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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924621/an-altered-scaffold-for-information-processing-cognitive-control-development-in-adolescents-with-autism
#1
Marjorie Solomon, Jeremy Hogeveen, Lauren Libero, Christine Nordahl
We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control that have been conducted since 2007 in individuals with ASD and typical development (TYP) ages 10 to 30 years that examined how these regions and networks support behavioral and task-based fMRI performance on tasks assessing cognitive control during this period...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917059/direct-modulation-of-aberrant-brain-network-connectivity-through-real-time-neurofeedback
#2
Michal Ramot, Sara Kimmich, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Vinai Roopchansingh, Haroon Popal, Emily White, Stephen J Gotts, Alex Martin
The existence of abnormal connectivity patterns between resting state networks in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has been well established. Traditional treatment methods in ASD are limited, and do not address the aberrant network structure. Using real-time fMRI neurofeedback, we directly trained 3 brain nodes in participants with ASD, in which the aberrant connectivity has been shown to correlate with symptom severity. Desired network connectivity patterns were reinforced in real-time, without participants' awareness of the training taking place...
September 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881454/hypersensitivity-to-low-intensity-fearful-faces-in-autism-when-fixation-is-constrained-to-the-eyes
#3
Amandine Lassalle, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nicole R Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eva Billstedt, Noreen Ward, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Previous studies that showed decreased brain activation in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewing expressive faces did not control that participants looked in the eyes. This is problematic because ASD is characterized by abnormal attention to the eyes. Here, we collected fMRI data from 48 participants (27 ASD) viewing pictures of neutral faces and faces expressing anger, happiness, and fear at low and high intensity, with a fixation cross between the eyes. Group differences in whole brain activity were examined for expressive faces at high and low intensity versus neutral faces...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869842/changes-in-intrinsic-local-connectivity-after-reading-intervention-in-children-with-autism
#4
Jose O Maximo, Donna L Murdaugh, Sarah O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
Most of the existing behavioral and cognitive intervention programs in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have not been tested at the neurobiological level, thus falling short of finding quantifiable neurobiological changes underlying behavioral improvement. The current study takes a translational neuroimaging approach to test the impact of a structured visual imagery-based reading intervention on improving reading comprehension and assessing its underlying local neural circuitry. Behavioral and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data were collected from children with ASD who were randomly assigned to an Experimental group (ASD-EXP; n=14) and a Wait-list control group (ASD-WLC; n=14)...
September 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867997/autism-spectrum-disorder-related-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-language-network-in-children-adolescents-and-adults
#5
Yubu Lee, Bo-Yong Park, Oliver James, Seong-Gi Kim, Hyunjin Park
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability with global implication. Altered brain connectivity in the language network has frequently been reported in ASD patients using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) compared to typically developing (TD) participants. Most of these studies have focused on a specific age group or mixed age groups with ASD. In the current study, we investigated age-related changes in functional connectivity related measure, degree centrality (DC), in the language network across three age groups with ASD (113 children, 113 adolescents and 103 adults) using resting-state fMRI data collected from the autism brain imaging data exchange repository...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856093/from-word-reading-to-multisentence-comprehension-improvements-in-brain-activity-in-children-with-autism-after-reading-intervention
#6
Donna L Murdaugh, Jose O Maximo, Claire E Cordes, Sarah E O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
BACKGROUND: Children with ASD show a unique reading profile characterized by decoding abilities equivalent to verbal abilities, but with lower comprehension skills. Neuroimaging studies have found recruitment of regions primarily associated with visual processing (e.g., fusiform gyrus and medial parietal cortex), but reduced activation in frontal and temporal regions, when reading in adults with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess neural changes associated with an intense reading intervention program in children with ASD using three fMRI tasks of reading...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802915/neurological-evaluation-of-the-selection-stage-of-metaphor-comprehension-in-individuals-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Brea Chouinard, Joanne Volden, Ivor Cribben, Jacqueline Cummine
Because of their difficulties with figurative language in conversation, it is commonly thought that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not understand figurative meaning. However, recent research indicates that individuals with and without ASD are similar in the first two stages of metaphor comprehension, up to and including successful generation of the figurative meaning. In the current study, we used a sentence decision task to evaluate the subsequent stage of metaphor comprehension, the selection stage, which requires suppression/inhibition of the unintended meaning as part of selecting the intended meaning...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744969/abnormal-functional-activation-and-maturation-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-during-temporal-discounting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, Eileen M Daly, Christine Ecker, Patrick Johnston, Debbie Spain, Dene M Robertson, Declan G Murphy, Katya Rubia
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#9
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#10
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regard to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition process (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion. Neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior are highly conserved across species, and inter- and intra-specific variability observed in social behavior can be explained to large extent by differential activity of this conserved neural network...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717158/neural-processing-of-biological-motion-in-autism-an-investigation-of-brain-activity-and-effective-connectivity
#11
Kaat Alaerts, Stephan P Swinnen, Nicole Wenderoth
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) forms a key region for social information processing and disruptions of its function have been associated with socio-communicative impairments characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Task-based fMRI was applied in 15 adults with ASD and 15 matched typical-controls (TC) to explore differences in activity and effective connectivity of STS while discriminating either 'intact' versus 'scrambled' biological motion point light displays (explicit processing) or responding to a color-change while the 'intact' versus 'scrambled' nature of the stimulus was irrelevant for the task (implicit processing)...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677689/brain-network-dynamics-in-high-functioning-individuals-with-autism
#12
Takamitsu Watanabe, Geraint Rees
Theoretically, autism should be underpinned by aberrant brain dynamics. However, how brain activity changes over time in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains unknown. Here we characterize brain dynamics in autism using an energy-landscape analysis applied to resting-state fMRI data. Whereas neurotypical brain activity frequently transits between two major brain states via an intermediate state, high-functioning adults with ASD show fewer neural transitions due to an unstable intermediate state, and these infrequent transitions predict the severity of autism...
