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Medical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445263/acupuncture-for-enhancing-early-recovery-of-bowel-function-in-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#1
Yi-Hua Liu, Yang Ye, Jia-Bin Zheng, Xue-Qian Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedure often suffer from bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus (POI). Cancer management for early recovery of bowel function is still a challenging topic. Acupuncture has been commonly used in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy to reduce the duration of POI and enhance bowel function in cancer patients. METHODS: We will systematically screen all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through electronically and hand searching...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444477/ethical-conflicts-in-the-treatment-of-fasting-muslim-patients-with-diabetes-during-ramadan
#2
Ilhan Ilkilic, Hakan Ertin
BACKGROUND: For an effective treatment of patients, quality-assured safe implementation of drug therapy is indispensable. Fasting during Ramadan, an essential religious practice for Muslims, affects Muslim diabetics' drug use in a number of different ways. OBJECTIVES: Ethical problems arising from fasting during the month of Ramadan for practicing Muslim patients are being discussed on the basis of extant research literature. Relevant conflicts of interest originating in this situation are being analysed from an ethical perspective...
April 25, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440722/twelve-tips-for-teaching-about-patients-with-cognitive-impairment
#3
James Michael Fisher, Ellen Tullo, Kwong Chan, Andrew Teodorczuk
The global population is ageing and consequently cognitive problems are increasingly prevalent. To ensure that the healthcare needs of this complex group are met, healthcare professionals must receive adequate training in this field. There are, however, a variety of reasons why this is not currently being achieved, including, but not limited to: ethical and logistical issues relating to the delivery of educational experiences involving cognitively impaired patients; a failure of curricula to keep pace with the changing demographic; societal and institutional ageism; and the inherent complexity of the conditions...
May 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438479/family-presence-during-resuscitation-fpdr-observational-case-studies-of-emergency-personnel-in-victoria-australia
#4
Joanne E Porter, Nareeda Miller, Anita Giannis, Nicole Coombs
INTRODUCTION: Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR...
April 21, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438276/integrating-yoga-into-psychotherapy-the-ethics-of-moving-from-the-mind-to-the-mat
#5
Jaclyn M Kamradt
Given the rise in attention to client preferences in medical treatment and the shift in focus toward health promotion, it is not surprising that the use of complementary health approaches have increased in the past several years. Yoga is among the most prominent complementary health approaches. Recently, both qualitative and quantitative work has emerged supporting its use for a variety of medical and psychological disorders. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge regarding how to most optimally and ethically integrate complementary therapies (i...
May 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437370/ethics-guide-recommendations-for-organ-donation-focused-physicians-endorsed-by-the-canadian-medical-association
#6
Sam D Shemie, Christy Simpson, Jeff Blackmer, Shavaun MacDonald, Sonny Dhanani, Sylvia Torrance, Paul Byrne
Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services...
May 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436929/when-not-to-rescue-an-ethical-analysis-of-best-practices-for-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-and-emergency-cardiac-care
#7
Nancy S Jecker, Arthur R Derse
It is now a default obligation to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in the absence of knowledge of a patient's or surrogate's wishes to the contrary. We submit that it is time to re-evaluate this position. Attempting CPR should be subject to the same scrutiny demanded of other medical interventions that involve balancing a great benefit against grievous harms.
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435690/the-complex-legal-and-ethical-issues-related-to-generic-medications-viral-hepatitis-a-case-study
#8
EDITORIAL
M Danta, N Ghinea
The economic impact of medications is significant, with many countries unable to afford the essential medicines listed by the WHO. Generic medications are one strategy to address this issue. Generic medications are similar to but not the same as originator medications. They have a significant cost advantage because they do not require the background research and development studies to support registration. Consequently, they are gaining increased market share in both the developed and developing world. Many new medications are now licensed to generic manufacturers in the developing world...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434104/mullerian-dysgenesis-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Souzana Choussein, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
PURPOSE: To present an update of the genetic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. METHODS: Studies were considered eligible if they have evaluated patients with MRKH syndrome. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE bibliographical database from 1950 to August 2016. A purely descriptive approach was adopted concerning all outcomes examined by the individual studies. RESULTS: MRKH syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of the upper vagina and impairment of uterine development in normal 46XX females...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433961/harnessing-the-medical-humanities-for-experiential-learning
#10
Satendra Singh, Purnima Barua, Upreet Dhaliwal, Navjeevan Singh
A month-long workshop on medical humanities was held in the Jorhat Medical College, Assam in September 2015. It employed experiential learning (both online and onsite) using humanities tools, such as the theatre of the oppressed, art, literature, reflective narratives, movies, the history of medicine, graphic medicine, poetry and diversity studies. As a result of the interactions, 28 volunteer participants, comprising students and faculty members, wrote reflective narratives on doctor​-patient relationships, produced a newsletter and a logo for their medical humanities group, and staged cultural performances and forum theatre...
