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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927264/comparative-interactomes-of-vrk1-and-vrk3-with-their-distinct-roles-in-the-cell-cycle-of-liver-cancer
#1
Namgyu Lee, Dae-Kyum Kim, Seung Hyun Han, Hye Guk Ryu, Sung Jin Park, Kyong-Tai Kim, Kwan Yong Choi
Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and VRK3 are members of the VRK family of serine/threonine kinases and are principally localized in the nucleus. Despite the crucial roles of VRK1/ VRK3 in physiology and disease, the molecular and functional interactions of VRK1/VRK3 are poorly understood. Here, we identified over 200 unreported VRK1/VRK3-interacting candidate proteins by affinity purification and LC-MS/MS. The networks of VRK1 and VRK3 interactomes were found to be associated with important biological processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, chromatin assembly, and RNA processing...
August 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926712/pyrophosphate-release-in-the-protein-hiv-reverse-transcriptase
#2
Murat Atiş, Kenneth A Johnson, Ron Elber
Enzymatic reactions usually occur in several steps: A step of substrate binding to the surface of the protein, a step of protein re-organization around the substrate and conduction of a chemical reaction, and a step of product release. The release of inorganic phosphate - PPi - from the matrix of the protein HIV reverse transcriptase is investigated computationally. Atomically detailed simulations with explicit solvent are analyzed to obtain the free energy profile, mean first passage time, and detailed molecular mechanisms of PPi escape...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926250/the-unimolecular-reactions-of-cf3chf2-studied-by-chemical-activation-assignment-of-rate-constants-and-threshold-energies-to-the-1-2-h-atom-transfer-1-1-hf-elimination-and-1-2-hf-elimination-reactions-and-the-dependence-of-threshold-energies-on-the-number-of
#3
Caleb A Smith, Blanton R Gillespie, George L Heard, Donald W Setser, Bert E Holmes
The recombination of CF3 and CHF2 radicals in a room temperature bath gas was used to prepare CF3CHF2* molecules with 101 kcal mol-1 of vibrational energy. The subsequent 1,2-H-atom transfer, 1,1-HF elimination and 1,2-HF elimination reactions were observed as a function of bath gas pressure by following the CHF3, CF3(F)C: and C2F4 product concentrations by gas chromatography using a mass spectrometer as the detector. The singlet CF3(F)C: concentration was measured by trapping the carbene with trans-2-butene...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925973/mechanisms-by-which-hpv-induces-a-replication-competent-environment-in-differentiating-keratinocytes
#4
REVIEW
Cary Moody
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer and are also associated with other genital malignancies, as well as an increasing number of head and neck cancers. HPVs have evolved their life cycle to contend with the different cell states found in the stratified epithelium. Initial infection and viral genome maintenance occurs in the proliferating basal cells of the stratified epithelium, where cellular replication machinery is abundant. However, the productive phase of the viral life cycle, including productive replication, late gene expression and virion production, occurs upon epithelial differentiation, in cells that normally exit the cell cycle...
September 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924978/using-formative-research-to-promote-antenatal-care-attendance-and-iron-folic-acid-supplementation-in-zinder-niger
#5
Sonja Y Hess, Césaire T Ouédraogo, Ibrahim F Bamba, K Ryan Wessells, Nancy Keith, Thierno Faye, Banda Ndiaye, Maimouna Doudou, Jennifer Nielsen
In Niger, use of antenatal care (ANC) and iron folic acid (IFA) supplements is suboptimal. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (a) to conduct formative research to understand barriers and beliefs among pregnant women related to ANC, IFA supplementation, and pregnancy outcomes; (b) assess the quality of currently provided ANC services; (c) use the findings to guide the development of programmatic interventions to improve coverage of ANC services and IFA supplementation of pregnant women. Structured in-home interviews (n = 72) and focus groups (n = 4) were conducted with pregnant women in 4 randomly selected villages in rural Zinder...
September 19, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924915/multiscale-modeling-of-diffusion-in-a-crowded-environment
#6
Lina Meinecke
We present a multiscale approach to model diffusion in a crowded environment and its effect on the reaction rates. Diffusion in biological systems is often modeled by a discrete space jump process in order to capture the inherent noise of biological systems, which becomes important in the low copy number regime. To model diffusion in the crowded cell environment efficiently, we compute the jump rates in this mesoscopic model from local first exit times, which account for the microscopic positions of the crowding molecules, while the diffusing molecules jump on a coarser Cartesian grid...