July 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661076/identification-of-lateralized-compensatory-neural-activities-within-the-social-brain-due-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-adolescent-males
#13
Vigneshwaran Subbaraju, Suresh Sundaram, Sundararajan Narasimhan
Socio-behavioral impairments are important characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MRI-based studies are pursued to identify a neurobiological basis behind these conditions. This paper presents an MRI-based study undertaken to (i) identify the differences in brain activities due to ASD, (ii) verify whether such differences exist within the 'social brain' circuit which is hypothesized to be responsible for social functions, and (iii) uncover potential compensatory mechanisms within the identified differences in brain activities...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629645/atypical-activation-of-action-semantic-network-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Tracey A Knaus, Claire Burns, Jodi Kamps, Anne L Foundas
In typical adults, fMRI studies have shown activation of primary and pre-motor regions during action word processing. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments. ASD studies have shown atypical semantic processing and motor deficits. The objective of this study was to examine semantic processing of verbs in ASD. 15 ASD adolescents and 19 typically developing adolescents, 11-16years, completed a semantic similarity judgment task during fMRI...
June 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506079/the-neural-correlates-of-emotional-lability-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Randi H Bennett, Krishna Somandepalli, Amy K Roy, Adriana Di Martino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is exceptionally heterogeneous in both clinical and physiopathological presentations. Clinical variability applies to ASD-specific symptoms and frequent comorbid psychopathology such as emotional lability (EL). To date, the physiopathological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of EL and ASD are unknown. As a first step, we examined within-ASD inter-individual variability of EL and its neuronal correlates using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). We analyzed R-fMRI data from 58 children diagnosed with ASD (5-12 years) in relation to the Conners' Parent Rating Scale EL index...
June 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452081/heightened-brain-response-to-pain-anticipation-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Xiaosi Gu, Thomas J Zhou, Evdokia Anagnostou, Latha Soorya, Alexander Kolevzon, Patrick R Hof, Jin Fan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by both socio-communicative difficulties and abnormalities in sensory processing. Much of the work on sensory deficits in ASD has focused on tactile sensations and the perceptual aspects of somatosensation, such as encoding of stimulus intensity and location. Although aberrant pain processing has often been noted in clinical observations of patients with ASD, it remains largely uninvestigated. Importantly, the neural mechanism underlying higher order cognitive aspects of pain processing such as pain anticipation also remains unknown...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418398/intranasal-oxytocin-enhances-intrinsic-corticostriatal-functional-connectivity-in-women
#18
R A I Bethlehem, M V Lombardo, M-C Lai, B Auyeung, S K Crockford, J Deakin, S Soubramanian, A Sule, P Kundu, V Voon, S Baron-Cohen
Oxytocin may influence various human behaviors and the connectivity across subcortical and cortical networks. Previous oxytocin studies are male biased and often constrained by task-based inferences. Here, we investigate the impact of oxytocin on resting-state connectivity between subcortical and cortical networks in women. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 26 typically developing women 40 min following intranasal oxytocin administration using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414133/complexity-of-weighted-graph-a-new-technique-to-investigate-structural-complexity-of-brain-activities-with-applications-to-aging-and-autism
#19
Mehran Ahmadlou, Hojjat Adeli
In recent years complexity of the brain structure in healthy and disordered subjects has been studied increasingly. But to the best of the authors' knowledge, researchers so far have investigated the structural complexity only in the context of two restricted networks known as Small-World and Scale-free networks; whereas other aspects of the structural complexity of brain activities may be affected by aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as the Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder. In this study, two general complexity metrics of graphs, Graph Index Complexity and Offdiagonal Complexity are proposed as general measures of complexity, not restricted to SWN only...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413234/high-dimensional-tests-for-functional-networks-of-brain-anatomic-regions
#20
Jichun Xie, Jian Kang
Exploring resting-state brain functional connectivity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has become a popular topic over the past few years. The data in a standard brain template consist of over 170,000 voxel specific points in time for each human subject. Such an ultra-high dimensionality makes the voxel-level functional connectivity analysis (involving four billion voxel pairs) both statistically and computationally inefficient. In this work, we introduce a new framework to identify the functional brain network at the anatomical region level for each individual...
April 2017: Journal of Multivariate Analysis
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