March 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433757/surgical-volunteerism-or-voluntourism-are-we-doing-more-harm-than-good
#11
EDITORIAL
Faheem Ahmed, Madeline Grade, Carl Malm, Sophia Michelen, Na'eem Ahmed
The significant rise in the number of international health electives undertaken by medical students and doctors in the US, Canada and UK reflects acknowledgement of the inter-connected nature of these challenges to health systems and the drive to help solve them. However, the next generation of international volunteers often operate under a conflicting duality: whilst many of their role models have devoted their lives to global health following a similar volunteering experience, there are pervasive ethical problems associated with short-term global health work that must be identified and addressed to ensure positive outcomes for all parties involved...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431515/the-effectiveness-of-creating-an-online-life-story-book-on-persons-with-early-dementia-and-their-informal-caregivers-a-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Teuntje R Elfrink, Sytse U Zuidema, Miriam Kunz, Gerben J Westerhof
BACKGROUND: Dementia has a high burden for patients, informal caregivers and society. Given changes in care systems, more persons with dementia will live longer at home. However, living at home (with dementia) with a good quality of life is not easy to achieve. Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms like apathy, agitation, depression, and anxiety, which have a negative impact on quality of life. Whereas cognitive deterioration can hardly be influenced, it is possible to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms...
April 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430569/courage-and-compassion-virtues-in-caring-for-so-called-difficult-patients
#13
Michael Hawking, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
What, if anything, can medical ethics offer to assist in the care of the "difficult" patient? We begin with a discussion of virtue theory and its application to medical ethics. We conceptualize the "difficult" patient as an example of a "moral stress test" that especially challenges the physician's character, requiring the good physician to display the virtues of courage and compassion. We then consider two clinical vignettes to flesh out how these virtues might come into play in the care of "difficult" patients, and we conclude with a brief proposal for how medical educators might cultivate these essential character traits in physicians-in-training...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430567/how-should-clinicians-respond-to-medical-requests-from-clinician-family-members-of-patients
#14
Andrew Thurston
In the medical profession, receiving a request for medical management from a colleague is a routine experience. However, when the colleague is a family member of a patient and the desired or requested medical intervention is not medically indicated in the attending physician's view, the situation becomes more complicated. Ethical issues include respect for patient autonomy and social justice as well as nonmaleficence. Furthermore, interpersonal and professional relationships may be tested in this situation...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430566/how-should-physicians-respond-when-patients-distrust-them-because-of-their-gender
#15
Monica Peek, Bernard Lo, Alicia Fernandez
There are many reasons why gender-concordant care benefits patients and is requested by them. For training hospitals, however, such requests present challenges as well as opportunities in providing patient-centered care. Responding to a case in which a female patient who is having a routine exam refuses care from a male medical student, we discuss ethical principles involved in gender-concordant care requests, when it is appropriate to question such requests, and a team-based approach to responding to them.
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430061/frozen-ethics-melting-the-boundaries-between-medical-treatment-and-organ-procurement
#16
George J Annas, Michael A Grodin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429964/global-mental-health-autonomy-and-medical-paternalism-reconstructing-the-french-ethical-tradition-in-psychiatry
#17
Tiago Pires Marques
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429301/ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#18
REVIEW
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429239/development-and-initial-validation-of-a-short-three-dimensional-inventory-of-character-strengths
#19
Wenjie Duan, He Bu
PURPOSE: Character strength is described as a positive and organized pattern of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. It serves as a schema that organizes categories of information toward the self, others, and the world, and provides the self-aware knowledge that facilitates the pursuit of goals, values, and ethical principles. Recent research has suggested that three reliable factors emerge from the measures of character strengths: caring, inquisitiveness, and self-control. The goal of this paper is to develop a psychometrically sound short measure of character strength...
April 20, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429143/how-to-treat-lumbar-disc-herniation-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-on-current-standards
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Di Martino, Fabrizio Russo, Luca Denaro, Vincenzo Denaro
PURPOSE: In this systematic review, we aim to illustrate the current and safe concepts in the assessment, diagnosis and management of herniated lumbar disc (HLD) during pregnancy. METHODS: A systematic review and reporting on the diagnosis, treatment and clinical results of HLD during pregnancy is performed. RESULTS: The MRI represents the first level and safest diagnostic tool for pregnant women affected by spinal problems allowing for a noninvasive and detailed radiological examination of the spine...
April 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
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