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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036764/hippotherapy-and-neurofeedback-training-effect-on-the-brain-function-and-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-level-changes-in-children-with-attention-deficit-or-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Namju Lee, Sok Park, Jongkyu Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hippotherapy and electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback on brain function and blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in children with attention-deficit or/and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Sixteen children with ADHD participated in this study and were randomly divided into 2 groups, a 1-time hippotherapy group (W1G, n = 8) and a 2-time hippotherapy group (W2G, n = 8)...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988149/neural-dysfunction-during-temporal-discounting-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Clodagh Murphy, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Both Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are associated with choice impulsivity, i.e. the tendency to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. However, the extent to which this impulsivity is mediated by shared or distinct underlying neural mechanisms is unclear. Twenty-six boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 matched controls (aged 12-18) completed an fMRI version of an individually adjusted temporal discounting (TD) task which requires choosing between a variable amount of money now or £100 in one week, one month or one year...
November 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943846/a-computational-model-for-the-automatic-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-functional-brain-volume
#3
Lirong Tan, Xinyu Guo, Sheng Ren, Jeff N Epstein, Long J Lu
In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs), using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938222/inter-hemispherical-asymmetry-in-default-mode-functional-connectivity-and-baiap2-gene-are-associated-with-anger-expression-in-adhd-adults
#4
R Hasler, M G Preti, D E Meskaldji, J Prados, W Adouan, C Rodriguez, S Toma, N Hiller, T Ismaili, J Hofmeister, I Sinanaj, P Baud, S Haller, P Giannakopoulos, S Schwartz, N Perroud, D Van De Ville
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by resting-state alterations, including abnormal activity, connectivity and asymmetry of the default-mode network (DMN). Concurrently, recent studies suggested a link between ADHD and the presence of polymorphisms within the gene BAIAP2 (i.e., brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), known to be differentially expressed in brain hemispheres. The clinical and neuroimaging correlates of this polymorphism are still unknown. We investigated the association between BAIAP2 polymorphisms and DMN functional connectivity (FC) asymmetry as well as behavioral measures in ADHD adults...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938219/age-dependent-effects-of-acute-methylphenidate-on-amygdala-reactivity-in-stimulant-treatment-naive-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Marco A Bottelier, Anouk Schrantee, Bart Ferguson, Hyke G H Tamminga, Cheima Bouziane, J J Sandra Kooij, Michiel B de Ruiter, Liesbeth Reneman
In the present study, we investigate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects emotional processing and whether this effect is modulated by age. We measured amygdala reactivity with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during processing of angry and fearful facial expressions in male stimulant treatment-naive patients with ADHD (N = 35 boys; N = 46 men) and 23 healthy control subjects (N = 11 boys; N = 12 men). In ADHD patients, we also measured amygdala reactivity 90min after an acute oral challenge with MPH (0...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868337/the-adolescent-brain-at-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-a-review-of-functional-mri-research-on-motor-response-inhibition
#6
Maki S Koyama, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein
Youth with family history (FH+) of substance use disorders (SUDs) are at increased risk for developing SUDs. Similarly, childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered to be a risk factor for developing SUDs. Recent research has suggested a close association between SUDs and impaired inhibitory control. As such, it is crucial to examine common and distinct neural alterations associated with inhibitory control in these at-risk groups, particularly prior to the initiation of heavy substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#7
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861338/increased-default-mode-variability-is-related-to-reduced-task-performance-and-is-evident-in-adults-with-adhd
#8
Athanasia M Mowinckel, Dag Alnæs, Mads L Pedersen, Sigurd Ziegler, Mats Fredriksen, Tobias Kaufmann, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Tor Endestad, Lars T Westlye, Guido Biele
Insufficient suppression and connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) is a potential mediator of cognitive dysfunctions across various disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it remains unclear if alterations in sustained DMN suppression, variability and connectivity during prolonged cognitive engagement are implicated in adult ADHD pathophysiology, and to which degree methylphenidate (MPH) remediates any DMN abnormalities. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial of MPH (clinicaltrials...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843999/predicting-clinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-temporal-patterns-between-and-within-intrinsic-connectivity-networks
#9
Xun-Heng Wang, Yun Jiao, Lihua Li
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common brain disorder with high prevalence in school-age children. Previously developed machine learning-based methods have discriminated patients with ADHD from normal controls by providing label information of the disease for individuals. Inattention and impulsivity are the two most significant clinical symptoms of ADHD. However, predicting clinical symptoms (i.e., inattention and impulsivity) is a challenging task based on neuroimaging data. The goal of this study is twofold: to build predictive models for clinical symptoms of ADHD based on resting-state fMRI and to mine brain networks for predictive patterns of inattention and impulsivity...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831377/centrality-of-prefrontal-and-motor-preparation-cortices-to-tourette-syndrome-revealed-by-meta-analysis-of-task-based-neuroimaging-studies
