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Moral reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441460/how-embarrassing-the-behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-processing-social-norm-violations
#1
Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam, Henk van Steenbergen, Tanja Kreuk, Nic J A van der Wee, P Michiel Westenberg
Social norms are important for human social interactions, and violations of these norms are evaluated partly on the intention of the actor. Here, we describe the revised Social Norm Processing Task (SNPT-R), a paradigm enabling the study of behavioral and neural responses to intended and unintended social norm violations among both adults and adolescents. We investigated how participants (adolescents and adults, n = 87) rate intentional and unintentional social norm violations with respect to inappropriateness and embarrassment, and we examined the brain activation patterns underlying the processing of these transgressions in an independent sample of 21 adults using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438784/professional-and-conscience-based-refusals-the-case-of-the-psychiatrist-s-harmful-prescription
#2
Morten Magelssen
By way of a case story, two common presuppositions in the academic debate on conscientious objection in healthcare are challenged. First, the debate typically presupposes a sharp division between conscience-based refusals based on personal core moral beliefs and refusals based on professional (eg, medical) reasons. Only the former might involve the moral gravity to warrant accommodation. The case story challenges this division, and it is argued that just as much might sometimes be at stake morally in refusals based on professional reasons...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438252/an-exploratory-sequential-design-to-validate-measures-of-moral-emotions
#3
Margarita G Márquez, Ana R Delgado
BACKGROUND: This paper presents an exploratory and sequential mixed methods approach in validating measures of knowledge of the moral emotions of contempt, anger and disgust. METHOD: The sample comprised 60 participants in the qualitative phase when a measurement instrument was designed. Item stems, response options and correction keys were planned following the results obtained in a descriptive phenomenological analysis of the interviews. In the quantitative phase, the scale was used with a sample of 102 Spanish participants, and the results were analysed with the Rasch model...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438074/the-value-of-metaphorical-reasoning-in-bioethics-an-empirical-ethical-study
#4
Erik Olsman, Bert Veneberg, Claudia van Alfen, Dorothea Touwen
BACKGROUND: Metaphors are often used within the context of ethics and healthcare but have hardly been explored in relation to moral reasoning. OBJECTIVE: To describe a central set of metaphors in one case and to explore their contribution to moral reasoning. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 parents of a child suffering from the neurodegenerative disease CLN3. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and metaphors were analyzed...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430994/personhood-and-natural-kinds-why-cognitive-status-need-not-affect-moral-status
#5
Joseph Vukov
Lockean accounts of personhood propose that an individual is a person just in case that individual is characterized by some advanced cognitive capacity. On these accounts, human beings with severe cognitive impairment are not persons. Some accept this result-I do not. In this paper, I therefore advance and defend an account of personhood that secures personhood for human beings who are cognitively impaired. On the account for which I argue, an individual is a person just in case that individual belongs to a natural kind that is normally characterized by advanced cognitive capacities...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421865/it-s-not-all-about-moral-reasoning-understanding-the-content-of-moral-case-deliberation
#6
Mia Svantesson, Marit Silén, Inger James
BACKGROUND: Moral Case Deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support described as a facilitator-led collective moral reasoning by healthcare professionals on a concrete moral question connected to their practice. Evaluation research is needed, but, as human interaction is difficult to standardise, there is a need to capture the content beyond moral reasoning. This allows for a better understanding of Moral Case Deliberation, which may contribute to further development of valid outcome criteria and stimulate the normative discussion of what Moral Case Deliberation should contain...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421331/two-troubling-trends-in-the-conversation-over-whether-clinical-ethics-consultants-have-ethics-expertise
#7
Abram Brummett, Christopher J Ostertag
In a recent issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, several scholars wrote on the topic of ethics expertise in clinical ethics consultation. The articles in this issue exemplified what we consider to be two troubling trends in the quest to articulate a unique expertise for clinical ethicists. The first trend, exemplified in the work of Lisa Rasmussen, is an attempt to define a role for clinical ethicists that denies they have ethics expertise. Rasmussen cites the dependence of ethical expertise on irresolvable meta-ethical debates as the reason for this move...
April 18, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420792/morality-constrains-the-default-representation-of-what-is-possible
#8
Jonathan Phillips, Fiery Cushman
The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419659/making-visible-the-politics-and-ethics-of-alcohol-policy-research
#9
David Moore
Although research on alcohol policy has produced a huge international literature, alcohol research and policy itself-its cultural assumptions, methods, politics and ethics-has rarely been subject to critical analysis. In this article, I provide an appreciative review of an exception to this trend: Joseph Gusfield's 1981 classic, The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking-Driving and the Symbolic Order. I first outline Gusfield's argument that the 'problem of drinking-driving' is constructed as a 'drama of individualism' centring on the 'killer drunk'...
April 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419446/from-autonomy-to-divinity-the-cultural-socialization-of-moral-reasoning-in-an-evangelical-christian-community
#10
Allison DiBianca Fasoli
This study examined moral reasoning in parent-child conversations within a U.S. evangelical Christian community. The goal was to identify social-communicative processes that may promote the development of Divinity in children's moral reasoning. Sixteen parent-child dyads (6-9 years old) discussed hypothetical moral vignettes about failures to help peers in need. Analyses revealed that Divinity typically co-occurred with Autonomy in these conversations and that such co-occurrences typically happened through three distinct social-communicative processes, labeled "align," "scaffold," and "counter...
