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Anqi Geng, Runxiang Qiu, Kiyohito Murai, Jiancheng Liu, Xiwei Wu, Heying Zhang, Henry Farhoodi, Nam Duong, Meisheng Jiang, Jiing-Kuan Yee, Walter Tsark, Qiang Lu
Balanced symmetric and asymmetric divisions of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are crucial for brain development, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we report that mitotic kinesin KIF20A/MKLP2 interacts with RGS3 and plays a crucial role in controlling the division modes of NPCs during cortical neurogenesis. Knockdown of KIF20A in NPCs causes dislocation of RGS3 from the intercellular bridge (ICB), impairs the function of Ephrin-B-RGS cell fate signaling complex, and leads to a transition from proliferative to differentiative divisions...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Xiaoxi Li, Yanli Zhang, Liting Zheng, Mingxian Liu, Charlie Degui Chen, Hai Jiang
To explain the excess cancer rate in males, several candidates for "escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor" (EXITS) were recently identified. In this report we provide direct experimental evidence supporting UTX's role as an EXITS gene. Using a mouse lymphoma model, we show clear dosage effect of UTX copy number during tumorigenesis, which strongly supports the EXITS theory. Importantly, UTX deletion not only accelerates lymphomagenesis, it also strongly promotes tumor progression. UTX-knockout tumors are more aggressive, showing enhanced brain dissemination and formation of blood vessels...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Ja-Kyung Lee, Soong-Nang Jang
Previous research has revealed that many people wish to die at home; however, most die in healthcare institutions. This study explored factors related to the place of death and gender differences in this regard among older adults in South Korea. Participants included older adults from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine relationships between place of death and relevant factors. Most older adults died in hospitals, followed by at home and in assisted living residences...
July 7, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Lorena Perdices, Lorena Fuentes-Broto, Francisco Segura, Neyla Ben Gdara, Ana Isabel Sánchez-Cano, Gema Insa Sánchez, Elvira Orduna Hospital, Isabel Pinilla
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of inherited retinal degenerative conditions characterized by primary degeneration of the rod photoreceptors. Increased oxidative damage is observed in the retina, aqueous humor, and plasma of RP animal models and patients. The hepatic oxidative status may also be affected in RP due to oxidative damage influencing soluble macromolecules exiting the retina or to alterations in the melanopsin system resulting in chronic circadian desynchronization that negatively alters the oxidative stress defense system...
July 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lucia L Kaiser, Banafsheh Sadeghi, Iraklis E Tseregounis, Rosa D Manzo, Lisa Martinez, Maria I Rangel, Rosa Gomez-Camacho, Sara Schaefer, Adela de la Torre
OBJECTIVE: To examine factors related to attendance of Mexican-heritage parents at community-based nutrition classes to prevent childhood obesity. METHODS: Starting in 2011, interviewers collected baseline data from Niños Sanos Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Families) participants in rural California. Educators maintained attendance logs from 2012 to 2014. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, interviewers administered an exit survey in 2015 to collect data on attitudes, subjective norms, health motivations, and perceived control related to attendance...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Napawan Thangsupanimitchai, Alexander D Edwards
Ambient temperature filter dried vaccine formulations have been proposed to simultaneously achieve thermostability and offer a ready-to-use immunisation device that combines reconstitution and injection. Vaccine concentration should be uniform at the point of injection, but the uniformity following direct reconstitution of filter-dried vaccines has not been reported. We present here a study of vaccine mixing and release following dissolution of filter-dried model protein and toxoid antigens within a single syringe, filter and needle unit...
July 10, 2018: Vaccine
Hui Xie, Min Li, Siqiang Luo, Yang Li, Jia Tan, Yueming Zhou, Wei Cao, Peixiang Lu
We report on the scaling of the photoelectron holography with the laser ellipticity in strong-field atomic ionization. We find that the spacing of the holographic fringe gradually decreases with increasing of the ellipticity. In terms of the strong-field approximation, the scaling of the fringe spacing with the laser ellipticity is explained by the effect of the initial transverse momenta at the tunnel exit. With increasing of the laser ellipticity, a ridge structure arising from forward scattering electrons is observed in the low-energy region of the electron momentum distribution...
