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Moral reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771103/-an-introduction-to-the-thought-of-emmanuel-levinas-the-care-or-irreducible-worry-of-infinite-responsibility
#1
Philippe Svandra
Despite a particularly difficult approach, Emmanuel Levinas remains a philosopher who « speaks » quite naturally to caregivers. The reason is simple ; he is interested in an issue that has long been hidden in philosophy, but that directly affects care : vulnerability.However, it seems that his thinking has too often been watered down. By presenting it as a form of benevolent altruism, the radical, even subversive, aspect of the approach that he proposes to us is erased. Indeed, Levinassian responsibility is experienced first of all as a rupture, a violence that makes me the « hostage of others...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767568/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#2
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764267/clinical-narratives-in-residency-education-exploration-of-the-learning-process
#3
Jennifer A Furze, Bruce H Greenfield, J B Barr, Kathleen Geist, Judith Gale, Gail M Jensen
BACKGROUND: Post-professional residency educational programs aim to advance the knowledge and skills of therapists in a clinical specialty area, however, little is known about the process, outcomes, or effectiveness of residency education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use narrative as a teaching and learning tool to gain insight into the progressive development of the residents' learning process. DESIGN: Qualitative methods including a retrospective analysis of residents' narratives were used to explore the professional development and thought process of residents...
May 15, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#4
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741209/union-s-inspiration-universal-health-care-and-the-essential-partiality-of-solidarity
#5
Simon Derpmann
Solidarity is commonly invoked in the justification of public health care. This is understandable, as calls for and appeals to solidarity are effective in the mobilization of unison action and the willingness to incur sacrifices for others. However, the reference to solidarity as a moral notion requires caution, as there is no agreement on the meaning of solidarity. The article argues that the reference to solidarity as a normative notion is relevant to health-related moral claims, but that it does not provide a convincing foundation of claims to universal health care...
May 9, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734085/attitude-towards-reciprocity-as-a-motive-for-oocyte-donation
#6
Guido Pennings, Célia Ravel, Jean-Maxime Girard, Mathilde Domin-Bernhard, Veerle Provoost
OBJECTIVE: Finding out whether patients would be motivated by reciprocity when considering donating oocytes to others. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective monocentric study in the CECOS of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Rennes (France) on the opinion of patients regarding reciprocity. Couples who had a child with donor sperm were asked whether they would consider oocyte donation as a way of giving something back. RESULTS: Twenty six couples and one man answered the questionnaire...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729404/microfluidic-assisted-bacteriophage-encapsulation-into-liposomes
#7
Sharon S Y Leung, Sandra Morales, Warwick Britton, Elizabeth Kutter, Hak-Kim Chan
Microfluidics has recently emerged as a new method of manufacturing liposomes, which allows reproducible mixing in miliseconds on the nanoliter scale. Here we investigated the feasibility of a microfluidic flow focusing setup built from commercially available fittings to encapsulate phages into liposomes. Two types of Pseudomonas phages, PEV2 (Podovirus, ∼65 nm) and PEV40 (Myovirus, ∼220 nm), were used as model phages. A mixture of soy phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol at a ratio of 4:1 dissolved in absolute ethanol with a total solid content of 17...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726022/will-cognitive-enhancement-create-post-persons-the-use-lessness-of-induction-in-determining-the-likelihood-of-moral-status-enhancement
#8
Emilian Mihailov, Alexandru Dragomir
The prospect of cognitive enhancement well beyond current human capacities raises worries that the fundamental equality in moral status of human beings could be undermined. Cognitive enhancement might create beings with moral status higher than persons. Yet, there is an expressibility problem of spelling out what the higher threshold in cognitive capacity would be like. Nicholas Agar has put forward the bold claim that we can show by means of inductive reasoning that indefinite cognitive enhancement will probably mark a difference in moral status...
May 3, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720623/engineering-of-iii-nitride-semiconductors-on-low-temperature-co-fired-ceramics
#9
J M Mánuel, J J Jiménez, F M Morales, B Lacroix, A J Santos, R García, E Blanco, M Domínguez, M Ramírez, A M Beltrán, D Alexandrov, J Tot, R Dubreuil, V Videkov, S Andreev, B Tzaneva, H Bartsch, J Breiling, J Pezoldt, M Fischer, J Müller
This work presents results in the field of advanced substrate solutions in order to achieve high crystalline quality group-III nitrides based heterostructures for high frequency and power devices or for sensor applications. With that objective, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics has been used, as a non-crystalline substrate. Structures like these have never been developed before, and for economic reasons will represent a groundbreaking material in these fields of Electronic. In this sense, the report presents the characterization through various techniques of three series of specimens where GaN was deposited on this ceramic composite, using different buffer layers, and a singular metal-organic chemical vapor deposition related technique for low temperature deposition...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718384/neural-substrates-for-moral-judgments-of-psychological-versus-physical-harm
#10
Lily Tsoi, James A Dungan, Aleksandr Chakroff, Liane L Young
While we may think about harm as primarily being about physical injury, harm can also take the form of negative psychological impact. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the extent to which moral judgments of physical and psychological harms are processed similarly, focusing on brain regions implicated in mental state reasoning or theory of mind, a key cognitive process for moral judgment. First, univariate analyses reveal item-specific features that lead to greater recruitment of theory of mind regions for psychological harm versus physical harm...
