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Moral reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644784/how-should-physicians-respond-when-the-best-treatment-for-an-individual-patient-conflicts-with-practice-guidelines-about-the-use-of-a-limited-resource
#1
Edmund G Howe
The case presents a physician's ethical conflict, due to limited resources, between his obligations to meet the needs of a community and those of his patient. Elements of the decision-making process (and who should make the decision) are discussed, including the limitations of what ethical reasoning can offer and risks of arbitrary outcomes. Additionally, potential benefits to physicians and their patients of discussing these conflicts, including reducing the physician's moral distress, are noted. I argue that physicians' abilities to make "right" decisions in such situations are limited, and I suggest ways in which physicians can try to preserve their relationships with patients...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644583/a-slice-of-hospital-toast-a-day-keeps-the-doctors-at-bay
#2
S Martin, C Hill
Anecdotal evidence over the years has suggested that toast made in hospital, so called 'hospital toast' tastes better than toast made at home, or anywhere else for that matter. We carried out a prospective, multi-professional study to determine the views and the toast eating habits of NHS staff. Fifty members of NHS staff were surveyed across two hospital trusts. This included nursing staff, doctors from various specialties and allied health professionals. Results were overwhelming, a staggering 96% admitted to enjoying a slice of hospital toast while at work...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635627/molecular-quantum-similarity-chemical-reactivity-and-database-screening-of-3d-pharmacophores-of-the-protein-kinases-a-b-and-g-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world's most devastating pathogens. For this reason, we developed a study involving 3D pharmacophore searching, selectivity analysis and database screening for a series of anti-tuberculosis compounds, associated with the protein kinases A, B, and G. This theoretical study is expected to shed some light onto some molecular aspects that could contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanics behind interactions of these compounds, with anti-tuberculosis activity...
June 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#4
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621027/aromatic-amino-acids-and-their-relevance-in-the-specificity-of-the-ph-domain
#5
Ja Morales, M Sobol, L C Rodriguez-Zapata, P Hozak, E Castano
Phosphoinositides are phosphatidylinositol derived, well known to be second messengers in various cell signaling pathways as well as in processes such as cell differentiation, cellular stress response, gene transcription, and chromatin remodeling. The pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta 1 is responsible for recognizing and binding to PI(4,5)P2 and for this reason has been widely used to study this phosphoinositide as a biosensor when it is conjugated to a fluorescent tag. In this work, we modified the primary structure of pleckstrin homology domain by site-specific mutagenesis to change the specificity for phosphoinositides...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605227/a-qualitative-study-of-means-to-improve-partner-notification-after-an-hiv-diagnosis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-australia
#6
Jane E Tomnay, Alana Hulme-Chambers, Jade Bilardi, Christopher K Fairley, Sarah Huffam, Marcus Y Chen
Improved partner notification (PN) after HIV diagnosis could help control HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, there is little evidence exploring what this experience is like for Australian MSM and how achievable it is in the era of the Internet and smartphones. Fifteen of 39 invited MSM recently diagnosed with HIV undertook a semistructured interview about PN. Interviews were thematically analyzed using a combined deductive/inductive approach. Three main themes arose: fear of PN and HIV disclosure, partners' unexpected reactions, and the need for more patient support...
June 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605124/developing-abilities-to-navigate-through-the-grey-zones-in-complex-environments-nurses-reasons-for-applying-to-a-clinical-ethics-residency-for-nurses
#7
Martha Jurchak, Pamela J Grace, Susan M Lee, Danny G Willis, Angelika A Zollfrank, Ellen M Robinson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nurses face complex ethical issues in practice and have to determine appropriate actions. An inability to conceptualize or follow a preferred course of action can give rise to moral uncertainty or moral distress. Both moral uncertainty and moral distress are problematic for nurses and their patients. A program designed to increase nurse confidence in moral decision making, the clinical ethics residency for nurses (CERN), was offered selectively to nurses affiliated with two academic medical centers...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604252/surrogate-mother-praiseworthy-or-stigmatized-a-qualitative-study-on-perceptions-of-surrogacy-in-assam-india
#8
Anna Arvidsson, Polly Vauquline, Sara Johnsdotter, Birgitta Essén
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is a reproductive practice that has been strongly marketed in India as a solution for childless couples. As a result, the number of surrogacy clinics is increasing. Meanwhile, a global discourse on surrogacy, originating from a Western perspective, has characterized surrogacy as being exploitative of women in low-income settings, where poverty drives them to become surrogate mothers. OBJECTIVE: This study explored perspectives on surrogacy from men and women in Assam, an Indian state known to be a low-income setting...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601927/what-makes-you-so-sure-dogmatism-fundamentalism-analytic-thinking-perspective-taking-and-moral-concern-in-the-religious-and-nonreligious
#9
Jared Parker Friedman, Anthony Ian Jack
Better understanding the psychological factors related to certainty in one's beliefs (i.e., dogmatism) has important consequences for both individuals and social groups. Generally, beliefs can find support from at least two different routes of information processing: social/moral considerations or analytic/empirical reasoning. Here, we investigate how these two psychological constructs relate to dogmatism in two groups of individuals who preferentially draw on the former or latter sort of information when forming beliefs about the world-religious and nonreligious individuals...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600396/a-50-year-personal-journey-location-gene-expression-and-circadian-rhythms
#10
Michael Rosbash
I worked almost exclusively on nucleic acids and gene expression from the age of 19 as an undergraduate until the age of 38 as an associate professor. Mentors featured prominently in my choice of paths. My friendship with influential Brandeis colleagues then persuaded me that genetics was an important tool for studying gene expression, and I switched my experimental organism to yeast for this reason. Several years later, friendship also played a prominent role in my beginning work on circadian rhythms. As luck would have it, gene expression as well as genetics turned out to be important for circadian timekeeping...