September 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924045/interaction-between-repressor-opi1p-and-er-membrane-protein-scs2p-facilitates-transit-of-phosphatidic-acid-from-the-er-to-mitochondria-and-is-essential-for-ino1-gene-expression-in-the-presence-of-choline
#7
Maria L Gaspar, Yu-Fang Chang, Stephen A Jesch, Manuel Aregullin, Susan A Henry
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the ER membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1. A strain devoid of Scs2p (scs2) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT, lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924043/dynamic-regulation-of-cdr1-localization-and-phosphorylation-during-osmotic-stress
#8
Hannah E Opalko, James B Moseley
Environmental conditions modulate cell cycle progression in many cell types. A key component of the eukaryotic cell cycle is the protein kinase Wee1, which inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in yeast through human cells. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein kinase Cdr1 is a mitotic inducer that promotes mitotic entry by phosphorylating and inhibiting Wee1. Cdr1 and Wee1 both localize to punctate structures termed nodes on the medial cortex, but it has been unknown if node localization can be altered by physiological signals...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923932/cell-cycle-targeting-micrornas-promote-differentiation-by-enforcing-cell-cycle-exit
#9
Tobias Otto, Sheyla V Candido, Mary S Pilarz, Ewa Sicinska, Roderick T Bronson, Michaela Bowden, Iga A Lachowicz, Kristin Mulry, Anne Fassl, Richard C Han, Emmanuelle S Jecrois, Piotr Sicinski
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been known to affect various biological processes by repressing expression of specific genes. Here we describe an essential function of the miR-34/449 family during differentiation of epithelial cells. We found that miR-34/449 suppresses the cell-cycle machinery in vivo and promotes cell-cycle exit, thereby allowing epithelial cell differentiation. Constitutive ablation of all six members of this miRNA family causes derepression of multiple cell cycle-promoting proteins, thereby preventing epithelial cells from exiting the cell cycle and entering a quiescent state...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921702/3d-analysis-of-mitosis-distribution-highlights-the-longitudinal-zonation-and-diarch-symmetry-in-proliferation-activity-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-root-meristem
#10
V V Lavrekha, T Pasternak, V B Ivanov, K Palme, V V Mironova
To date CYCB1;1 marker and cortex cell lengths are conventionally used to determine the proliferation activity of the Arabidopsis root meristem. By creating a 3D map of mitosis distribution we showed that these markers overlooked that stele and endodermis save their potency to divide longer than cortex and epidermis. Cessation of cell divisions is not a random process, so that the mitotic activity within the endodermis and stele shows a diarch pattern. Mitotic activity of all root tissues peaked at the same distance from the quiescent center (QC); however, different tissues stopped dividing at different distances, with cells of the protophloem exiting the cell cycle first and the procambial cells being the last...
September 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920576/the-dream-complex-through-its-subunit-lin37-cooperates-with-rb-to-initiate-quiescence
#11
Christina Fs Mages, Axel Wintsche, Stephan H Bernhart, Gerd A Müller
The retinoblastoma Rb protein is an important factor controlling the cell cycle. Yet, mammalian cells carrying Rb deletions are still able to arrest under growth-limiting conditions. The Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, which are components of the DREAM complex, had been suggested to be responsible for a continued ability to arrest by inhibiting E2f activity and by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here, we show that p130 and p107 are not sufficient for DREAM-dependent repression. We identify the MuvB protein Lin37 as an essential factor for DREAM function...