April 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717497/negativity-bias-in-infants-expectations-about-agents-dispositions
#11
Joanna Joo Kyung Chae, Hyun-Joo Song
This study investigated 6- and 10-month-old infants' abilities to infer others' preferences based on social interactions using looking time and choice measures. Infants were randomly assigned to either a helping/neutral or hindering/neutral condition. Those in the helping/neutral condition were first familiarized with a helping event, in which an agent helped a circle climb a hill, and a neutral event, in which another agent followed the same path as the helping agent but had no interaction with the circle...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716419/lecture-based-versus-problem-based-learning-in-ethics-education-among-nursing-students
#12
Mahnaz Khatiban, Seyede Nayereh Falahan, Roya Amini, Afshin Farahanchi, Alireza Soltanian
BACKGROUND: Moral reasoning is a vital skill in the nursing profession. Teaching moral reasoning to students is necessary toward promoting nursing ethics. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of problem-based learning and lecture-based methods in ethics education in improving (1) moral decision-making, (2) moral reasoning, (3) moral development, and (4) practical reasoning among nursing students. RESEARCH DESIGN: This is a repeated measurement quasi-experimental study...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707877/evidence-based-treatment-for-gynoid-lipodystrophy-a-review-of-the-recent-literature
#13
REVIEW
Francisco M Pérez Atamoros, Daniel Alcalá Pérez, Daniel Asz Sigall, Alfonsina A Ávila Romay, José A Barba Gastelum, José A de la Peña Salcedo, Pablo E Escalante Salgado, Guillermo J Gallardo Palacios, Guillermo A Guerrero-Gonzalez, Rodrigo Morales De la Cerda, Rosa María Ponce Olivera, Fabiola Rossano Soriano, Eduardo Solís Tinoco, Esperanza C Welsh Hernández
Gynoid lipodystrophy (GLD) is a structural, inflammatory, and biochemical disorder of the subcutaneous tissue causing alterations in the topography of the skin. Commonly known as "cellulite," GLD affects up to 90% of women, practically in all stages of the life cycle, beginning in puberty. It is a clinical condition that considerably affects the patients' quality of life. It is a frequent reason for consultation, although the patients resort to empirical, improvised, nonevidence-based treatments which discourage and can be a source of frustration not only because of the lack of results but also due to the complications derived from those treatments...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706280/students-views-of-an-online-ethical-decision-support-tool
#14
Maria Donna Allinson, Patricia Black
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ethical reasoning is a key skill that must be developed during the undergraduate pharmacy course to prepare students for ethical decision-making in future practice as pharmacy professionals. In this initial study, we sought and documented the views of pharmacy students at a United Kingdom (UK) university on the use of Values Exchange™ (Vx), an online ethical decision-support tool. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students deliberated on up to three ethical case scenarios every academic year using the tool...
February 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703258/conscientious-objection-to-participation-in-abortion-by-midwives-and-nurses-a-systematic-review-of-reasons
#15
Valerie Fleming, Lucy Frith, Ans Luyben, Beate Ramsayer
BACKGROUND: Freedom of conscience is a core element of human rights respected by most European countries. It allows abortion through the inclusion of a conscience clause, which permits opting out of providing such services. However, the grounds for invoking conscientious objection lack clarity. Our aim in this paper is to take a step in this direction by carrying out a systematic review of reasons by midwives and nurses for declining, on conscience grounds, to participate in abortion...
April 27, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691098/improved-patency-after-axillofemoral-bypass-for-aortoiliac-occlusive-disease
#16
Russell H Samson, David P Showalter, Michael R Lepore, Deepak G Nair, Douglas A Dorsay, Ricardo E Morales
OBJECTIVE: Axillofemoral bypasses (AxFBs) have been used since 1962 to treat aortoiliac disease. In the past, reported patency rates (37%-76%) for these extra-anatomic grafts have been inferior to those for anatomic aortic grafting. Reported low survival rates after AxFB (40%-50%) have confirmed that these procedures have been used primarily in patients at high risk for complications from aortofemoral bypass. However, modern medical and anesthesia management, preoperative scanning, donor artery preparation, postoperative graft surveillance, and graft technology may improve outcomes after AxFB, possibly supporting expansion of its use...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676502/indignity-and-old-age
#17
John-Stewart Gordon
This article examines the nature of human dignity against the background of old age and introduces the novel idea of treating human dignity as a formal principle related to the more foundational notion of indignity. The discussion starts with the objection that the notion of human dignity can be used to justify contrary positions and is therefore inconclusive. This pitfall can be averted by appealing to the notion of indignity rather than dignity in one's moral reasoning and decision-making. Cases of indignity are more primary and indicate the violation of the very core of a human being...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676033/fio-2-control-by-parents-of-preterm-infants-admitted-to-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-pilot-study
#18
M D Martín-Pelegrina, A Lorenzo-Rodríguez, D Lora-Pablos, B Muñóz-Amat, C Morales-Betancourt, C R Pallás-Alonso
When newborns are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for prematurity or other reasons, parents do not take on the role that they were expecting to assume. That is, they do not become the main caregivers of their children. To address this issue, neonatal units are currently trying to involve parents in the care of their children as soon as possible. Interesting experiences regarding this issue have been published. Most of the experiences show that when parents assume part of the responsibility for caring for their children, breastfeeding is prolonged, hospital-stay lengths decrease, weight gain increases and the numbers of readmissions decrease (1-4)...
April 19, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667122/the-gene-editing-of-super-ego
#19
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661058/feeling-interpersonally-controlled-while-pursuing-materialistic-goals-a-problematic-combination-for-moral-behavior
#20
Kennon M Sheldon, Nicolas Sommet, Mike Corcoran, Andrew J Elliot
We created a life-goal assessment drawing from self-determination theory and achievement goal literature, examining its predictive power regarding immoral behavior and subjective well-being. Our source items assessed direction and energization of motivation, via the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic aims and between intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for acting, respectively. Fused source items assessed four goal complexes representing a combination of direction and energization. Across three studies ( Ns = 109, 121, and 398), the extrinsic aim/extrinsic reason complex was consistently associated with immoral and/or unethical behavior beyond four source and three other goal complex variables...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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