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Pediatric osteoporosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214296/abnormally-high-and-heterogeneous-bone-matrix-mineralization-after-childhood-solid-organ-transplantation-a-complex-pathology-of-low-bone-turnover-and-local-defects-in-mineralization
#1
Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Helena Valta, Renata C Pereira, Barbara M Misof, Paul Roschger, Hannu Jalanko, Kathrine Wesseling-Perry, Klaus Klaushofer, Outi Mäkitie
Chronic renal, liver and heart failure in children associates with multiple skeletal complications. Increased fracture incidence often persists after transplantation and could be related to alterations in bone material properties. In the present cohort study we evaluated bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in 23 pediatric solid organ allograft recipients with suspected osteoporosis. We measured BMDD in the entire cross-sectional area of transiliac bone biopsies obtained from kidney (n = 9), liver (n = 9) and heart (n = 5) transplant recipients (aged 7...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181694/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-two-sex-specific-loci-at-sptb-and-izumo3-influencing-pediatric-bone-mineral-density-at-multiple-skeletal-sites
#2
Alessandra Chesi, Jonathan A Mitchell, Heidi J Kalkwarf, Jonathan P Bradfield, Joan M Lappe, Diana L Cousminer, Sani M Roy, Shana E McCormack, Vicente Gilsanz, Sharon E Oberfield, Hakon Hakonarson, John A Shepherd, Andrea Kelly, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant
Failure to achieve optimal bone mineral accretion during childhood and adolescence results in subsequent suboptimal peak bone mass, contributing to osteoporosis risk later in life. To identify novel genetic factors that influence pediatric bone mass at discrete skeletal sites, we performed a sex-stratified genome-wide association study of areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the 1/3 distal radius, spine, total hip and femoral neck in a cohort of 933 healthy European American children...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179094/pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-poses-risk-for-low-bone-mineral-density-at-early-adulthood
#3
Anat Guz-Mark, Firas Rinawi, Oxana Egotubov, Ilan Shimon, Raanan Shamir, Amit Assa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known to pose a risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adults. We aimed to evaluate the impact of pediatric-onset IBD on BMD in adulthood. METHODS: Records of pediatric-IBD patients were retrospectively reviewed for documentation of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in adulthood. BMD was expressed as z-score. RESULTS: Sixty one patients were included. Mean (±SD) age at diagnosis was 14...
January 20, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#4
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125404/bone-mineral-density-and-bone-metabolic-markers-status-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#5
Hatice Gamze Poyrazoğlu, Veysel Nijat Baş, Alev Arslan, Funda Bastug, Mehmet Canpolat, Hüseyin Per, Hakan Gümüs, Sefer Kumandas
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder characterized by progressive manifestations, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The majority of patients with NF1 experience a diffuse, significant reduction in bone mass over time, with osteoporosis, osteopenia in the absence of severe scoliosis, or gross bone deformities. This study aimed to determine the bone mineral density (BMD) status, evaluate bone metabolism, and to determine the relevant factors in children with NF1...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118527/from-childhood-to-adulthood-the-trajectory-of-damage-in-patients-with-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Lily Sh Lim, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Lillian Lim, Dafna Gladman, Brian Feldman, Earl Silverman
Objectives 1) To determine the longitudinal damage trajectory of patients with childhood-onset SLE (cSLE). 2) To identify baseline and disease course predictors of damage trajectory. Methods This is a retrospective inception cohort. Longitudinal pediatric-age data was obtained from a cSLE research database while adult-age data was obtained from either a research database or patients' charts. Baseline factors were tested as predictors. Time-varying factors were lagged 6 to 24 months before a visit for testing their predictive effects...
January 24, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989544/use-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Halley Wasserman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Catherine M Gordon
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is a vital tool for assessing bone health in patients at risk for fragility fractures. In pediatric patients, this technology is used in conjunction with clinical fracture history to diagnosis osteoporosis and monitor treatment response. Childhood and adolescence is characterized by linear growth and bone mass accrual; thus there are important differences in the interpretation of bone measurements obtained by DXA in these young patients. This review aims to explore the current indications for DXA use and interpretation of DXA in the pediatric age group using currently available reference databases...
December 15, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936525/a-case-of-multiple-vertebral-compression-fractures-due-to-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-nephrotic-syndrome%C3%A2
#8
Akira Ashida, Yuko Fujii, Hideki Matsumura, Hiroshi Tamai
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid therapy has a number of adverse effects, among which osteoporosis and bone fracture can be major complications. Immunosuppressive therapy for nephrotic syndrome is effective and can help to reduce the cumulative dose of glucocorticoids. Therefore, for this reason, the number of patients with nephrotic syndrome who develop glucocorticoid-related osteoporotic compression fracture is decreasing. Here we describe a pediatric case of multiple vertebral compression fractures due to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis during treatment for nephrotic syndrome...
March 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872411/osteoporosis-in-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#9
Walid Faraj, Ghina El Nounou, Abdallah Abou Al Naaj, Nancy Nakhoul, Ali Haydar, Mohammad Khalife
Liver transplantation provides an important, often life-saving treatment for end-stage liver disease. Osteoporosis post-liver transplantation has been described in adults; however, this has not been described in the pediatric population to date. We present a case of a 13-year-old female patient who underwent an orthotopic liver transplant for cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. Her immunosuppressants were tacrolimus and prednisone. Four months posttransplant, she started complaining of bilateral lower limb pain and limping while walking, progressing to a point where she was almost immobile...
