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Moral reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210230/acute-mental-discomfort-associated-with-suicide-behavior-in-a-clinical-sample-of-patients-with-affective-disorders-ascertaining-critical-variables-using-artificial-intelligence-tools
#1
Susana Morales, Jorge Barros, Orietta Echávarri, Fabián García, Alex Osses, Claudia Moya, María Paz Maino, Ronit Fischman, Catalina Núñez, Tita Szmulewicz, Alemka Tomicic
AIM: In efforts to develop reliable methods to detect the likelihood of impending suicidal behaviors, we have proposed the following. OBJECTIVE: To gain a deeper understanding of the state of suicide risk by determining the combination of variables that distinguishes between groups with and without suicide risk. METHOD: A study involving 707 patients consulting for mental health issues in three health centers in Greater Santiago, Chile. Using 345 variables, an analysis was carried out with artificial intelligence tools, Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining processes, and decision tree techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191999/chronic-and-episodic-anger-and-gratitude-toward-the-organization-relationships-with-organizational-and-supervisor-supportiveness-and-extrarole-behavior
#2
Michael T Ford, Yanxia Wang, Jiafei Jin, Robert Eisenberger
Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in response to supportive treatment and anger toward their organizations in response to unsupportive treatment. Gratitude and anger, in turn, were expected to influence daily extrarole behavior...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188249/breastfeeding-and-defeasible-duties-to-benefit
#3
Fiona Woollard, Lindsey Porter
For many women experiencing motherhood for the first time, the message they receive is clear: mothers who do not breastfeed ought to have good reasons not to; bottle feeding by choice is a failure of maternal duty. We argue that this pressure to breastfeed arises in part from two misconceptions about maternal duty: confusion about the scope of the duty to benefit and conflation between moral reasons and duties. While mothers have a general duty to benefit, we argue that this does not imply a duty to carry out any particular beneficent act...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174150/involving-children-with-cancer-in-health-promotive-research-a-case-study-describing-why-what-and-how
#4
Jens M Nygren, Susanne Lindberg, Pontus Wärnestål, Petra Svedberg
BACKGROUND: Participatory research approaches have been introduced to meet end-users' needs in the development of health promotion interventions among children. However, whereas children are increasingly involved as passive informants in particular parts of research, they are rarely involved as partners, equal to adult researchers, throughout the research process. This is especially prominent in the context of child health where the child is commonly considered to be vulnerable or when the research concerns sensitive situations...
February 7, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165276/climate-change-helplessness-and-the-de-moralization-of-individual-energy-behavior
#5
Erika Salomon, Jesse L Preston, Melanie B Tannenbaum
Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem unimpactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness-belief that one's actions cannot affect climate change-can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change efficacy predicted both moralization of energy use and energy conservation intentions beyond individual belief in climate change...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160296/in-defense-of-artificial-replacement
#6
Derek Shiller
If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152398/derailing-the-trolley-everyday-utilitarian-judgments-in-groups-high-versus-low-in-psychopathic-traits-or-autistic-traits
#7
Karishma Vyas, Leila Jameel, Giulia Bellesi, Sarah Crawford, Shelley Channon
Moral decision-making has been linked with empathy. The present study built on previous work examining the relationship between psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), two conditions putatively associated with deficits in empathy, and utilitarian decision-making. Students scoring high on self-report measures of psychopathic or autistic traits were presented with a novel task, 'Utilitarian Judgments', and compared to low trait control groups. This study replicated the classic finding that more direct links between the agents' actions and harm to victims mitigated utilitarian decision-making...
