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fMRI Autism

Jonathan D Power, Mark Plitt, Timothy O Laumann, Alex Martin
Whole-brain fMRI signals are a subject of intense interest: variance in the global fMRI signal (the spatial mean of all signals in the brain) indexes subject arousal, and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism have been characterized by differences in the global fMRI signal. Further, vigorous debates exist on whether global signals ought to be removed from fMRI data. However, surprisingly little research has focused on the empirical properties of whole-brain fMRI signals. Here we map the spatial and temporal properties of the global signal, individually, in 1000+ fMRI scans...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Nicole David, Till R Schneider, Ina Peiker, Reem Al-Jawahiri, Andreas K Engel, Elizabeth Milne
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with altered neural oscillations, especially fast oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range, suggesting fundamentally disturbed temporal coordination of activity during information processing. A detailed review of available cortical oscillation studies in ASD does not convey a clear-cut picture with respect to dysfunctional oscillation patterns in the gamma or other frequency ranges. Recent evidence suggests that instead of a general failure to activate or synchronize the cortex, there is greater intra-participant variability across behavioral, fMRI and EEG responses in ASD...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
John P Hegarty, Bradley J Ferguson, Rachel M Zamzow, Landon J Rohowetz, Jeffrey D Johnson, Shawn E Christ, David Q Beversdorf
The beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol benefits some social and communication domains affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and these benefits appear to be associated with increased functional connectivity (FC) in the brain during task performance. FC is implicated in ASD, with the majority of studies suggesting long distance hypo-connectivity combined with regionally specific local hyper-connectivity. The objective in the current investigation was to examine the effect of propranolol on FC at rest and determine whether ASD-specific effects exist...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Takashi Yamada, Takashi Itahashi, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Miho Kuroda, Haruhisa Ohta, Chieko Kanai, Nobumasa Kato, Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: The insular cortex comprises multiple functionally differentiated sub-regions, each of which has different patterns of connectivity with other brain regions. Such diverse connectivity patterns are thought to underlie a wide range of insular functions, including cognitive, affective, and sensorimotor processing, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although past neuroimaging studies of ASD have shown structural and functional abnormalities in the insula, possible alterations in the sub-regional organization of the insula and the functional characteristics of each sub-region have not been examined in the ASD brain...
2016: Molecular Autism
Lars Westberg, Susanne Henningsson, Anna Zettergren, Joakim Svärd, Daniel Hovey, Tian Lin, Natalie C Ebner, Håkan Fischer
The ability to recognize faces is crucial for daily social interactions. Recent studies suggest that intranasal oxytocin administration improves social recognition in humans. Oxytocin signaling in the amygdala plays an essential role for social recognition in mice, and oxytocin administration has been shown to influence amygdala activity in humans. It is therefore possible that the effects of oxytocin on human social recognition depend on mechanisms that take place in the amygdala-a central region for memory processing also in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zhijun Yao, Bin Hu, Yuanwei Xie, Fang Zheng, Guangyao Liu, Xuejiao Chen, Weihao Zheng
Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Dienke J Bos, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to more effective treatment options. However, differences in reward processing may not be specific to ADHD, but may be a trans-diagnostic feature of disorders that involve ADHD-like symptoms...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Steven A Connor, Ina Ammendrup-Johnsen, Allen W Chan, Yasushi Kishimoto, Chiaki Murayama, Naokazu Kurihara, Atsushi Tada, Yuan Ge, Hong Lu, Ryan Yan, Jeffrey M LeDue, Hirotaka Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Yutaka Kirino, Fumio Matsuzaki, Toshiharu Suzuki, Timothy H Murphy, Yu Tian Wang, Tohru Yamamoto, Ann Marie Craig
Mutations in a synaptic organizing pathway contribute to autism. Autism-associated mutations in MDGA2 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2) are thought to reduce excitatory/inhibitory transmission. However, we show that mutation of Mdga2 elevates excitatory transmission, and that MDGA2 blocks neuroligin-1 interaction with neurexins and suppresses excitatory synapse development. Mdga2(+/-) mice, modeling autism mutations, demonstrated increased asymmetric synapse density, mEPSC frequency and amplitude, and altered LTP, with no change in measures of inhibitory synapses...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Benjamin de Haas, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Ivan Alvarez, Rebecca P Lawson, Linda Henriksson, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Geraint Rees
UNLABELLED: Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vigneshwaran Subbaraju, Mahanand Belathur Suresh, Suresh Sundaram, Sundararajan Narasimhan
This paper presents a new approach for detecting major differences in brain activities between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients and neurotypical subjects using the resting state fMRI. Further the method also extracts discriminative features for an accurate diagnosis of ASD. The proposed approach determines a spatial filter that projects the covariance matrices of the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) time-series signals from both the ASD patients and neurotypical subjects in orthogonal directions such that they are highly separable...
