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fMRI Autism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334131/pca-leverage-outlier-detection-for-high-dimensional-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data
#1
Amanda F Mejia, Mary Beth Nebel, Ani Eloyan, Brian Caffo, Martin A Lindquist
Outlier detection for high-dimensional (HD) data is a popular topic in modern statistical research. However, one source of HD data that has received relatively little attention is functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI), which consists of hundreds of thousands of measurements sampled at hundreds of time points. At a time when the availability of fMRI data is rapidly growing-primarily through large, publicly available grassroots datasets-automated quality control and outlier detection methods are greatly needed...
February 27, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324694/screening-of-autism-based-on-task-free-fmri-using-graph-theoretical-approach
#2
Masoumeh Sadeghi, Reza Khosrowabadi, Fatemeh Bakouie, Hoda Mahdavi, Changiz Eslahchi, Hamidreza Pouretemad
Studies on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated several dysfunctions in the structure, and functional organization of the brain. However, findings have not been established as a general diagnostic tool yet. In this regard, current study proposed an automatic screening method for recognition of ASDs from healthy controls (HCs) based on their brain functional abnormalities. In this paradigm, brain functional networks of 60 adolescent and young adult males (29 ASDs and 31 HCs) were estimated from subjects' task-free fMRI data...
March 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284787/sensory-over-responsivity-and-social-cognition-in-asd-effects-of-aversive-sensory-stimuli-and-attentional-modulation-on-neural-responses-to-social-cues
#3
Shulamite A Green, Leanna M Hernandez, Hilary C Bowman, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a common condition in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that is associated with greater social impairment. However, the mechanisms through which sensory stimuli may affect social functioning are not well understood. This study used fMRI to examine brain activity while interpreting communicative intent in 15 high-functioning youth with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants completed the task with and without a tactile sensory distracter, and with and without instructions directing their attention to relevant social cues...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261045/a-statistical-method-to-distinguish-functional-brain-networks
#4
André Fujita, Maciel C Vidal, Daniel Y Takahashi
One major problem in neuroscience is the comparison of functional brain networks of different populations, e.g., distinguishing the networks of controls and patients. Traditional algorithms are based on search for isomorphism between networks, assuming that they are deterministic. However, biological networks present randomness that cannot be well modeled by those algorithms. For instance, functional brain networks of distinct subjects of the same population can be different due to individual characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245068/positive-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-autism-symptoms-correlate-with-brain-activation-during-imitation-and-observation
#5
Michael Datko, Jaime Pineda, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training, an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242518/-decoding-versus-comprehension-brain-responses-underlying-reading-comprehension-in-children-with-autism
#6
Haley M Bednarz, Jose O Maximo, Donna L Murdaugh, Sarah O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
Despite intact decoding ability, deficits in reading comprehension are relatively common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few neuroimaging studies have tested the neural bases of this specific profile of reading deficit in ASD. This fMRI study examined activation and synchronization of the brain's reading network in children with ASD with specific reading comprehension deficits during a word similarities task. Thirteen typically developing children and 18 children with ASD performed the task in the MRI scanner...
February 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239517/cortical-interactions-during-the-resolution-of-information-processing-demands-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Suzanne Goh, Yuankai Huo, Bradley S Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Our flexible and adaptive interactions with the environment are guided by our individual representation of the physical world, estimated through sensation and evaluation of available information against prior knowledge. When linking sensory evidence with higher-level expectations for action, the central nervous system (CNS) in typically developing (TD) individuals relies in part on distributed and interacting cortical regions to communicate neuronal signals flexibly across the brain...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197860/local-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-autism-site-and-cohort-variability-and-the-effect-of-eye-status
#9
Sangeeta Nair, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Michael M Berkebile, José Omar Maximo, Natalia Witkowska, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with prominent impairments in sociocommunicative abilities, which have been linked to anomalous brain network organization. Despite ample evidence of atypical long-distance connectivity, the literature on local connectivity remains small and divergent. We used resting-state functional MRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) as a local connectivity measure in comparative analyses across several well-matched low-motion subsamples from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange and in-house data, with a grand total of 147 ASD and 184 typically developing (TD) participants, ages 7-18 years...