January 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143942/bridging-the-education-action-gap-a-near-peer-case-based-undergraduate-ethics-teaching-programme
#8
Wing May Kong, Selena Knight
Undergraduate ethics teaching has made significant progress in the past decade, with evidence showing that students and trainee doctors feel more confident in identifying and analysing ethical issues. There is general consensus that ethics education should enable students and doctors to take ethically appropriate actions, and nurture moral integrity. However, the literature reports that doctors continue to find it difficult to take action when faced with perceived unethical behaviour. This has been evident in recent healthcare scandals, in which care has fallen below acceptable ethical standards, despite the presence of professional ethical guidelines and competencies...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139097/effects-of-perceived-descriptive-norms-on-corrupt-intention-the-mediating-role-of-moral-disengagement
#9
Huanhuan Zhao, Heyun Zhang, Yan Xu
The present study attempts to examine the effect of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention (e.g., bribe-taking intention) and then further explore the psychological mechanism underlying this effect. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediation model in which moral disengagement partially mediated the link between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. In Study 1, participants (N = 690) completed a series of questionnaires, and the results demonstrated that, while perceived descriptive norms were positively associated with corrupt intention, it was partially mediated by moral disengagement...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138000/is-medically-assisted-death-a-special-obligation
#10
Eduardo Rivera-López
Several distinct arguments conclude that terminally ill patients have a right to a medically assisted death; two are especially influential: the autonomy argument and the non-harm argument. Both have proven convincing to many, but not to those who view the duty not to kill as an (almost) absolute constraint. Some philosophers see the source of such a constraint in general (deontological) moral principles, other in the nature of the medical profession. My aim in this paper is not to add one further argument in favour of medically assisted death...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124277/igf-1-modulates-gene-expression-of-proteins-involved-in-inflammation-cytoskeleton-and-liver-architecture
#11
V J Lara-Diaz, I Castilla-Cortazar, I Martín-Estal, M García-Magariño, G A Aguirre, J E Puche, R G de la Garza, L A Morales, U Muñoz
Even though the liver synthesizes most of circulating IGF-1, it lacks its receptor under physiological conditions. However, according to previous studies, a damaged liver expresses the receptor. For this reason, herein, we examine hepatic histology and expression of genes encoding proteins of the cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and cell-cell molecules and inflammation-related proteins. A partial IGF-1 deficiency murine model was used to investigate IGF-1's effects on liver by comparing wild-type controls, heterozygous igf1(+/-), and heterozygous mice treated with IGF-1 for 10 days...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105633/chinese-malaysian-adolescents-social-cognitive-reasoning-regarding-filial-piety-dilemmas
#12
Charissa S L Cheah, Christy Y Y Leung, Sevgi Bayram Özdemir
This study examined the social-cognitive reasoning of 52 Chinese Malaysian preadolescents (9-12 years old; M = 11.02, SD = 0.94) and 68 adolescents (13-18 years old; M = 14.76, SD = 1.39) in resolving filial dilemmas within the personal and moral domain. Preadolescents deferred to parental authority, whereas adolescents endorsed filial obligation reasoning to justify compliance in the personal domain. Both appealed to filial obligation, pragmatic, or welfare and safety reasoning to justify compliance but fairness or rights reasoning to justify their noncompliance, for the moral issue...
January 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104631/the-ethics-of-reporting-all-the-results-of-clinical-trials
#13
REVIEW
Iain Brassington
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: The terms 'publication bias' and 'reporting bias' describe aspects of a phenomenon by which data from trials are not publicized, and so remain inaccessible. This may generate a false impression about the world; but those facts may have important implications for clinical decisions. Thus, the bias may leave patients worse off than they might be. SOURCES OF DATA: Published journal articles. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: There is general agreement that the phenomenon happens, and that to the extent that it happens, it is undesirable for moral rather than simply epistemic reasons...
