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Moral reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736420/better-parenting-through-biomedical-modification-a-case-for-pluralism-deference-and-charity
#1
David Wasserman
In this paper, I will argue that the moral assessment of the prenatal selection and postnatal modification biotechnologies requires a nuanced approach, which pays close attention to the variety of sometimes conflicting parental roles and reasons involved in decisions for and against their use. I will focus on several related but distinct reasons that parents have, or give, for modifying existing children or selecting future children. Many of these reasons are expressed in terms of more effective parenting. Because there is a plurality of legitimate parental goals, I will conclude that assessing parental interventions requires us to adjudicate conflicts or tradeoffs among those goals...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733168/chimeras-intended-for-human-gamete-production-an-ethical-alternative
#2
César Palacios-González
Human eggs for basic, fertility and stem-cell research are in short supply. Many experiments that require their use cannot be carried out at present, and, therefore, the benefits that could emerge from these are either delayed or never materialise. This state of affairs is problematic for scientists and patients worldwide, and it is a matter that needs our attention. Recent advances in chimera research have opened the possibility of creating human/non-human animal chimeras intended for human gamete production (chimeras-IHGP)...
July 11, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725950/genome-editing-and-assisted-reproduction-curing-embryos-society-or-prospective-parents
#3
Giulia Cavaliere
This paper explores the ethics of introducing genome-editing technologies as a new reproductive option. In particular, it focuses on whether genome editing can be considered a morally valuable alternative to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Two arguments against the use of genome editing in reproduction are analysed, namely safety concerns and germline modification. These arguments are then contrasted with arguments in favour of genome editing, in particular with the argument of the child's welfare and the argument of parental reproductive autonomy...
July 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725296/revisiting-folk-moral-realism
#4
Thomas Pölzler
Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725284/addiction-and-moralization-the-role-of-the-underlying-model-of-addiction
#5
Lily E Frank, Saskia K Nagel
Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a 'de-moralized' discourse of addiction? While it is tempting to think that medical language surrounding addiction provides liberation from the moralized language, evidence suggests that this is not necessarily the case. On the other hand non-disease models of addiction may seem to resuscitate problematic forms of the moralization of addiction, including, invoking blame, shame, and the wholesale rejection of addicts as people who have deep character flaws, while ignoring the complex biological and social context of addiction...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721525/-epidemic-or-peripheral-phenomenon-a%C3%A2-medical-history-of-the-cocaine-wave-in-the-weimar-republic
#6
Hannes Walter
An empirical investigation refutes the popular conception that excessive drug usage was a widespread social phenomenon in the Weimar Republic. Although physicians warned the public and politicians of a "cocaine wave" that threatened the public health, there is no evidence that indicates a significant increase of cocaine use during the twenties. The decisive cause for this moral panic was caused instead by the disease pattern of "Cocainism". The addiction carried the imprint of an infectious disease and would destroy the body, the will, and the civic life of its victims...
July 18, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714040/perspectives-of-pharmacy-staff-on-dispensing-subtherapeutic-doses-of-antibiotics-a-theory-informed-qualitative-study
#7
Mohamed Ezzat Khamis Amin, Amira Amine, Mohammad Shoukry Newegy
Background Injudicious dispensing of antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses is common in many developing countries. In Egypt, as in many developing countries, a few pills of common cold products are offered under the name cold group (CG). A cold group may contain one or more pills of antibiotics. A pharmacy client may obtain subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics upon direct request or as part of a CG. Objective To examine factors associated with the unwarranted dispensing of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in community pharmacies as part of a CG or upon direct request from patients among community pharmacy staff...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708399/development-and-validation-of-a-computational-model-ensemble-for-the-early-detection-of-bcrp-abcg2-substrates-during-the-drug-design-stage
#8
Melisa Edith Gantner, Roxana Noemí Peroni, Juan Francisco Morales, María Luisa Villalba, María Esperanza Ruiz, Alan Talevi
Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter linked to the multidrug resistance phenomenon in many diseases such as epilepsy and cancer, and a potential source of drug interactions. For those reasons, the early identification of substrates and non-substrates of this transporter during the drug discovery stage is of great interest. We have developed a computational non-linear model ensemble based on conformational independent molecular descriptors using a combined strategy of genetic algorithms, J48 decision tree classifiers and data fusion...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707118/exemplars-ethics-and-illness-narratives
#9
Ian James Kidd
Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling, for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reasoning: an inferentialist style that generates the puzzlement and an alternative exemplarist style that offers a compelling explanation of the morally educative power of pathographic literature...
