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Moral reasoning

Anne A Fast, Jennifer Van Reet
Is it wrong to pretend to kick or pretend to steal? The current experiment examined whether preschoolers extend their moral principles from reality into pretense and whether this transfer depends on the proximity of the pretend world to the real world. Children are known to transfer their knowledge of object properties, causality, and problem solutions between pretend and real worlds. However, do children maintain their real-world moral reasoning in pretense? Preschoolers (N = 63) judged the acceptability of antisocial behaviors in pretend, fantastical, or non-pretend scenarios...
January 2018: Cognitive Development
Azer Kılıç, İpek Göçmen
This article aims to explore women's decisions to freeze their eggs for non-medical reasons in Turkey. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with twenty-one women who were either in the process of freezing their eggs, or had completed the process within the previous year. Being highly educated and holding prestigious occupations, on the one hand, and faced with traditional gender norms, on the other, these women are confronted with a challenging decision. When making such a decision to freeze their eggs, women act under the constraints defined by biomedical paradigms, the society they live in, and the future uncertainty of their lives...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Michael A Moncrieff, Pierre Lienard
Our research brings to light features of the social world that impact moral judgments and how they do so. The moral vignette data presented were collected in rural and urban Croatian communities that were involved to varying degrees in the Croatian Homeland War. We argue that rapid shifts in moral accommodations during periods of violent social strife can be explained by considering the role that coordination and social agents' ability to reconfigure their social network (i.e., relational mobility) play in moral reasoning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Saras Henderson, Maria Horne, Ruth Hills, Elizabeth Kendall
This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
March 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Chin Y Cheong, Ngoc Hl Ha, Robin Wm Choo, Philip Lk Yap
AIMS: Older adults who live alone are vulnerable physically, emotionally and socially. However, there is a trend towards children not living with their parents. We studied the willingness of teenagers today to live with and care for their aged parents tomorrow, and the reasons for their decision. METHODS: A convenient sample of 1405 teenage students (Mage  = 14.9 ± 1.30) in the north region of Singapore completed a purpose-designed questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationships between teenagers' closeness to grandparents, challenges faced living with grandparents, positive and negative perceptions towards aging, and willingness to stay with aged parents in the future, stratified by sex...
March 7, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Iain Brassington
The lack of sleep is a significant problem in the modern world. The structure of the economy means that 24 hour working is required from some of us, sometimes because we are expected to be able to respond to share-price fluctuations on the other side of the planet, sometimes because we are expected to serve kebabs to people leaving nightclubs, and sometimes because lives depend on it. The immediate effect is that we feel groggy; but there may be much more sinister long-term effects of persistent sleep deprivation and disruption, the evidence for which is significant, and worth taking seriously...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Gemma Via-Clavero, Marta Sanjuán-Naváis, Marta Romero-García, Laura de la Cueva-Ariza, Gemma Martínez-Estalella, Erika Plata-Menchaca, Pilar Delgado-Hito
BACKGROUND: Despite the reported harms and ethical concerns about physical restraint use in the critical care settings, nurses' intention to apply them is unequal across countries. According to the theory of planned behaviour, eliciting nurses' beliefs regarding the use of physical restraints would provide additional social information about nurses' intention to perform this practice. AIM: To explore the salient behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying the intention of critical care nurses to use physical restraints from the theory of planned behaviour...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Elizabeth T Hurren
The Murder Act (1752) decreed that homicide perpetrators should be hanged and sent for post-execution punishment. This article explores the event management of criminal dissections by penal surgeons in situ . It reveals that the punishment parade of the condemned did not stop at the scaffold, contrary to the impression in many standard historical accounts. Instead, ordinary people accompanied criminal corpses to many different types of dissection venues. Penal surgeons hand-picked these performance spaces that were socially produced for legal and practical reasons...