January 18, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095284/family-carers-perspectives-on-integrated-community-care-in-the-czech-republic
#14
Eva Křížová, Hana Janečková, Jaromír Běláček
AIM: The problem of family care for people dependent on another person has only recently become a focus of research. As demand for health and social services has not been adequately met by public service providers, growing attention has been given to informal care and the integration of families within systems of health and social care at the community level. This paper presents the results of a survey on informal carers' views and opinions under the current conditions of social support in the Czech Republic...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080301/assessing-social-cognition-age-related-changes-in-moral-reasoning-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#15
V Chiasson, E Vera-Estay, G Lalonde, J J Dooley, M H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. METHOD: To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070282/the-database-of-the-predicts-projecting-responses-of-ecological-diversity-in-changing-terrestrial-systems-project
#16
Lawrence N Hudson, Tim Newbold, Sara Contu, Samantha L L Hill, Igor Lysenko, Adriana De Palma, Helen R P Phillips, Tamera I Alhusseini, Felicity E Bedford, Dominic J Bennett, Hollie Booth, Victoria J Burton, Charlotte W T Chng, Argyrios Choimes, David L P Correia, Julie Day, Susy Echeverría-Londoño, Susan R Emerson, Di Gao, Morgan Garon, Michelle L K Harrison, Daniel J Ingram, Martin Jung, Victoria Kemp, Lucinda Kirkpatrick, Callum D Martin, Yuan Pan, Gwilym D Pask-Hale, Edwin L Pynegar, Alexandra N Robinson, Katia Sanchez-Ortiz, Rebecca A Senior, Benno I Simmons, Hannah J White, Hanbin Zhang, Job Aben, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Gilbert B Adum, Virginia Aguilar-Barquero, Marcelo A Aizen, Belén Albertos, E L Alcala, Maria Del Mar Alguacil, Audrey Alignier, Marc Ancrenaz, Alan N Andersen, Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés, Inge Armbrecht, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Tom Aumann, Jan C Axmacher, Badrul Azhar, Adrián B Azpiroz, Lander Baeten, Adama Bakayoko, András Báldi, John E Banks, Sharad K Baral, Jos Barlow, Barbara I P Barratt, Lurdes Barrico, Paola Bartolommei, Diane M Barton, Yves Basset, Péter Batáry, Adam J Bates, Bruno Baur, Erin M Bayne, Pedro Beja, Suzan Benedick, Åke Berg, Henry Bernard, Nicholas J Berry, Dinesh Bhatt, Jake E Bicknell, Jochen H Bihn, Robin J Blake, Kadiri S Bobo, Roberto Bóçon, Teun Boekhout, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Kevin J Bonham, Paulo A V Borges, Sérgio H Borges, Céline Boutin, Jérémy Bouyer, Cibele Bragagnolo, Jodi S Brandt, Francis Q Brearley, Isabel Brito, Vicenç Bros, Jörg Brunet, Grzegorz Buczkowski, Christopher M Buddle, Rob Bugter, Erika Buscardo, Jörn Buse, Jimmy Cabra-García, Nilton C Cáceres, Nicolette L Cagle, María Calviño-Cancela, Sydney A Cameron, Eliana M Cancello, Rut Caparrós, Pedro Cardoso, Dan Carpenter, Tiago F Carrijo, Anelena L Carvalho, Camila R Cassano, Helena Castro, Alejandro A Castro-Luna, Cerda B Rolando, Alexis Cerezo, Kim Alan Chapman, Matthieu Chauvat, Morten Christensen, Francis M Clarke, Daniel F R Cleary, Giorgio Colombo, Stuart P Connop, Michael D Craig, Leopoldo Cruz-López, Saul A Cunningham, Biagio D'Aniello, Neil D'Cruze, Pedro Giovâni da Silva, Martin Dallimer, Emmanuel Danquah, Ben Darvill, Jens Dauber, Adrian