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fly pregnancy

Danny Haelewaters, Walter P Pfliegler, Tamara Szentiványi, Mihály Földvári, Attila D Sándor, Levente Barti, Jasmin J Camacho, Gerrit Gort, Péter Estók, Thomas Hiller, Carl W Dick, Donald H Pfister
BACKGROUND: Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania)...
February 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Naana Afua Jumah, Craig Edwards, Jazmyn Balfour-Boehm, Kassandra Loewen, Joseph Dooley, Lianne Gerber Finn, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of in utero exposure to the buprenorphine+naloxone combination product in a rural and remote population. SETTING: A district hospital that services rural and remote, fly-in communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 855 mother infant dyads between 1 July 2013 and 30 June 2015. Cases included all women who had exposure to buprenorphine+naloxone during pregnancy (n=62)...
October 31, 2016: BMJ Open
J W Hargrove, S F Ackley
Mortality estimates are central to understanding tsetse fly population dynamics, but are difficult to acquire from wild populations. They can be obtained from age distribution data but, with limited data, it is unclear whether the assumptions required to make the estimates are satisfied and, if not, how violations affect the estimates. We evaluate the assumptions required for existing mortality estimation techniques using long-term longitudinal ovarian dissection data from 144,106 female tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, captured in Zimbabwe between 1988 and 1999...
June 2015: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Claudia Colomba, Lucia Adamoli, Marcello Trizzino, Lucia Siracusa, Silvia Bonura, Manlio Tolomeo, Massimo Cajozzo, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco
Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand fly bites endemic in rural or periurban areas of the Mediterranean basin. Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in immune response, mainly a decrease in cellular immunity and a proportional increase in humoral immunity. These physiological events result in increased risk of infection by pathogens whose immunity is based on a T-helper 1 predominant response. We describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in a post-partum woman four days after delivery...
April 2015: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Roberta Bgeginski, Bruna P Almada, Luiz F Martins Kruel
The purpose of this study was to determine cardiorespiratory responses in pregnant and nonpregnant women during the execution of resistance exercises for upper and lower body. Twenty healthy women (10 pregnant: 22-24 weeks, 25.20 ± 4.44 years, 69.80 ± 9.52 kg, 161.60 ± 5.21 cm and 10 nonpregnant: 25.20 ± 3.73 years, 62.36 ± 8.60 kg, 162.40 ± 3.97 cm) performed 5 experimental sessions. Session 1: familiarization with the equipments and the determination of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Sessions 2, 3, 4, and 5: determination of the cardiorespiratory responses during the execution of resistance exercise on the bilateral leg extension and pec-deck fly, with 1 and 3 sets of 15 repetitions, 50% of 1 estimated maximum repetition...
March 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Midwives
Veronika Michalkova, Joshua B Benoit, Geoffrey M Attardo, Jan Medlock, Serap Aksoy
Impact of reproductive processes upon female health has yielded conflicting results; particularly in relation to the role of reproduction-associated stress. We used the viviparous tsetse fly to determine if lactation, birth and involution lead to damage from oxidative stress (OS) that impairs subsequent reproductive cycles. Tsetse females carry an intrauterine larva to full term at each pregnancy cycle, and lactate to nourish them with milk secretions produced by the accessory gland ( = milk gland) organ...
2014: PloS One
Geoffrey M Attardo, Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Kevin R Patrick, Tyler B Krause, Serap Aksoy
Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina), the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion...
April 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Joshua B Benoit, Immo A Hansen, Geoffrey M Attardo, Veronika Michalková, Paul O Mireji, Joel L Bargul, Lisa L Drake, Daniel K Masiga, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies undergo drastic fluctuations in their water content throughout their adult life history due to events such as blood feeding, dehydration and lactation, an essential feature of the viviparous reproductive biology of tsetse. Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane proteins that allow water and other solutes to permeate through cellular membranes. Here we identify tsetse aquaporin (AQP) genes, examine their expression patterns under different physiological conditions (blood feeding, lactation and stress response) and perform functional analysis of three specific genes utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) gene silencing...
April 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
José María Tovar-Rodríguez
Women who die during pregnancy or childbirth, the Aztec goddess regarded with the same value that was given to the warriors who died on the battlefield, accompanied the sun during its journey through the land, but were also feared and regarded as witches who could fly and cause damage and disease to children, could occupy bodies and produce paralysis, at the funeral the relatives of the Cihuateteo should take care of the woman's body because there was a possibility that parts of soldiers stealing him to gain courage in battle...
September 2013: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Aaron A Baumann, Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Paul Mireji, Geoffrey M Attardo, John K Moulton, Thomas G Wilson, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies are viviparous insects that nurture a single intrauterine progeny per gonotrophic cycle. The developing larva is nourished by the lipid-rich, milk-like secretions from a modified female accessory gland (milk gland). An essential feature of the lactation process involves lipid mobilization for incorporation into the milk. In this study, we examined roles for juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/IGF-like (IIS) signaling pathways during tsetse pregnancy. In particular, we examined the roles for these pathways in regulating lipid homeostasis during transitions between non-lactating (dry) and lactating periods...