February 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188914/connectivity-based-parcellation-reveals-distinct-cortico-striatal-connectivity-fingerprints-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Joshua H Balsters, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180069/young-adolescents-with-autism-show-abnormal-joint-attention-network-a-gaze-contingent-fmri-study
#11
E Oberwelland, L Schilbach, I Barisic, S C Krall, K Vogeley, G R Fink, B Herpertz-Dahlmann, K Konrad, M Schulte-Rüther
Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA) as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174516/anocva-in-r-a-software-to-compare-clusters-between-groups-and-its-application-to-the-study-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Maciel C Vidal, João R Sato, Joana B Balardin, Daniel Y Takahashi, André Fujita
Understanding how brain activities cluster can help in the diagnosis of neuropsychological disorders. Thus, it is important to be able to identify alterations in the clustering structure of functional brain networks. Here, we provide an R implementation of Analysis of Cluster Variability (ANOCVA), which statistically tests (1) whether a set of brain regions of interest (ROI) are equally clustered between two or more populations and (2) whether the contribution of each ROI to the differences in clustering is significant...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150911/cerebellar-contributions-to-biological-motion-perception-in-autism-and-typical-development
#13
Allison Jack, Cara M Keifer, Kevin A Pelphrey
Growing evidence suggests that posterior cerebellar lobe contributes to social perception in healthy adults. However, they know little about how this process varies across age and with development. Using cross-sectional fMRI data, they examined cerebellar response to biological (BIO) versus scrambled (SCRAM) motion within typically developing (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples (age 4-30 years old), characterizing cerebellar response and BIO > SCRAM-selective effective connectivity, as well as associations with age and social ability...
April 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149963/reveal-consistent-spatial-temporal-patterns-from-dynamic-functional-connectivity-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#14
Yingying Zhu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Han Zhang, Wei Gao, Dinggang Shen, Guorong Wu
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a non-invasive way to investigate brain activity. Recently, convergent evidence shows that the correlations of spontaneous fluctuations between two distinct brain regions dynamically change even in resting state, due to the condition-dependent nature of brain activity. Thus, quantifying the patterns of functional connectivity (FC) in a short time period and changes of FC over time can potentially provide valuable insight into both individual-based diagnosis and group comparison...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115995/distinct-neural-bases-of-disruptive-behavior-and-autism-symptom-severity-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Y J Daniel Yang, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Jiedi Lei, Eran Dayan, Kevin A Pelphrey, Pamela Ventola
BACKGROUND: Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms. METHODS: Participants consisted of 48 male children and adolescents: 31 ASD (7 had high disruptive behavior) and 17 typically developing (TD) controls, well-matched on sex, age, and IQ...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113453/bayesian-community-detection-in-the-space-of-group-level-functional-differences
#16
Archana Venkataraman, Daniel Yang, Kevin Pelphrey, James Duncan
We propose a unified Bayesian framework to detect both hyper- and hypo-active communities within whole-brain fMRI data. Specifically, our model identifies dense subgraphs that exhibit population-level differences in functional synchrony between a control and clinical group. We derive a variational EM algorithm to solve for the latent posterior distributions and parameter estimates, which subsequently inform us about the afflicted network topology. We demonstrate that our method provides valuable insights into the neural mechanisms underlying social dysfunction in autism, as verified by the Neurosynth metaanalytic database...
March 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088648/the-influence-of-5-httlpr-transporter-genotype-on-amygdala-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Francisco Velasquez, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Whitney I Mattson, Donna M Martin, Catherine Lord, Christopher S Monk
Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057726/reduced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval-in-autism
#18
Rose A Cooper, Franziska R Richter, Paul M Bays, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
Increasing recent research has sought to understand the recollection impairments experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we tested whether these memory deficits reflect a reduction in the probability of retrieval success or in the precision of memory representations. We also used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval in ASD, focusing particularly on the functional connectivity of core episodic memory networks...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017919/relationship-of-a-common-oxtr-gene-variant-to-brain-structure-and-default-mode-network-function-in-healthy-humans
#19
Junping Wang, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Joshua Faskowitz, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright, Chunshui Yu, Paul M Thompson
A large body of research suggests that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms may influence both social behaviors and psychiatric conditions related to social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. However, the neural mechanism underlying these associations is still unclear. Relative to controls, patients with these psychiatric conditions show differences in brain structure, and in resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal synchronicity among default mode network (DMN) regions (also known as functional connectivity)...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990125/promises-pitfalls-and-basic-guidelines-for-applying-machine-learning-classifiers-to-psychiatric-imaging-data-with-autism-as-an-example
#20
Pegah Kassraian-Fard, Caroline Matthis, Joshua H Balsters, Marloes H Maathuis, Nicole Wenderoth
Most psychiatric disorders are associated with subtle alterations in brain function and are subject to large interindividual differences. Typically, the diagnosis of these disorders requires time-consuming behavioral assessments administered by a multidisciplinary team with extensive experience. While the application of Machine Learning classification methods (ML classifiers) to neuroimaging data has the potential to speed and simplify diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, the methods, assumptions, and analytical steps are currently opaque and not accessible to researchers and clinicians outside the field...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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