L V Davis, Jeff Dawson, Claudio de Sassi, Benoit de Thoisy, Olivier Deheuvels, Alain Dejean, Jean-Louis Devineau, Tim Diekötter, Jignasu V Dolia, Erwin Domínguez, Yamileth Dominguez-Haydar, Silvia Dorn, Isabel Draper, Niels Dreber, Bertrand Dumont, Simon G Dures, Mats Dynesius, Lars Edenius, Paul Eggleton, Felix Eigenbrod, Zoltán Elek, Martin H Entling, Karen J Esler, Ricardo F de Lima, Aisyah Faruk, Nina Farwig, Tom M Fayle, Antonio Felicioli, Annika M Felton, Roderick J Fensham, Ignacio C Fernandez, Catarina C Ferreira, Gentile F Ficetola, Cristina Fiera, Bruno K C Filgueiras, Hüseyin K Fırıncıoğlu, David Flaspohler, Andreas Floren, Steven J Fonte, Anne Fournier, Robert E Fowler, Markus Franzén, Lauchlan H Fraser, Gabriella M Fredriksson, Geraldo B Freire, Tiago L M Frizzo, Daisuke Fukuda, Dario Furlani, René Gaigher, Jörg U Ganzhorn, Karla P García, Juan C Garcia-R, Jenni G Garden, Ricardo Garilleti, Bao-Ming Ge, Benoit Gendreau-Berthiaume, Philippa J Gerard, Carla Gheler-Costa, Benjamin Gilbert, Paolo Giordani, Simonetta Giordano, Carly Golodets, Laurens G L Gomes, Rachelle K Gould, Dave Goulson, Aaron D Gove, Laurent Granjon, Ingo Grass, Claudia L Gray, James Grogan, Weibin Gu, Moisès Guardiola, Nihara R Gunawardene, Alvaro G Gutierrez, Doris L Gutiérrez-Lamus, Daniela H Haarmeyer, Mick E Hanley, Thor Hanson, Nor R Hashim, Shombe N Hassan, Richard G Hatfield, Joseph E Hawes, Matt W Hayward, Christian Hébert, Alvin J Helden, John-André Henden, Philipp Henschel, Lionel Hernández, James P Herrera, Farina Herrmann, Felix Herzog, Diego Higuera-Diaz, Branko Hilje, Hubert Höfer, Anke Hoffmann, Finbarr G Horgan, Elisabeth Hornung, Roland Horváth, Kristoffer Hylander, Paola Isaacs-Cubides, Hiroaki Ishida, Masahiro Ishitani, Carmen T Jacobs, Víctor J Jaramillo, Birgit Jauker, F Jiménez Hernández, McKenzie F Johnson, Virat Jolli, Mats Jonsell, S Nur Juliani, Thomas S Jung, Vena Kapoor, Heike Kappes, Vassiliki Kati, Eric Katovai, Klaus Kellner, Michael Kessler, Kathryn R Kirby, Andrew M Kittle, Mairi E Knight, Eva Knop, Florian Kohler, Matti Koivula, Annette Kolb, Mouhamadou Kone, Ádám Kőrösi, Jochen Krauss, Ajith Kumar, Raman Kumar, David J Kurz, Alex S Kutt, Thibault Lachat, Victoria Lantschner, Francisco Lara, Jesse R Lasky, Steven C Latta, William F Laurance, Patrick Lavelle, Violette Le Féon, Gretchen LeBuhn, Jean-Philippe Légaré, Valérie Lehouck, María V Lencinas, Pia E Lentini, Susan G Letcher, Qi Li, Simon A Litchwark, Nick A Littlewood, Yunhui Liu, Nancy Lo-Man-Hung, Carlos A López-Quintero, Mounir Louhaichi, Gabor L Lövei, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Victor H Luja, Matthew S Luskin, M Cristina MacSwiney G, Kaoru Maeto, Tibor Magura, Neil Aldrin Mallari, Louise A Malone, Patrick K Malonza, Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte, Salvador Mandujano, Inger E Måren, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Charles J Marsh, E J P Marshall, Eliana Martínez, Guillermo Martínez Pastur, David Moreno Mateos, Margaret M Mayfield, Vicente Mazimpaka, Jennifer L McCarthy, Kyle P McCarthy, Quinn S McFrederick, Sean McNamara, Nagore G Medina, Rafael Medina, Jose L Mena, Estefania Mico, Grzegorz Mikusinski, Jeffrey C Milder, James R Miller, Daniel R Miranda-Esquivel, Melinda L Moir, Carolina L Morales, Mary N Muchane, Muchai Muchane, Sonja Mudri-Stojnic, A Nur Munira, Antonio Muoñz-Alonso, B F Munyekenye, Robin Naidoo, A Naithani, Michiko Nakagawa, Akihiro Nakamura, Yoshihiro Nakashima, Shoji