June 15, 2013: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
B Calcagno, D Eyles, B van Alphen, B van Swinderen
It has been observed that certain developmental environmental risk factors for schizophrenia when modeled in rodents alter the trajectory of dopaminergic development, leading to persistent behavioural changes in adults. This has recently been articulated as the "dopamine ontogeny hypothesis of schizophrenia". To test one aspect of this hypothesis, namely that transient dopaminergic effects during development modulate attention-like behavior and arousal in adults, we turned to a small-brain model, Drosophila melanogaster...
2013: Translational Psychiatry
Stephen J Torr, Andrew Chamisa, T N Clement Mangwiro, Glyn A Vale
BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness, also called human African trypanosomiasis, is transmitted by the tsetse, a blood-sucking fly confined to sub-Saharan Africa. The form of the disease in West and Central Africa is carried mainly by species of tsetse that inhabit riverine woodland and feed avidly on humans. In contrast, the vectors for the East and Southern African form of the disease are usually savannah species that feed mostly on wild and domestic animals and bite humans infrequently, mainly because the odours produced by humans can be repellent...
2012: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Joshua B Benoit, Geoffrey M Attardo, Veronika Michalkova, Peter Takác, Jana Bohova, Serap Aksoy
Sphingosine is a structural component of sphingolipids. The metabolism of phosphoethanolamine ceramide (sphingomyelin) by sphingomyelinase (SMase), followed by the breakdown of ceramide by ceramidase (CDase) yields sphingosine. Female tsetse fly is viviparous and generates a single progeny within her uterus during each gonotrophic cycle. The mother provides her offspring with nutrients required for development solely via intrauterine lactation. Quantitative PCR showed that acid smase1 (asmase1) increases in mother's milk gland during lactation...
July 2012: Biology of Reproduction
Geoffrey M Attardo, Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Guangxiao Yang, Ladislav Roller, Jana Bohova, Peter Takáč, Serap Aksoy
Female tsetse flies undergo viviparous reproduction, generating one larva each gonotrophic cycle. Larval nourishment is provided by the mother in the form of milk secretions. The milk consists mostly of lipids during early larval development and shifts to a balanced combination of protein and lipids in the late larval instars. Provisioning of adequate lipids to the accessory gland is an indispensable process for tsetse fecundity. This work investigates the roles of Brummer lipase (Bmm) and the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)/adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR) systems on lipid metabolism and mobilization during lactation in tsetse...
May 2012: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Alla Maloverjan, Marko Piirsoo
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is implicated in various developmental and postnatal processes. Much of the current knowledge about the mechanisms of Shh signal transduction in vertebrates comes from the investigations of the respective pathway in fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, serine/threonine kinase fused is involved in all aspects of regulation of the Hh-dependent transcription factor cubitus interruptus possessing both catalytic and regulatory functions. Two proteins, Stk36 and Ulk3, share similarity with fu and have been suggested as mammalian fu homologues...
2012: Vitamins and Hormones
S De Vliegher, L K Fox, S Piepers, S McDougall, H W Barkema
Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable...
March 2012: Journal of Dairy Science
Jan van Gijn, Joost P Gijselhart
Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), born in New Jersey, managed to continue medical school despite the financial crisis of 1929, continued for a brief time in surgery and subsequently became one of the first specialists in anaesthesiology. In 1949 she was appointed to a professorship, the first woman to reach this rank at Columbia University in New York. She then dedicated herself to obstetric anaesthesiology and devised the well known scale for the initial assessment of newborn babies, according to 5 criteria. From 1959 she worked for the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now March of Dimes), to expand its activities from prevention of poliomyelitis to other aspects of preventive child care, such as rubella vaccination and testing for rhesus antagonism...
2012: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Francisco Valera, Lenka Zídková
The dynamics of host-parasite interactions depends to a large extent on the effect of host responses on parasite fitness. An increased research effort is currently being invested in the study of host influence on parasite fitness both at a population and at an individual level even though basic information (e.g. the reproductive anatomy of parasites) is frequently missing. Here, we study for the first time the reproductive system of the diptera Carnus hemapterus, a 2-mm long, highly mobile haematophagous fly parasitizing nestlings of a broad variety of bird species...
May 2012: Parasitology Research
Nicola A Philbrook, Louise M Winn, A R M Nabiul Afrooz, Navid B Saleh, Virginia K Walker
In the last two decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and silver (Ag) NPs are both found in cosmetics and foods, but their increasing use is of concern due to their ability to be taken up by biological systems. While there are some reports of TiO(2) and Ag NPs affecting complex organisms, their effects on reproduction and development have been largely understudied. Here, the effects of orally administered TiO(2) or Ag NPs on reproduction and development in two different model organisms were investigated...
December 15, 2011: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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