January 2018: History
Giulia Cavaliere, César Palacios-González
In this paper, we argue that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs). First, we provide a brief explanation of mitochondrial diseases and MRTs. We then present the reasons why MRTs are not, by nature, therapeutic. The upshot of the view that MRTs are non-therapeutic techniques is that their therapeutic potential cannot be invoked for restricting their use only to those cases where a mitochondrial DNA disease could be 'cured'...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Abraham Calderón-Castro, Misael Odín Vega-García, José de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, Perla Rosa Fitch-Vargas, Armando Carrillo-López, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Víctor Limón-Valenzuela, Ernesto Aguilar-Palazuelos
Starch is an attractive raw material as ingredient for edible film manufacture because of its low cost, abundant availability, renewability, and biodegradability. Nevertheless, starch based films exhibit several disadvantages such as brittleness and poor mechanical and barrier properties, which restrict its application for food packaging. The use of the extrusion technology as a pretreatment of the casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain edible films, may constitute an alternative to generate coatings with good functional properties and maintain longer the postharvest quality and shelf life of fruits...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Bjørn G Hallsson, Hartwig R Siebner, Oliver J Hulme
Fairness, the notion that people deserve or have rights to certain resources or kinds of treatment, is a fundamental dimension of moral cognition. Drawing on recent evidence from economics, psychology, and neuroscience, we ask whether self-interest is always intuitive, requiring self-control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems underpinning fairness...
February 24, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jochanan Benbassat
Undergraduate clinical education follows the "bedside" tradition that exposes students to inpatients. However, the hospital learning environment has two main limitations. First, most inpatients require acute care, and students may complete their training without seeing patients with frequent non-emergent and chronic diseases that are managed in outpatient settings. Second, students rarely cope with diagnostic problems, because most inpatients are diagnosed in the community or the emergency room. These limitations have led some medical schools to offer longitudinal integrated clerkships in community settings instead of hospital block clerkship rotations...
February 24, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Ana Isabel Morales García, Margarita Martínez Atienza, María García Valverde, Juan Fontes Jimenez, Antonio Martínez Morcillo, M Angustias Esteban de la Rosa, Pablo de Diego Fernández, Miguel García González, Rafael Fernández Castillo, Irene Argüelles Toledo, Juan Antonio Bravo Soto, Rafael Esteban de la Rosa
INTRODUCTION: Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common hereditary kidney disease, available data tend to be limited to after initiation of renal replacement therapy. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain an overview of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease within the health area of Granada in southern Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2016, we collected clinical, family and demographic information about all patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, irrespective of whether or not they were treated with RRT, in the Granada health area...
March 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Youlong Zhan, Xiao Xiao, Jin Li, Lei Liu, Jie Chen, Wei Fan, Yiping Zhong
Interpersonal relationship (IR) may play an important role in moral decision-making. However, it is little known about how IR influences neural and behavioral responses during moral decision-making. The present study utilized the dilemma scenario-priming paradigm to examine the time course of the different intimate IR (friend, acquaintance, or stranger) impacts on the emotional and cognitive processes during moral decision-making. Results showed that participants made less altruistic decisions with increased decision times and experienced more unpleasure for strangers versus friends and acquaintances...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Germaine Tuyisenge, Celestin Hategeka, Isaac Luginaah, Yolanda Babenko-Mould, David Cechetto, Stephen Rulisa
Objectives Training healthcare professionals in emergency maternal healthcare is a critical component of improving overall maternal health in developing countries like Rwanda. This paper explored the challenges that healthcare professionals who participated in a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) program on Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics® (ALSO) face in putting the learned knowledge and skills into practice in hospitals of Rwanda. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach to understand the challenges/barriers to applying new knowledge and skills in the hospitals of Rwanda...
February 22, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Adriana de Araujo Pinho, Regina Maria Barbosa, Sandra Brignol, Wilza Villela, Simone Souza Monteiro
The advances on HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment have enabled people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) better quality of life. However, the persistence of HIV-related stigma and discrimination, and the risks triggered by HIV disclosure, may be a barrier to the sexual exercise of PLHA. We investigated the prevalence of sexual inactivity and the reasons given for it among a representative sample of women of reproductive age living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. We surveyed 918 WLWHA with probability proportional to average number of visits in each of the 18 referral HIV/AIDS services...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Gabrielle A Strouse, Angela Nyhout, Patricia A Ganea
Picture books are an important source of new language, concepts, and lessons for young children. A large body of research has documented the nature of parent-child interactions during shared book reading. A new body of research has begun to investigate the features of picture books that support children's learning and transfer of that information to the real world. In this paper, we discuss how children's symbolic development, analogical reasoning, and reasoning about fantasy may constrain their ability to take away content information from picture books...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David B Resnik, D Robert MacDougall, Elise M Smith
Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we (1) consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; (2) show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (3) argue that an approach to public decision making known as accountability for reasonableness can complement theories of justice in establishing acceptable environmental health risks for the general population and susceptible subpopulations...
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B. F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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