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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092711/-the-future-of-ecology-wisdom-as-the-speculative-centre-of-environmental-ethics
#1
Luca Valera
This article argues that it is necessary to go back to Potter's proposal to rediscover a concept of bioethics wider than medical ethics, and strongly connected to environmental ethics. The two disciplines share, among others, the following dimensions: the consciousness of the sin as a consequence of recent technological developments; the need for a salvation; the need for a science of survival; wisdom as a possible solution. Referring to the latter, the work of Van Rennselaer Potter (father of bioethics) and Arne Næss (father of deep ecology, and in a broader sense, of environmental ethics) are particularly linked: it seems that wisdom should be the virtue providing answers about our way of dwelling the world...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089392/-views-of-the-spanish-paediatric-association-bioethics-committee-on-the-refusal-of-essential-and-non-essential-treatment-in-minors
#2
Marta Sánchez Jacob, María Tasso Cereceda, Carmen Martínez González, Federico de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Isolina Riaño Galán
The conflicts that arise when minors or their legal representatives refuse to receive medical treatment considered necessary by the paediatrician pose a serious ethical dilemma and also have a considerable emotional impact. In order to adequately tackle this rejection of medical treatment, there is to identify and attempt to understand the arguments of the people involved, to consider the context in each individual case and be conversant with the procedure to follow in life-threatening scenarios, taking into account bioethical considerations and the legal framework...
January 11, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088218/spinal-versus-general-anaesthesia-in-surgery-for-inguinodynia-spinasia-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Willem A R Zwaans, Léon H P M le Mair, Marc R M Scheltinga, Rudi M H Roumen
BACKGROUND: Chronic inguinodynia (groin pain) is a common complication following open inguinal hernia repair or a Pfannenstiel incision but may also be experienced after other types of (groin) surgery. If conservative treatments are to no avail, tailored remedial surgery, including a neurectomy and/or a (partial) meshectomy, may be considered. Retrospective studies in patients with chronic inguinodynia suggested that spinal anaesthesia is superior compared to general anaesthesia in terms of pain relief following remedial operations...
January 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087554/how-prepared-are-uk-medical-graduates-for-practice-a-rapid-review-of-the-literature-2009-2014
#4
Lynn V Monrouxe, Lisa Grundy, Mala Mann, Zoe John, Eleni Panagoulas, Alison Bullock, Karen Mattick
OBJECTIVE: To understand how prepared UK medical graduates are for practice and the effectiveness of workplace transition interventions. DESIGN: A rapid review of the literature (registration #CRD42013005305). DATA SOURCES: Nine major databases (and key websites) were searched in two timeframes (July-September 2013; updated May-June 2014): CINAHL, Embase, Educational Resources Information Centre, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086784/health-related-quality-of-life-assessment-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-the-effectiveness-of-early-phase-i-cardiac-rehabilitation
#5
Lawrence Anchah, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Melissa Siaw Han Lim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Kui Hian Sim, Tiong Kiam Ong
BACKGROUND: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is one of the most burdensome cardiovascular diseases in terms of the cost of interventions. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Programme (CRP) is well-established in improving clinical outcomes but the assessment of actual clinical improvement is challenging, especially when considering pharmaceutical care (PC) values in phase I CRP during admission and upon discharge from hospital and phase II outpatient interventions. This study explores the impact of pharmacists' interventions in the early stages of CRP on humanistic outcomes and follow-up at a referral hospital in Malaysia...
