathan W Chin, Becky Tsui, Sunyoung Cho, Doo H Lee
INTRODUCTION: In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210321/telemedicine-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Nicolino Ambrosino, Guido Vagheggini, Stefano Mazzoleni, Michele Vitacca
: Telemedicine is a medical application of advanced technology to disease management. This modality may provide benefits also to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Different devices and systems are used. The legal problems associated with telemedicine are still controversial. Economic advantages for healthcare systems, though potentially high, are still poorly investigated. A European Respiratory Society Task Force has defined indications, follow-up, equipment, facilities, legal and economic issues of tele-monitoring of COPD patients including those undergoing home mechanical ventilation...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#7
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209416/efficacy-of-an-anal-fistula-plug-for-fistulas-in-ano-in-children
#8
Katsunori Kouchi, Ayao Takenouchi, Aki Matsuoka, Kiyoaki Yabe, Mashahiro Korai, Chikako Nakata
BACKGROUND: In children, perianal abscesses have a good prognosis and often heal with age. However, some perianal abscesses are refractory to treatment and remain as fistulas-in-ano. Treatment with a Surgisis Anal Fistula Plug® has been reported as a new method of treatment for fistulas. In adults, the plug has been reported to cause little pain and have a high cure rate, but there have been no reported cases of its use in children. PURPOSE: This study was designed to analyze the efficacy of the plug for closure of refractory fistulas in children...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207958/shared-care-requires-a-shared-vision-communities-of-clinical-practice-in-a-primary-care-setting
#9
Jessica Young, Tony Egan, Chrystal Jaye, Martyn Williamson, Anna Askerud, Peter Raude, Maree Penese
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand how a vision of care is formed and shared by patients and the primary care professionals involved in their care. BACKGROUND: To achieve the best health outcomes, it is important for patients and those who care for them to have a mutual understanding about what is important to the patient in their everyday life and why, and what care is necessary to realise this vision. Shared or team care does not necessarily translate to a consistent and integrated approach to a patient's care...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207807/how-much-is-a-child-worth-providers-and-patients-views-and-responses-concerning-ethical-and-policy-challenges-in-paying-for-art
#10
Robert Klitzman
Infertility treatments remain expensive and in many countries are covered by little, if any, insurance, raising critical questions concerning how patients and providers view and make decisions regarding these challenges. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 hour were conducted with 37 IVF providers and 10 patients (17 physicians, 10 other providers and 10 patients), and were systematically analyzed. These data suggest current insurance policies and legislation pose critical ethical and logistical challenges for both patients and providers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206834/study-of-the-levels-of-human-human-and-human-animal-empathy-in-veterinary-medical-students-from-chile
#11
Javiera Calderón-Amor, Daniela Luna-Fernández, Tamara Tadich
Social relationships are based on our ability to put ourselves in the place of others, and from there to react appropriately and logically. This empathic ability can be extended to other species, based on the human ability to develop techniques to understand and communicate with animals. In education, the benefits of training professionals with ethical and empathic tools are known. Gender, diet, past experiences, and other factors can modify a person's levels of empathy toward humans and animals, and a relationship exists between both types of empathy...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205146/binge-drinking-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-issues
#12
Benjamin Rolland, Mickaël Naassila
The concept of binge drinking (BD) refers to patterns of heavy episodic alcohol consumption, with BD primarily occurring among adolescents and young adults. Several official definitions of BD have been proposed, in particular by the World Health Organization, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Nevertheless, none of these definitions address the psychosocial and medical consequences of the type of alcohol use seen in BD. In practice, BD can thus correspond to either hazardous or harmful use of alcohol (HUA), while the episodic nature of heavy drinking in BD means that it does not meet the criteria for 'alcohol dependence'...
February 15, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203799/medical-research-and-the-ethics-of-medical-treatments-disability-free-survival
#13
P-A Lönnqvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202330/ethical-issues-in-cesarean-delivery
#14
REVIEW
Frank A Chervenak, Laurence B McCullough
Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery...
January 23, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197000/impact-of-an-educational-module-in-antidepressant-naive-patients-prescribed-antidepressants-for-depression-pilot-proof-of-concept-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Annie P John, Nagendra Madan Singh, Nagarajaiah, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Patients are educated about their illness and its treatment at the time of diagnosis. However, little is known about how much of this education is retained and how it influences knowledge about, attitudes toward, and experiences with medication in antidepressant-naive patients with depression. METHODS: Antidepressant-naive outpatients with International Classification of Diseases-10 dysthymia or mild to moderate depression, who were advised antidepressant monotherapy, were randomized to control (n = 22) or intervention (n = 17) groups...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196575/workplace-violence-against-nurses-vhembe-district-hospitals-south-africa
#16
Tshifularo Olga Mahani, Henry Abayomi Akinsola, Jabu Mabunda, Helen Tosin Oni
INTRODUCTION: Work-related violence is a common problem worldwide. In South Africa, the Medical Research Council conducted a study on workplace violence in the health care industry and reported that most respondents had experienced it in different forms. PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the types and causes of workplace violence toward nurses in Thulamela hospitals, Vhembe district. METHODS: The study employed a quantitative approach using a cross-sectional design...
February 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195931/should-antipsychotic-medications-for-schizophrenia-be-given-for-a-lifetime-a-naturalistic-long-term-follow-up-study
#17
Ira D Glick, John M Davis, Daisy Zamora, Jacob Ballon, Meena Nuthi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia remains a major health problem despite antipsychotic medications that, for most patients, can decrease acute symptoms, decrease relapses, and contribute to partial and sometimes strong positive response in patients with chronic symptoms. What has not been clear-because a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is not feasible or ethical-is how many years after the initial episode, or onset of antipsychotic treatment, should medication be continued to achieve the best global outcome...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195536/patient-autonomy-within-real-or-valid-consent-samira-kohli-s-case
#18
Supriya Subramani
In bioethics literature, the primary justification for the requirement of informed consent has been the protection of autonomous choices. To allow patients to be autonomous decision-makers, physicians are supposed to disclose and share information related to all treatment, procedures and risks. Advocates of the autonomy-based informed consent model argue that in informed consent cases, the disclosure of information should be according to the reasonable person standard or reasonable patient standard, rather than the average competent physician standard...
January 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195534/should-a-medical-ethics-journal-discuss-the-actions-of-the-security-forces
#19
Ravindra B Ghooi
This refers to the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" by Siddarth David in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. My objection is not to the ethics of the use of pellet guns, but to the ethics of publishing such an article in a journal devoted to medical ethics.
January 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192554/using-patient-centered-care-after-a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-trisomy-18-or-trisomy-13-a-review
#20
Shelly Haug, Mitchell Goldstein, Denise Cummins, Elba Fayard, T Allen Merritt
Importance: Patient-centered care (PCC) has been advocated by the Institute of Medicine to improve health care in the United States. Four concepts of PCC align with clinical ethics principles and are associated with enhanced patient/parent satisfaction. These concepts are dignity and respect, information sharing, participation, and collaboration. The objective of this article is to use the PCC approach as a framework for an extensive literature review evaluating the current status of counseling regarding prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 (T18) or trisomy 13 (T13) and to advocate PCC in the care of these infants...
February 13, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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