July 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Simon P Batterham
Enterocutaneous fistulas are a rare occurrence after placement of a PEG tube. The key risk factor for their development is the time the PEG tube is in situ , giving time for the fistula tract to mature. Enterocutaneous fistulae are traditionally treated with parenteral nutrition or surgical management. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman who underwent surgical closure of an enterocutaneous fistula with a fibrin plug. The fistula recurred on post-operative Day 5, and the patient was placed on thickened fluids to increase the viscosity of the fluid exiting the fistula tract...
July 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Sayyed K Zaidi, Jeffrey A Nickerson, Anthony N Imbalzano, Jane B Lian, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein
Reconfiguration of nuclear structure and function during mitosis presents a significant challenge to resume the next cell cycle in the progeny cells without compromising structural and functional identity of the cells. Equally important is the requirement for cancer cells to retain the transformed phenotype i.e., unrestricted proliferative potential, suppression of cell phenotype and activation of oncogenic pathways. Mitotic gene bookmarking-retention of key regulatory proteins that include sequence specific transcription factors, chromatin modifying factors and components of RNA Pol (RNAP) I and II regulatory machineries at gene loci on mitotic chromosomes-plays key roles in coordinate control of cell phenotype, growth and proliferation post-mitotically...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Ivy F Oandasan, Douglas Archibald, Louise Authier, Kathrine Lawrence, Laura April McEwen, Maria Palacios Mackay, Marie Parkkari, Shelley Ross, Steve Slade
OBJECTIVE: To describe exiting family medicine (FM) residents' reported practice intentions after completing a Triple C Competency-based Curriculum. DESIGN: The surveys were intended to capture residents' perceptions of FM, their perceptions of their competency-based training, and their intentions to practise FM. Entry (T1) and exit (T2) self-reported survey results were compared considering the influence of the curriculum change. Unmatched aggregate-level data were reviewed...
July 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Kim Bloch, Leigh F Johnson, Mlindeli Nkosi, Rodney Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Despite their burden of a triple epidemic of silicosis, tuberculosis and HIV infection, little is known about the mortality experience of miners from the South African mining industry once they leave employment. Such information is important because of the size and dispersion of this population across a number of countries and the progressive nature of these diseases. METHODS: This study included 306,297 South African miners who left the industry during 2001-2013...
July 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Anne-Kathe Reme, Carolyn Vopelak, David L Pelletier, Lynn M Johnson, Mduduzi Mbuya, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Despite increased access to treatment and reduced incidence, vertical transmission of HIV continues to pose a risk to maternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa. Performance-based financing (PBF) directed at healthcare providers has shown potential to improve quantity and quality of maternal and child health services. However, the ways in which these PBF initiatives lead to improved service delivery are still under investigation. METHODS: Therefore, we implemented a longitudinal-controlled proof-of-concept PBF intervention at health facilities and with community-based associations focused on preventing vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) in rural Mozambique...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Helene Benveniste, Xiaodan Liu, Sunil Koundal, Simon Sanggaard, Hedok Lee, Joanna Wardlaw
The glymphatic system is a glial-dependent waste clearance pathway in the brain, in place of lymphatic vessels, dedicated to drain away soluble waste proteins and metabolic products. Specifically, the glymphatic network serves as a "front end" for waste clearance, and is connected downstream to an authentic lymphatic network, associated with dura covering the brain as well as cranial nerves and large vessels at the skull exits. The anatomical and functional interconnections between these two networks are not completely understood...