January 13, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081116/the-sharing-experimental-animal-resources-coordinating-holdings-search-framework-encouraging-reduction-replacement-and-refinement-in-animal-research
#6
Bethny Morrissey, Karen Blyth, Phil Carter, Claude Chelala, Louise Jones, Ingunn Holen, Valerie Speirs
While significant medical breakthroughs have been achieved through using animal models, our experience shows that often there is surplus material remaining that is frequently never revisited but could be put to good use by other scientists. Recognising that most scientists are willing to share this material on a collaborative basis, it makes economic, ethical, and academic sense to explore the option to utilise this precious resource before generating new/additional animal models and associated samples. To bring together those requiring animal tissue and those holding this type of archival material, we have devised a framework called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) with the aim of making remaining material derived from animal studies in biomedical research more visible and accessible to the scientific community...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077910/the-first-mediterranean-seminar-on-science-writing-editing-and-publishing-sarajevo-december-2-3-2016
#7
REVIEW
Izet Masic, Doncho Donev, Osman Sinanovic, Miro Jakovljevic, Enver Zerem, Dejan B Milosevic, Srecko Gajovic, Armen Yuri Gasparyan, Sekib Sokolovic, Nermin Salkic, Selma Uzunovic, Silva Dobric, Floreta Kurti, Edin Begic, Admir Kurtcehajic
The First Mediterranean Seminar on Science Writing, Editing & Publishing (SWEP 2016) was held in Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina from 2nd to 3rd December 2016. It was organized by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina, running concurrent sessions as part of its Annual Meeting titled " "Days of AMNuBiH - Theory and Practice in Science Communication and Scientometrics". Hotel Bosnia in the city centre was the chosen venue. On the first day, nineteen presentations on various issues of science writing and publication ethics were delivered by speakers from Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina and the UK (Asim Kurjak, Milivoj Boranić, Doncho Donev, Osman Sinanović, Miro Jakovljević, Enver Zerem, Dejan Milošević, Silva Dobrić, Srećko Gajović, Izet Mašić, Armen Yuri Gasparyan, Šekib Sokolović, Nermin Salkić, Selma Uzunović, Admir Kurtčehajić, Edin Begić and Floreta Kurti)...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077414/implementation-of-a-consumer-focused-ehealth-intervention-for-people-with-moderate-to-high-cardiovascular-disease-risk-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-process-evaluation
#8
Genevieve M Coorey, Lis Neubeck, Timothy Usherwood, David Peiris, Sharon Parker, Annie Y S Lau, Clara Chow, Kathryn Panaretto, Mark Harris, Nicholas Zwar, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: Technology-mediated strategies have potential to engage patients in modifying unhealthy behaviour and improving medication adherence to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, electronic tools offer a medium by which consumers can more actively navigate personal healthcare information. Understanding how, why and among whom such strategies have an effect can help determine the requirements for implementing them at a scale. This paper aims to detail a process evaluation that will (1) assess implementation fidelity of a multicomponent eHealth intervention; (2) determine its effective features; (3) explore contextual factors influencing and maintaining user engagement; and (4) describe barriers, facilitators, preferences and acceptability of such interventions...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076534/absorption-and-metabolization-of-sex-hormones-and-their-transformation-into-contraceptive-technologies-the-paths-taken-by-medical-thought-in-brazil
#9
Claudia Bonan, Luiz Antonio Teixeira, Andreza Rodrigues Nakano
The article analyses knowledge assimilation and the development of clinical and research practices relating to sex hormones among Brazilian gynaecologists. It discusses the paths taken by medical thought from the reception of the hormones to their transformation into contraceptives. Our objective is to comprehend styles of introducing and disseminating medical technologies in the area of reproductive health in Brazil. It uses methods of historical analysis and takes as its source the Anais Brasileiros de Ginecologia, a journal published between 1936 and 1970...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074588/care-under-the-influence
#10
Joseph J Fins, Samantha F Knowlton
A forty-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by his wife at five in the morning, two hours after he fell down the stairs at home, hitting his head and injuring his arm. He tells the ER physician that he got up to get a drink of water and tripped in the dark. His speech is slurred, and he smells strongly of alcohol. Lab results reveal elevated liver enzymes, and his blood alcohol level is 0.1. His medical history is unremarkable. When asked about his alcohol consumption, he says he usually has one or two drinks a night with dinner but that he drinks more on holidays and special occasions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074587/after-the-dnr-surrogates-who-persist-in-requesting-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#11
Ellen M Robinson, Wendy Cadge, Angelika A Zollfrank, M Cornelia Cremens, Andrew M Courtwright
Some health care organizations allow physicians to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation from a patient, despite patient or surrogate requests that it be provided, when they believe it will be more harmful than beneficial. Such cases usually involve patients with terminal diagnoses whose medical teams argue that aggressive treatments are medically inappropriate or likely to be harmful. Although there is state-to-state variability and a considerable judicial gray area about the conditions and mechanisms for refusals to perform CPR, medical teams typically follow a set of clearly defined procedures for these decisions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074373/introduction-to-the-special-issue-precarious-solidarity-preferential-access-in-canadian-health-care
#12
Lynette Reid
Systems of universal health coverage may aspire to provide care based on need and not ability to pay; the complexities of this aspiration (conceptual, practical, and ethical) call for normative analysis. This special issue arises in the wake of a judicial inquiry into preferential access in the Canadian province of Alberta, the Vertes Commission. I describe this inquiry and set out a taxonomy of forms of differential and preferential access. Papers in this special issue focus on the conceptual specification of health system boundaries (the concept of medical need) and on the normative questions raised by complex models of funding and delivery of care, where patients, providers, and services cross system boundaries...