August 23, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Haruhisa Ohta, Takashi Yamada, Chieko Kanai, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Nobumasa Kato
In interactive social situations, it is often crucial to be able to take another person's perspective when evaluating one's own or another person's specific trait; individuals with ASD critically lack this social skill. To examine how perspective-dependent self- and other-evaluation processes modulate functional connectivity in ASD, we conducted an fMRI study in which 26 high-functioning adults with ASD and 24 typically developed (TD) controls were asked to decide whether an adjective describing a personality trait correctly described the participant himself/herself ("self") or the participant's mother ("other") by taking either the first (1P) or third person (3P) perspective...
August 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Lucia Billeci, Sara Calderoni, Eugenia Conti, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giovanni Cioni, Filippo Muratori, Andrea Guzzetta
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP). BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characterizing brain profiles of relatives of autistic probands may help to understand ASD endophenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michael Datko, Robert Gougelet, Ming-Xiong Huang, Jaime A Pineda
Social and communicative impairments are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and a great deal of evidence supports the notion that these impairments are associated with aberrant functioning and connectivity of various cortical networks. The present study explored the links between sources of MEG amplitude in various frequency bands and functional connectivity MRI in the resting state. The goal of combining these modalities was to use sources of neural oscillatory activity, measured with MEG, as functionally relevant seed regions for a more traditional pairwise fMRI connectivity analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Stefanie Schelinski, Kamila Borowiak, Katharina von Kriegstein
The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
June 30, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
N Mikita, E Simonoff, D S Pine, R Goodman, E Artiges, T Banaschewski, A L Bokde, U Bromberg, C Büchel, A Cattrell, P J Conrod, S Desrivières, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, A Heinz, B Ittermann, S Jurk, J L Martinot, M L Paillère Martinot, F Nees, D Papadopoulos Orfanos, T Paus, L Poustka, M N Smolka, H Walter, R Whelan, G Schumann, A Stringaris
Up to 40% of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also suffer from anxiety, and this comorbidity is linked with significant functional impairment. However, the mechanisms of this overlap are poorly understood. We investigated the interplay between ASD traits and anxiety during reward processing, known to be affected in ASD, in a community sample of 1472 adolescents (mean age=14.4 years) who performed a modified monetary incentive delay task as part of the Imagen project. Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses to reward anticipation and feedback were compared using a 2x2 analysis of variance test (ASD traits: low/high; anxiety symptoms: low/high), controlling for plausible covariates...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Giusy Olivito, Silvia Clausi, Fiorenzo Laghi, Anna Maria Tedesco, Roberto Baiocco, Chiara Mastropasqua, Marco Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, Maria Leggio
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are known to be characterized by restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests and by impairments in social communication and interactions mainly including "theory of mind" (ToM) processes. The cerebellum has emerged as one of the brain regions affected by ASDs. As the cerebellum is known to influence cerebral cortex activity via cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuits, it has been proposed that cerebello-cortical "disconnection" could in part underlie autistic symptoms...
June 1, 2016: Cerebellum
Laura K Case, Claire M Laubacher, Håkan Olausson, Binquan Wang, Primavera A Spagnolo, M Catherine Bushnell
UNLABELLED: Growing interest in affective touch has delineated a neural network that bypasses primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Several recent studies, however, have cast doubt on the segregation of touch discrimination and affect, suggesting that S1 also encodes affective qualities. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the role of S1 in processing touch intensity and pleasantness. Twenty-six healthy human adults rated brushing on the hand during fMRI...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marisa Nordt, Stefanie Hoehl, Sarah Weigelt
Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
April 12, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Heath R Pardoe, Rebecca Kucharsky Hiess, Ruben Kuzniecky
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between participant motion, demographic variables and MRI-derived morphometric estimates was investigated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia and healthy controls. Participant motion was estimated using resting state fMRI and used as a proxy measure for motion during T1w MRI acquired in the same session. Analyses were carried out in scans qualitatively assessed as free from motion-related artifact...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
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