December 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824794/balloon-kyphoplasty-for-managing-intractable-pain-in-pediatric-pathologic-vertebral-fractures
#10
Jane S Hoashi, Stefanie M Thomas, Ryan C Goodwin, David P Gurd, Rabi Hanna, Thomas E Kuivila
BACKGROUND: Vertebral compression fractures are a common result of osteoporosis and osteopenia secondary to steroid use and chemotherapy treatment. Balloon kyphoplasty is a treatment option with good to excellent results well described in adults. Although a few recent studies have been published regarding the use of kyphoplasty in children, no formal indication exists for the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of 3 chronically ill children with intractable pain from vertebral compression fractures, managed with kyphoplasty...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821253/bone-mineral-density-in-children-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#11
Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad, Mahmoud Ahmed El-Hawy, Sally Mohamed El-Hefnawy, Sanaa Mansour Mohamed
OBJECTIVES: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) and normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). METHODS: Cross-sectional case-control study carried out on 50 children: 25 cases of NS (16 steroid-sensitive [SSNS] and nine steroid-resistant [SRNS] under follow up in the pediatric nephrology unit of Menoufia University Hospital, which is tertiary care center, were compared to 25 healthy controls with matched age and sex...
November 5, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820879/heparin-for-the-treatment-of-thrombosis-in-neonates
#12
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Matteo Bruschettini, Simona Zappettini, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Among pediatric patients, newborns are at highest risk of developing thromboembolism. Neonatal thromboembolic (TE) events may consist of both venous and arterial thromboses and often iatrogenic complications (eg, central catheterization). Treatment guidelines for pediatric patients with TE events most often are extrapolated from the literature regarding adults. Options for the management of neonatal TE events include expectant management; nitroglycerin ointment; thrombolytic therapy or anticoagulant therapy, or a combination of the two; and surgery...
7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813341/pharmacological-and-biological-therapeutic-strategies-for-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#13
REVIEW
Ronit Marom, Yi-Chien Lee, Ingo Grafe, Brendan Lee
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, low bone mass, and bone deformities. The majority of cases are caused by autosomal dominant pathogenic variants in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes that encode type I collagen, the major component of the bone matrix. The remaining cases are caused by autosomal recessively or dominantly inherited mutations in genes that are involved in the post-translational modification of type I collagen, act as type I collagen chaperones, or are members of the signaling pathways that regulate bone homeostasis...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771681/ibandronate-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-osteoporosis
#14
Stepan Kutilek, Ivana Plasilova, Jan Langer
We administered oral ibandronate (once a month) to 7 children (6 boys) with low bone mineral density and prevalent low energy fractures. We observed a significant increase (17%) in bone density after one year and additional 3% increase after second year. No further fractures occurred.
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755346/extra-intestinal-manifestations-of-celiac-disease-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#15
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the GFD on extra-intestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago (UofC). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the UofC Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extra-intestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and greater than 24 months were recorded. Extra-intestinal symptoms included: abnormal liver enzymes, arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), alopecia, fatigue, headache, anemia, stomatitis, myalgias, psychiatric disorders, rashes, seizures, neuropathy, short stature, delayed puberty, osteoporosis and infertility...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742529/association-of-gross-motor-function-classification-system-level-and-school-attendance-with-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#16
Ki Jin Jung, Soon-Sun Kwon, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Byung Chae Cho, Myoung Ki Chung, Seung Jun Moon, Jaeyoung Kim, Moon Seok Park
The present study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to critically analyze the effects of a variety of factors, particularly the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities questionnaire, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), on BMD. Fifty patients with CP who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. Collected data included the extent of involvement, muscle tone, demographic data, factors determined through chart review, and laboratory results...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669735/bone-densitometry-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Laura K Bachrach, Catherine M Gordon
Concerns about bone health and potential fragility in children and adolescents have led to a high interest in bone densitometry. Pediatric patients with genetic and acquired chronic diseases, immobility, and inadequate nutrition may fail to achieve expected gains in bone size, mass, and strength, leaving them vulnerable to fracture. In older adults, bone densitometry has been shown to predict fracture risk and reflect response to therapy. The role of densitometry in the management of children at risk of bone fragility is less clear...
October 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665261/implementation-and-adherence-to-osteoporosis-screening-guidelines-among-coeliac-disease-patients
#18
Prashant Singh, John J Garber
BACKGROUND: There are no studies evaluating the implementation of American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines on osteoporosis screening in coeliac disease. AIMS: To investigate implementation of osteoporosis screening guidelines in coeliac disease patients and determine how often bone mineral density (BMD) assessment leads to therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We screened all patients with biopsy-proven coeliac disease at our center from 2003 to 2013 and collected data on indication and results of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) and therapeutic interventions...
December 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603884/-teenager
#19
Nelly Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
The bone mass peak is the maximum bone quantity to be achieved through bone modeling. About 40% of the total bone mass is achieved at puberty; therefore, adolescence is critical on the skeletal development. This paper is about the transfunctional analysis of nutrition, mineral metabolism, endocrinology and life style in adolescence. Core factors to achieve the maximum potential of bone modeling through puberty and prevent osteoporosis from a pediatric stage are addressed.
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579163/genetics-of-pediatric-bone-strength
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan A Mitchell, Diana L Cousminer, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant, Alessandra Chesi
Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic forms of disability in postmenopausal women and represents a major health burden around the world. Bone fragility is affected by bone mineral density (BMD), and, one of the most important factors in preventing osteoporosis is optimizing peak bone mass, which is achieved during growth in childhood and adolescence. BMD is a complex trait resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have discovered robust genetic signals influencing BMD in adults, and similar studies have also been conducted to investigate the genetics of BMD in the pediatric setting...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
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