January 10, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070115/proposal-for-a-prospective-registry-for-moyamoya-disease-in-japan
#13
Ken Kazumata, Masaki Ito, Haruto Uchino, Hiroshi Nishihara, Kiyohiro Houkin
The number of clinical research papers published worldwide on moyamoya disease (MMD) has increased recently. However, the majority of the literature comprises retrospective single-center studies collecting data on small numbers of patients. Several multi-center studies are ongoing in Japan; however, the current data are insufficient for comprehensively outlining the various characteristics of MMD. To enhance our knowledge on epidemiologic, vascular, and genetic aspects of MMD, a prospective multicenter registry will be established in Japan that will help to streamline clinical research as well as improve clinical treatments and long-term outcomes...
January 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069021/preoperative-optimization-of-patient-expectations-improves-long-term-outcome-in-heart-surgery-patients-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-psy-heart-trial
#14
Winfried Rief, Meike C Shedden-Mora, Johannes A C Laferton, Charlotte Auer, Keith J Petrie, Stefan Salzmann, Manfred Schedlowski, Rainer Moosdorf
BACKGROUND: Placebo effects contribute substantially to outcome in most fields of medicine. While clinical trials typically try to control or minimize these effects, the potential of placebo mechanisms to improve outcome is rarely used. Patient expectations about treatment efficacy and outcome are major mechanisms that contribute to these placebo effects. We aimed to optimize these expectations to improve outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: In a prospective three-arm randomized clinical trial with a 6 month follow-up, 124 patients scheduled for CABG surgery were randomized to either a brief psychological pre-surgery intervention to optimize outcome expectations (EXPECT); or a psychological control intervention focusing on emotional support and general advice, but not on expectations (SUPPORT); or to standard medical care (SMC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068679/-pneumothorax-following-dry-needling-treatment-legal-and-ethical-aspects
#15
Gianpaolo Ronconi, Fabio De Giorgio, Eleonora Ricci, Loredana Maggi, Antonio G Spagnolo, Paola Emilia Ferrara
Trigger point "dry needling" is a technique used to treat myofascial pain. It involves using filiform needles which are inserted into muscles to give local pain relief. Few cases of serious adverse events following this treatment have been reported in the literature. In this paper we describe the case of a professional swimmer who developed pneumothorax after dry needling treatment and discuss the medicolegal and ethical aspects related to competencies and responsibilities of medical doctors and physiotherapists performing the procedure...
September 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065953/self-evaluation-of-ethical-review-committees-functioning-at-foundation-university-medical-college-fumc-through-structured-constitution-practice-outcome-cpo-assessment-model
#16
Sadia Ahsin, Gul E Naghma Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To assess the operational efficiency of the ethical review committee of a medical college. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2012 to 2014. On the basis of literature review, methods for assessment of various features of ethical review committee were studied. A constitution-practice-outcome measurement model for evaluation of ethical review committee assessment process was developed...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065430/informed-consent-in-dental-care-and-research-for-the-older-adult-population-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Alicia A Livinski, Joseph Millum, Steffany Chamut, Shahdokht Boroumand, Timothy J Iafolla, Margo R Adesanya, Bruce A Dye
BACKGROUND: Ethics in health care and research is based on the fundamental principle of informed consent. However, informed consent in geriatric dentistry is not well documented. Poor health, cognitive decline, and the passive nature of many geriatric patients complicate this issue. METHODS: The authors completed this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The authors searched the PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062971/cost-equivalence-and-pluralism-in-publicly-funded-health-care-systems
#18
Dominic Wilkinson, Julian Savulescu
Clinical guidelines summarise available evidence on medical treatment, and provide recommendations about the most effective and cost-effective options for patients with a given condition. However, sometimes patients do not desire the best available treatment. Should doctors in a publicly-funded healthcare system ever provide sub-optimal medical treatment? On one view, it would be wrong to do so, since this would violate the ethical principle of beneficence, and predictably lead to harm for patients. It would also, potentially, be a misuse of finite health resources...
January 6, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062651/an-activist-s-argument-that-participant-values-should-guide-risk-benefit-ratio-calculations-in-hiv-cure-research
#19
David Evans
The patient empowerment movement, spurred by AIDS activism in the 1980s, quickly evolved to encompass how study participants are considered and treated in clinical research. Initially, people fearing death of AIDS sought early access to experimental medications that had not undergone rigorous testing in hopes of extending their lives. Thirty years on, scientists are asking a different set of ethical questions about clinical research, this time in the pursuit of either a sterilising cure or long-term remission for HIV...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#20
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
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