Naoe, Guiomar Nates-Parra, Dario A Navarrete Gutierrez, Luis Navarro-Iriarte, Paul K Ndang'ang'a, Eike L Neuschulz, Jacqueline T Ngai, Violaine Nicolas, Sven G Nilsson, Norbertas Noreika, Olivia Norfolk, Jorge Ari Noriega, David A Norton, Nicole M Nöske, A Justin Nowakowski, Catherine Numa, Niall O'Dea, Patrick J O'Farrell, William Oduro, Sabine Oertli, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Christopher Omamoke Oke, Vicencio Oostra, Lynne M Osgathorpe, Samuel Eduardo Otavo, Navendu V Page, Juan Paritsis, Alejandro Parra-H, Luke Parry, Guy Pe'er, Peter B Pearman, Nicolás Pelegrin, Raphaël Pélissier, Carlos A Peres, Pablo L Peri, Anna S Persson, Theodora Petanidou, Marcell K Peters, Rohan S Pethiyagoda, Ben Phalan, T Keith Philips, Finn C Pillsbury, Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich, Eduardo Pineda, Joan Pino, Jaime Pizarro-Araya, A J Plumptre, Santiago L Poggio, Natalia Politi, Pere Pons, Katja Poveda, Eileen F Power, Steven J Presley, Vânia Proença, Marino Quaranta, Carolina Quintero, Romina Rader, B R Ramesh, Martha P Ramirez-Pinilla, Jai Ranganathan, Claus Rasmussen, Nicola A Redpath-Downing, J Leighton Reid, Yana T Reis, José M Rey Benayas, Juan Carlos Rey-Velasco, Chevonne Reynolds, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Miriam H Richards, Barbara A Richardson, Michael J Richardson, Rodrigo Macip Ríos, Richard Robinson, Carolina A Robles, Jörg Römbke, Luz Piedad Romero-Duque, Matthias Rös, Loreta Rosselli, Stephen J Rossiter, Dana S Roth, T'ai H Roulston, Laurent Rousseau, André V Rubio, Jean-Claude Ruel, Jonathan P Sadler, Szabolcs Sáfián, Romeo A Saldaña-Vázquez, Katerina Sam, Ulrika Samnegård, Joana Santana, Xavier Santos, Jade Savage, Nancy A Schellhorn, Menno Schilthuizen, Ute Schmiedel, Christine B Schmitt, Nicole L Schon, Christof Schüepp, Katharina Schumann, Oliver Schweiger, Dawn M Scott, Kenneth A Scott, Jodi L Sedlock, Steven S Seefeldt, Ghazala Shahabuddin, Graeme Shannon, Douglas Sheil, Frederick H Sheldon, Eyal Shochat, Stefan J Siebert, Fernando A B Silva, Javier A Simonetti, Eleanor M Slade, Jo Smith, Allan H Smith-Pardo, Navjot S Sodhi, Eduardo J Somarriba, Ramón A Sosa, Grimaldo Soto Quiroga, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Brian M Starzomski, Constanti Stefanescu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Philip C Stouffer, Jane C Stout, Ayron M Strauch, Matthew J Struebig, Zhimin Su, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Shinji Sugiura, Keith S Summerville, Yik-Hei Sung, Hari Sutrisno, Jens-Christian Svenning, Tiit Teder, Caragh G Threlfall, Anu Tiitsaar, Jacqui H Todd, Rebecca K Tonietto, Ignasi Torre, Béla Tóthmérész, Teja Tscharntke, Edgar C Turner, Jason M Tylianakis, Marcio Uehara-Prado, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Denis Vallan, Adam J Vanbergen, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Kiril Vassilev, Hans A F Verboven, Maria João Verdasca, José R Verdú, Carlos H Vergara, Pablo M Vergara, Jort Verhulst, Massimiliano Virgilio, Lien Van Vu, Edward M Waite, Tony R Walker, Hua-Feng Wang, Yanping Wang, James I Watling, Britta Weller, Konstans Wells, Catrin Westphal, Edward D Wiafe, Christopher D Williams, Michael R Willig, John C Z Woinarski, Jan H D Wolf, Volkmar Wolters, Ben A Woodcock, Jihua Wu, Joseph M Wunderle, Yuichi Yamaura, Satoko Yoshikura, Douglas W Yu, Andrey S Zaitsev, Juliane Zeidler, Fasheng Zou, Ben Collen, Rob M Ewers, Georgina M Mace, Drew W Purves, Jörn P W Scharlemann, Andy Purvis