July 13, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690572/utilitarian-moral-judgment-exclusively-coheres-with-inference-from-is-to-ought
#10
Shira Elqayam, Meredith R Wilkinson, Valerie A Thompson, David E Over, Jonathan St B T Evans
Faced with moral choice, people either judge according to pre-existing obligations (deontological judgment), or by taking into account the consequences of their actions (utilitarian judgment). We propose that the latter coheres with a more general cognitive mechanism - deontic introduction, the tendency to infer normative ('deontic') conclusions from descriptive premises (is-ought inference). Participants were presented with vignettes that allowed either deontological or utilitarian choice, and asked to draw a range of deontic conclusions, as well as judge the overall moral rightness of each choice separately...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689062/sweeteners-as-food-additives-in-the-xxi-century-a-review-of-what-is-known-and-what-is-to-come
#11
REVIEW
Márcio Carocho, Patricia Morales, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Sweet has always been a very important basic taste for mankind, although sweetness is always related to either weight gain or teeth decay. Sweeteners entered the food industry back in the 1800's and are now staple in foodstuffs. Despite their long relationship with food, sweeteners have been in the spotlights for many reasons. Since being the perfect choice for diabetics, to the dangers concerning toxicity, cancer and other health issues associated with their consumption, sweeteners have come a long way. The conflicting results for the same sweeteners and the divergent regulations are fuel for a wide debate on the impact of sweeteners in the industry, health and lifestyle of mankind...
July 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685842/two-models-of-moral-judgment
#12
Shane Bretz, Ron Sun
This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment (and its corresponding computational model) is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory...
July 7, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680446/donor-selection-for-allogenic-hemopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-clinical-and-ethical-considerations
#13
REVIEW
Irene Riezzo, Natascha Pascale, Raffaele La Russa, Arcangelo Liso, Monica Salerno, Emanuela Turillazzi
Allogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an established treatment for many diseases. Stem cells may be obtained from different sources: mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, bone marrow, and umbilical cord blood. The progress in transplantation procedures, the establishment of experienced transplant centres, and the creation of unrelated adult donor registries and cord blood banks gave those without an human leucocyte antigen- (HLA-) identical sibling donor the opportunity to find a donor and cord blood units worldwide...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680258/callous-unemotional-traits-harm-effect-moral-reasoning-and-bullying-among-swedish-children
#14
Robert Thornberg, Tomas Jungert
BACKGROUND: Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been associated with bullying among children and adolescents, relatively little is known about whether each of the three sub-constructs of CU traits-callous, uncaring, and unemotional-are associated with bullying when they are considered concurrently in the analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study was the first to examine in a single model whether callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits are directly related to the perpetration of bullying and to harm-effect moral reasoning in bullying among children as well as whether these three CU traits are indirectly related to bullying mediated by harm-effect moral reasoning...
2017: Child & Youth Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653126/impact-of-metabolic-hormones-secreted-in-human-breast-milk-on-nutritional-programming-in-childhood-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Pilar Amellali Badillo-Suárez, Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Xóchitl Nieves-Morales
Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming"...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651546/allocating-health-care-resources-a-questionnaire-experiment-on-the-predictive-success-of-rules
#16
Marlies Ahlert, Lars Schwettmann
BACKGROUND: The topic of this paper is related to equity in health within a country. In public health care sectors of many countries decisions on priority setting with respect to treatment of different types of diseases or patient groups are implicitly or explicitly made. Priorities are realized by allocation decisions for medical resources where moral judgments play an important role with respect to goals and measures that should be applied. The aim of this study is to explore the moral intuitions held in the German society related to priorities in medical treatment...
June 26, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648467/differentiating-could-from-should-developmental-changes-in-modal-cognition
#17
Andrew Shtulman, Jonathan Phillips
Young children have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate physical laws (impossible events) from those that violate mere physical regularities (improbable events). They judge both as "impossible." Young children also have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate moral laws (immoral events) from events that violate mere social regularities (unconventional events). They judge both as "wrong." In this set of studies, we explored the possibility that both difficulties arise from a more general deficit in modal cognition, or the way in which children represent and reason about possibilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645542/young-children-s-inclusion-decisions-in-moral-and-social-conventional-group-norm-contexts
#18
Michael T Rizzo, Shelby Cooley, Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644784/how-should-physicians-respond-when-the-best-treatment-for-an-individual-patient-conflicts-with-practice-guidelines-about-the-use-of-a-limited-resource
#19
Edmund G Howe
The case presents a physician's ethical conflict, due to limited resources, between his obligations to meet the needs of a community and those of his patient. Elements of the decision-making process (and who should make the decision) are discussed, including the limitations of what ethical reasoning can offer and risks of arbitrary outcomes. Additionally, potential benefits to physicians and their patients of discussing these conflicts, including reducing the physician's moral distress, are noted. I argue that physicians' abilities to make "right" decisions in such situations are limited, and I suggest ways in which physicians can try to preserve their relationships with patients...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644583/a-slice-of-hospital-toast-a-day-keeps-the-doctors-at-bay
#20
S Martin, C Hill
Anecdotal evidence over the years has suggested that toast made in hospital, so called 'hospital toast' tastes better than toast made at home, or anywhere else for that matter. We carried out a prospective, multi-professional study to determine the views and the toast eating habits of NHS staff. Fifty members of NHS staff were surveyed across two hospital trusts. This included nursing staff, doctors from various specialties and allied health professionals. Results were overwhelming, a staggering 96% admitted to enjoying a slice of hospital toast while at work...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
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