April 17, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417516/discovering-what-matters-interrogating-clinician-responses-to-ethics-consultation
#11
Stuart G Finder, Virginia L Bartlett
Against the background assumptions that (a) knowing what clinical ethics consultation represents to those with whom ethics consultants work most closely is a necessary component for being responsible in the practice of ethics consultation, and (b) the complexities of soliciting and understanding colleague evaluations require another inherent responsibility for the methods by which ethics consultations are evaluated, in this article we report our experience soliciting, analyzing, and trying to understand retrospective evaluations of our Clinical Ethics Consultation Service...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405175/when-and-why-parents-prompt-their-children-to-apologize-the-roles-of-transgression-type-and-parenting-style
#12
Craig E Smith, Jee Young Noh, Michael T Rizzo, Paul L Harris
Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children (N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an 'outcome bias' (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children's transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions)...
2017: Journal of Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404217/children-s-expectations-about-conventional-and-moral-behaviors-of-ingroup-and-outgroup-members
#13
Zoe Liberman, Lauren H Howard, Nathan M Vasquez, Amanda L Woodward
Although children demonstrate robust social preferences for ingroup members early in ontogeny, it is not yet clear whether these preferences are based on children generally liking people who are more familiar or on children holding specific biased beliefs about people in their ingroup as compared with people in their outgroup. Here, we investigated the origins of humans' propensity to link ingroup members with positive behaviors and outgroup members with negative behaviors by asking whether linguistic group membership influences children's expectations of how people will act...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402905/acceptable-health-and-priority-weighting-discussing-a-reference-level-approach-using-sufficientarian-reasoning
#14
S Wouters, N J A van Exel, K I M Rohde, J J Vromen, W B F Brouwer
Health care systems are challenged in allocating scarce health care resources, which are typically insufficient to fulfil all health care wants and needs. One criterion for priority setting may be the 'acceptable health' approach, which suggests that society may want to assign higher priority to health benefits in people with "unacceptable" than in people with "acceptable" health. A level of acceptable health then serves as a reference point for priority setting. Empirical research has indicated that people may be able and willing to define health states as "unacceptable" or "acceptable", but little attention has been given to the normative implications of evaluating health benefits in relation to a reference level of acceptable health...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392629/qualitative-tools-and-experimental-philosophy
#15
James Andow
Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded...
November 16, 2016: Philosophical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392595/the-principles-of-catholic-social-teaching-a-guide-for-decision-making-from-daily-clinical-encounters-to-national-policy-making
#16
Karen Shields Wright
Catholic social teaching (CST), a branch of moral theology, addresses contemporary issues within the political, economic, and cultural structures of society. The threefold cornerstone of CST contains the principles of human dignity, solidarity, and subsidiarity. It is the foundation on which to form our conscience in order to evaluate the framework of society and is the Catholic criteria for prudential judgment and direction in developing current policy-making. With knowledge of these social principles, in combination with our faith, we will be more armed and informed as to articulate the Catholic vision of reality, the truthful nature of the human person and society, to apply and integrate the social teachings in our everyday administrative and clinical encounters, and through the virtue of charity take action within the social, political, and economic spheres in which we have influence...
February 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391241/a-variational-bayes-genomic-enabled-prediction-model-with-genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction
#17
Osval A Montesinos-López, Abelardo Montesinos-López, José Crossa, José Cricelio Montesinos-López, Francisco Javier Luna-Vázquez, Josaphat Salinas, José Herrera-Morales, Raymundo Buenrostro-Mariscal
There are Bayesian and non-Bayesian genomic models that take into account G×E interaction. However, the computational cost of implementing the Bayesian models is high and becomes almost impossible when the number of genotypes, environments and traits is very large, while in the non-Bayesian models, many times there are important and often unsolved convergence problems. The variational Bayes method is popular in machine learning and, by approximating the probability distributions through optimization, it tends to be faster than the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods...
April 8, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389840/children-s-and-adolescents-expectations-about-challenging-unfair-group-norms
#18
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Melanie Killen
Youth often hold group norms that perpetuate inequality. One way these norms can be changed is by challenging these norms by choosing to include new members into these groups who hold morally just norms. In the current study, children's and adolescents' inclusion decisions and social reasoning about challenging group norms through inclusion were investigated. The sample included 9-10 (children) and 13-14 year-olds (adolescents) (N = 673, 54.4% female). Participants supported including challengers into groups holding norms supporting relational aggression and unequal allocation of resources, but they were less likely to support including a challenger into a physically aggressive group...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377734/how-oxytocin-receptor-oxtr-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-act-on-prosociality-the-mediation-role-of-moral-evaluation
#19
Siyuan Shang, Nan Wu, Yanjie Su
Prosociality is related to numerous positive outcomes, and mechanisms underlying individual differences in prosociality have been widely discussed. Recently, research has found converging evidence on the influence of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene on prosociality. Meanwhile, moral reasoning, a key precursor for social behavior, has also been associated with variability in OXTR gene, thus the relationship between OXTR and prosociality is assumed to be mediated by moral evaluation. The current study examines the relationship in question, and includes gender as a potential moderator...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366553/implications-and-outcomes-of-cardiac-grafts-refused-by-pediatric-centers-but-transplanted-by-adult-centers
#20
Farhan Zafar, Raheel Rizwan, Angela Lorts, Roosevelt Bryant, James S Tweddell, Clifford Chin, David L Morales
BACKGROUND: According to Organ Procurement Transplant Network policy, hearts from donors age <18 years are offered to pediatric recipients before being offered to adults of the same health status. We aimed to analyze differences in the use of adolescent donor hearts between adult and pediatric candidates and also to analyze the outcomes of pediatric candidates in which an adolescent donor heart was refused and later used in an adult recipient. METHODS: All adolescent donors (age 12-17 years) for 2000 to 2015 were identified using the standard United Network of Organ Sharing dataset and matched against the Potential Transplant Recipient dataset...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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