July 11, 2018: Gerontology
Meng Li, Jason S L Yu, Katarzyna Tilgner, Swee Hoe Ong, Hiroko Koike-Yusa, Kosuke Yusa
The genetic basis of naive pluripotency maintenance and loss is a central question in embryonic stem cell biology. Here, we deploy CRISPR-knockout-based screens in mouse embryonic stem cells to interrogate this question through a genome-wide, non-biased approach using the Rex1GFP reporter as a phenotypic readout. This highly sensitive and efficient method identified genes in diverse biological processes and pathways. We uncovered a key role for negative regulators of mTORC1 in maintenance and exit from naive pluripotency and provided an integrated account of how mTORC1 activity influences naive pluripotency through Gsk3...
July 10, 2018: Cell Reports
Miguel Hernández-González, Areti Pantazopoulou, Dimitris Spanoudakis, Christel L C Seegers, Miguel A Peñalva
Hyphal tip cells of Aspergillus nidulans are > 100 μm-long, which challenges intracellular traffic. In spite of the basic and applied interest of the secretory pathway of filamentous fungi, only recently has it been investigated in detail. We used InuA, an inducible and highly glycosylated inulinase, and mutations affecting different intracellular membranous compartments, to investigate the route by which the enzyme traffics to the extracellular medium. InuA is core-N-glycosylated in the ER and hyperglycosylated during transit across the Golgi...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Immaculata N Igbo, Ejim N Sule
A university-based, student-run nursing organization improved cultural awareness, academic environment, and performance for members of the organization. The International Student Nursing Organization sponsored cultural events and a peer mentoring program. Members who participated in the peer mentoring program were randomly matched as mentors (seniors) or mentees (juniors); mentors were awarded service hours. Statistical data was tracked over two semesters for the first cohort of students. Mentors had a higher aggregate score on their comprehensive exit and nursing licensure exams when compared to their graduating class as a whole...
July 9, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
James Robert Hopgood, Matthew Connelly, Barry McHoull, Darren Troy
OBJECTIVE: Snapshot imaging has several advantages in automated gel electrophoresis compared with the finish-line method in capillary electrophoresis; this comes at the expense of resolution. A novel signal processing algorithm is proposed enabling a multi-snapshot imaging (MSI) modality whose objective is to substantially improve resolution. MSI takes multiple-captures in time as macromolecules are electrophoresed. Peaks from latter snapshots have high resolution but low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while earlier snapshots have low resolution but high SNR...
April 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Jane M Zhu, Daniel Polsky, Yuehan Zhang
In response to regulatory changes at the federal level, states that run their own marketplaces have taken steps to stabilize their individual markets. In this comparison of state-based and federally-facilitated marketplaces from 2016-2018, we find that SBMs had slower premium increases (43% vs. 75%), and fewer carrier exits, than FFMs. The total population participating in FFMs declined by 10%, while the enrolled population in SBMs remained largely stable, increasing by 2%. We find that the performance of the ACA marketplaces varies by state and appears to cluster around marketplace types...
March 1, 2018: LDI Issue Brief
D McKee, M McKee
Brexit will have profound implications for British tourists visiting the rest of the European Union, in particular because of the likely loss of coverage of healthcare should they be injured or fall ill. This paper compares the cost of travel insurance within the EU and in comparable countries outside it, asking how it varies by age and pre-existing conditions. Fictitious patients, differing by age, pre-existing condition, and destination (France, an EU Member State; Israel and Canada, two high income non-EU frequent destinations) were entered into an insurance price comparison website to assess the influence of these characteristics on prices quoted...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Maurizio D Baroni, Sonia Colombo, Enzo Martegani
Aspirin and its main metabolite salicylate are promising molecules in preventing cancer and metabolic diseases. S. cerevisiae cells have been used to study some of their effects: (i) salicylate induces the reversible inhibition of both glucose transport and the biosyntheses of glucose-derived sugar phosphates, (ii) Aspirin/salicylate causes apoptosis associated with superoxide radical accumulation or early cell necrosis in MnSOD-deficient cells growing in ethanol or in glucose, respectively. So, treatment with (acetyl)-salicylic acid can alter the yeast metabolism and is associated with cell death...
March 26, 2018: Microbial Cell
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