June 9, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597218/uncovering-a-new-moral-dilemma-of-economic-optimization-in-biotechnological-processing
#11
Marek Vochozka, Vojtěch Stehel, Anna Maroušková
The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586695/brief-note-applying-developmental-intergroup-perspectives-to-the-social-ecologies-of-bullying-lessons-from-developmental-social-psychology
#12
Alaina Brenick, Linda C Halgunseth
Over the past decades, the field of bullying research has seen dramatic growth, notably with the integration of the social-ecological approach to understanding bullying. Recently, researchers (Hymel et al., 2015; Hawley & Williford, 2015) have called for further extension of the field by incorporating constructs of group processes into our investigation of the social ecologies of bullying. This brief note details the critical connections between power, social identity, group norms, social and moral reasoning about discrimination and victimization, and experiences of, evaluations of, and responses to bullying...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571017/can-we-better-integrate-the-role-of-anti-doping-in-sports-and-society-a-psychological-approach-to-contemporary-value-based-prevention
#13
Andrea Petróczi, Paul Norman, Sebastian Brueckner
In sport, a wide array of substances with established or putative performance-enhancing properties is used. Most substances are fully acceptable, whilst a defined set, revised annually, is prohibited; thus, using any of these prohibited substances is declared as cheating. In the increasingly tolerant culture of pharmacological and technical human enhancements, the traditional normative approach to anti-doping, which involves telling athletes what they cannot do to improve their athletic ability and performance, diverges from the otherwise positive values attached to human improvement and enhancement in society...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571014/a-moral-foundation-for-anti-doping-how-far-have-we-progressed-where-are-the-limits
#14
Thomas H Murray
Clarity about the ethical justification of anti-doping is essential. In its absence, critics multiply and confusion abounds. Three broad reasons are typically offered in anti-doping's defense: to protect athletes' health; to promote fairness; and to preserve meaning and values in sport - what the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Code refers to as the spirit of sport. Protecting health is itself an important value, but many sports encourage athletes to take significant risks. The case against doping is buttressed by concern for athletes' health, but it cannot be the sole foundation...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566126/survey-on-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-blood-donation-among-continuing-medical-education-cme-students-in-sichuan-province-china
#15
Lei Gao, Qiang Wang
The study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among continuing medical education students in Sichuan.This study was carried out on 841 continuing medical education students using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software.Among the 800 students, 424 were donors and 417 were non-donors The score of knowledge (mean11.71±2.22 VS 8.46±3.27) and attitude (mean 9.19±2.42 VS 7.08±2.02) in donors were statistically significant higher than the non-donors...
May 10, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558751/a-14-day-limit-for-bioethics-the-debate-over-human-embryo-research
#16
Giulia Cavaliere
BACKGROUND: This article explores the reasons in favour of revising and extending the current 14-day statutory limit to maintaining human embryos in culture. This limit is enshrined in law in over a dozen countries, including the United Kingdom. In two recently published studies (2016), scientists have shown that embryos can be sustained in vitro for about 13 days after fertilisation. Positive reactions to these results have gone hand in hand with calls for revising the 14-day rule, which only allows embryo research until the 14th day after fertilisation...
May 30, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558693/scrambling-for-access-availability-accessibility-acceptability-and-quality-of-healthcare-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-people-in-south-africa
#17
Alex Müller
BACKGROUND: Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health for people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), and health disparities among sexual and gender minority populations are increasingly well understood. Although the South African constitution guarantees sexual and gender minority people the right to non-discrimination and the right to access to healthcare, homo- and transphobia in society abound. Little is known about LGBT people's healthcare experiences in South Africa, but anecdotal evidence suggests significant barriers to accessing care...
May 30, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552389/children-s-descriptive-to-prescriptive-tendency-replicates-and-varies-cross-culturally-evidence-from-china
#18
Steven O Roberts, Cai Guo, Arnold K Ho, Susan A Gelman
Research with U.S. samples found that children use descriptive group regularities (characteristics shared by individuals within a group) to generate prescriptive judgments (characteristics that should be shared by individuals within a group). Here, we assessed this descriptive-to-prescriptive tendency in a sample of children (ages 4-13years) and adults (ages 18-40years) from mainland China. Participants were introduced to novel groups (i.e., Hibbles and Glerks) who engaged in contrasting morally neutral behaviors (e...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548865/a-national-survey-of-canadian-psychiatrists-attitudes-toward-medical-assistance-in-death
#19
Skye Rousseau, Sarah Turner, Harvey Max Chochinov, Murray W Enns, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: Bill C-14 allows for medical assistance in dying (MAID) for patients who have intolerable physical or psychological suffering that occurs in the context of a reasonably foreseeable death. In Canada, psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness and beliefs influencing level of support are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if psychiatrists are supportive of MAID under certain conditions and on the basis of mental illness and 2) determine what factors are related to psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543660/challenges-working-with-presidential-bioethics-commissions
#20
Ruth Macklin
Presidential commissions come and go by design, and it is reasonable to wonder about the impact of their recommendations. I have been involved in the work of two presidential commissions: as a member of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (from 1994 to 1995) and as senior consultant to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (from 1999 to 2000) for its report on multinational research. I continue to reflect on and look for the impact of both these commissions. ACHRE's charter included the review of experiments with ionizing radiation sponsored or conducted by the United States government since the 1940s...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
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