September 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920102/does-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-regulate-pluripotency
#12
Chia-I Ko, Alvaro Puga
Recent evidence from embryonic stem cells suggests that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a central role in the regulation of pluripotency, a short-lived property of cells in the early blastula inner cell mass (ICM). Four key observations support this conclusion. The first is the temporal association between upregulation of AHR expression and the onset of cell differentiation, which argues for the AHR as a determinant of cell fate decisions. The second is the repression of the pluripotency factors OCT4 and NANOG by the AHR, which depresses their function and contributes to the cell's exit from pluripotency...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919207/phospho-regulation-of-soma-to-axon-transcytosis-of-neurotrophin-receptors
#13
Naoya Yamashita, Rajshri Joshi, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Rejji Kuruvilla
Axonal targeting of signaling receptors is essential for neuronal responses to extracellular cues. Here, we report that retrograde signaling by target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is necessary for soma-to-axon transcytosis of TrkA receptors in sympathetic neurons, and we define the molecular underpinnings of this positive feedback regulation that enhances neuronal sensitivity to trophic factors. Activated TrkA receptors are retrogradely transported in signaling endosomes from distal axons to cell bodies, where they are inserted on soma surfaces and promote phosphorylation of resident naive receptors, resulting in their internalization...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918309/health-and-wellbeing-during-transition-to-adulthood-for-young-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-qualitative-study
#14
Genevieve Young-Southward, Sally-Ann Cooper, Christopher Philo
BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918189/effects-of-temperature-and-peg-grafting-density-on-the-translocation-of-pegylated-nanoparticles-across-asymmetric-lipid-membrane
#15
Zuoheng Zhang, Xubo Lin, Ning Gu
Plasma membrane internalization of nanoparticles (NPs) is important for their biomedical applications such as drug-delivery carriers. On one hand, in order to improve their half-life in circulation, PEGylation has been widely used. However, it may hinder the NPs' membrane internalization ability. On the other hand, higher temperature could enhance the membrane permeability and may affect the NPs' ability to enter into or exit from cells. To make full use of their advantages, we systematically investigated the effects of temperature and PEG density on the translocation of PEGylated nanoparticles across the plasma asymmetric membrane of eukaryotic cells, using near-atom level coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations...
September 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916322/intraductal-transanastomotic-stenting-in-duct-to-duct-biliary-reconstruction-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-randomized-trial
#16
Ky Santosh Kumar, Johns Shaji Mathew, Dinesh Balakrishnan, Viju Kumar Bharathan, Binoj Sivasankara Pillai Thankamony Amma, Unnikrishnan Gopalakrishnan, Ramachandran Narayana Menon, Puneet Dhar, Sudheer Othiyil Vayoth, Sudhindran Surendran
BACKGROUND: Biliary complications continue to be the 'Achilles heel' of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The use of biliary stents in LDLT to reduce biliary complication is a controversial issue. We performed a randomized trial to study the impact of intraductal biliary stents on postoperative biliary complications following LDLT. STUDY DESIGN: Of the 94 LDLT's, that were performed during a period of 16 months, ABO incompatible transplants, left lobe grafts, ≥3 ducts on the graft and those requiring bilio-enteric drainage were excluded...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915850/-love-me-parents-impact-evaluation-of-a-national-social-and-behavioral-change-communication-campaign-on-maternal-health-outcomes-in-tanzania
#17
Michelle R Kaufman, Jennifer J Harman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Orkis, Robert Ainslie
BACKGROUND: Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915752/a-new-insight-into-diffusional-escape-from-a-biased-cylindrical-trap
#18
Alexander M Berezhkovskii, Leonardo Dagdug, Sergey M Bezrukov
Recent experiments with single biological nanopores, as well as single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and pulling studies of protein and nucleic acid folding raised a number of questions that stimulated theoretical and computational investigations of barrier crossing dynamics. The present paper addresses a closely related problem focusing on trajectories of Brownian particles that escape from a cylindrical trap in the presence of a force F parallel to the cylinder axis. To gain new insights into the escape dynamics, we analyze the "fine structure" of these trajectories...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915526/-exit-a-possible-intervention-for-new-and-earlyborn-babies-with-severe-hydrops-fetalis-and-hydrothoraces-on-both-sides
#19
Sandra Koch, Jochen Essers, Ortraud Beringer, Frank Reister, Helmut Hummler, Anja Moewes
The EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure is an established method of respiratory protection, originally used in the delivery of fetuses with congenital obstructive airway diseases (tumors in the throat area, hygromas, so-called congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS)). Meanwhile, the procedure is also carried out in large perinatal centers for pronounced diaphragmatic hernia or other special indications (EXIT to ECMO, congenital lung airway malformations (CCAM), pulmonary atresia). We present our experience with adapted EXIT procedures in 5 preterm infants with secondary generalized hydrops fetalis and pronounced bilateral hydrothoraces...
September 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915129/atypical-exit-wound-in-high-voltage-electrocution
#20
Jamshid Parakkattil, Shanmugam Kandasamy, Siddhartha Das, Gerard Pradeep Devnath, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Kusa Kumar Shaha
Electrocution fatality cases are difficult to investigate. High-voltage electrocution burns resemble burns caused by other sources, especially if the person survives for few days. In that case, circumstantial evidence if correlated with the autopsy findings helps in determining the cause and manner of death. In addition, the crime scene findings also help to explain the pattern of injuries observed at autopsy. A farmer came in contact with a high-voltage transmission wire and sustained superficial to deep burns over his body...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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