The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062942/what-money-cannot-buy-and-what-money-ought-not-buy-dignity-motives-and-markets-in-human-organ-procurement-debates
#17
Ryan Gillespie
Given the current organ shortage, a prevalent alternative to the altruism-based policy is a market-based solution: pay people for their organs. Receiving much popular and scholarly attention, a salient normative argument against neoliberal pressures is the preservation of human dignity. This article examines how advocates of both the altruistic status quo and market challengers reason and weigh the central normative concept of dignity, meant as inherent worth and/or rank. Key rhetorical strategies, including motivations and broader social visions, of the two positions are analyzed and evaluated, and the separation of morally normative understandings of dignity from market encroachment is defended...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059634/judgments-of-moral-responsibility-and-wrongness-for-intentional-and-accidental-harm-and-purity-violations
#18
Mary Parkinson, Ruth M J Byrne
Two experiments examine whether people reason differently about intentional and accidental violations in the moral domains of harm and purity, by examining moral responsibility and wrongness judgments for violations that affect others or the self. The first experiment shows that intentional violations are judged to be worse than accidental ones, regardless of whether they are harm or purity violations-for example, Sam poisons his colleague versus Sam eats his dog, when participants judge how morally responsible was Sam for what he did, or how morally wrong was what Sam did...
January 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055998/-hypertensive-crisis-urgency-and-hypertensive-emergency
#19
Javier Sobrino Martínez, Mónica Doménech Feria-Carot, Alberto Morales Salinas, Antonia Coca Payeras
Hypertensive crises lumped several clinical situations with different seriousness and prognosis. The differences between hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency depends on if this situation involves a vital risk for the patient. This risk is defined more by the severity of the organ damage than for the higher values of blood pressure. The hypertensive urgency not involves an immediately risk for the patient, for these reason, the treatment can be completed after discharged. Otherwise, the hypertensive emergency is a critical clinical condition that requires hospital assistance...
November 18, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055992/-practicality-of-cardiovascular-risk-functions
#20
Jaume Marrugat, Roberto Elosua, Gloria Icaza, Alberto Morales-Salinas, Irene R Dégano
Cardiovascular diseases prevention strategies require refinement because their incidence decreases very slowly. Risk functions were developed by including classical cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and basic lipid profile) in cohorts followed more than 10 years. They are reasonably precise for population screening of, principally, coronary artery disease risk, required in all cardiovascular primary prevention clinical guidelines. Coronary artery disease risk functions classify patients in risk strata to concentrate the maximum therapeutic and life style effort in the highest risk groups, in which the number needed to treat and cost-effectiveness are optimal...
December 13, 2016: Medwave
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