#10
Liliana Polyanska, Hugo D Critchley, Charlotte L Rae
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by chronic multiple tics, which are experienced as compulsive and 'unwilled'. Patients with TS can differ markedly in the frequency, severity, and bodily distribution of tics. Moreover, there are high comorbidity rates with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, and depression. This complex clinical profile may account for apparent variability of findings across neuroimaging studies that connect neural function to cognitive and motor behavior in TS...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700674/effects-of-taurine-on-resting-state-fmri-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#11
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Li-Jeng Chen, Hong-Chun Chou, Jun-Cheng Weng, Bor-Show Tzang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667891/anomalous-prefrontal-limbic-activation-and-connectivity-in-youth-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#12
Kiki Chang, Amy Garrett, Ryan Kelley, Meghan Howe, Erica Marie Sanders, Tenah Acquaye, Layla Bararpour, Sherrie Li, Manpreet Singh, Booil Jo, Joachim Hallmayer, Allan Reiss
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal prefrontal-limbic brain activation in response to facial expressions has been reported in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is less clear whether these abnormalities exist prior to onset of mania, thus representing a biomarker predicting development of BD. METHODS: We examined brain activation in 50 youth at high risk for BD (HR-BD), compared with 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. HR-BD was defined as having a parent with BD, as well as current mood or attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, or a history of at least one depressive episode...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659040/defining-the-neural-substrate-of-the-adult-outcome-of-childhood-adhd-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study-of-response-inhibition
#13
Eszter Szekely, Gustavo P Sudre, Wendy Sharp, Ellen Leibenluft, Philip Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural processes tied to the adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could guide novel interventions to improve its clinical course. It has been argued that normalization of prefrontal cortical activity drives remission from ADHD, while anomalies in subcortical processes are "fixed," present even in remission. Using multimodal neuroimaging of inhibitory processes, the authors tested these hypotheses in adults followed since childhood, contrasting remitted against persistent ADHD...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657141/neural-correlates-of-atomoxetine-improving-inhibitory-control-and-visual-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Li-Ying Fan, Tai-Li Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656805/verbal-working-memory-related-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-the-effects-of-methylphenidate
#15
Zhao-Min Wu, Janita Bralten, Li An, Qing-Jiu Cao, Xiao-Hua Cao, Li Sun, Lu Liu, Li Yang, Maarten Mennes, Yu-Feng Zang, Barbara Franke, Martine Hoogman, Yu-Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated verbal working memory-related functional connectivity patterns in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we aimed to compare working memory-related functional connectivity patterns in healthy children and those with ADHD, and study effects of methylphenidate (MPH). METHOD: Twenty-two boys with ADHD were scanned twice, under either MPH (single dose, 10 mg) or placebo, in a randomised, cross-over, counterbalanced placebo-controlled design...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655564/enhanced-limbic-impaired-cortical-loop-connection-onto-the-hippocampus-of-nhe-rats-application-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-a-preclinical-adhd-model
#16
F Zoratto, G M Palombelli, L A Ruocco, E Carboni, G Laviola, A G Sadile, W Adriani, R Canese
Due to a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system, Naples-High-Excitability (NHE) rats have been proposed to model for the meso-cortical variant of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared to Naples Random-Bred (NRB) controls, NHE rats show hyperactivity, impaired non-selective attention (Aspide et al., 1998), and impaired selective spatial attention (Ruocco et al., 2009a, 2014). Alteration in limbic functions has been proposed; however, resulting unbalance among forebrain areas has not been assessed yet...
June 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634439/inconsistency-in-abnormal-brain-activity-across-cohorts-of-adhd-200-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Jian-Bao Wang, Li-Jun Zheng, Qing-Jiu Cao, Yu-Feng Wang, Li Sun, Yu-Feng Zang, Hang Zhang
Many papers have shown results from the multi-site dataset of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a data-sharing project named ADHD-200. However, few studies have illustrated that to what extent the pooled findings were consistent across cohorts. The present study analyzed three voxel-wise whole-brain metrics, i.e., amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) based on the pooled dataset as well as individual cohort of ADHD-200...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423978/reward-processing-deficits-during-a-spatial-attention-task-in-patients-with-adhd-an-fmri-study
#19
Baris Metin, Zeynep C Tas, Merve Çebi, Ayşe Büyükaslan, Aysegül Soysal, Deniz Hatıloglu, Nevzat Tarhan
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore how cues signaling rewards and feedbacks about rewards are processed in ADHD. METHOD: Inside the scanner, 16 healthy children and 19 children with ADHD completed a spatial attention paradigm where cues informed about the availability of reward and feedbacks were provided about the earned reward. RESULTS: In ventral anterior thalamus (VA), the controls exhibited greater activation in response to reward-predicting cues, as compared with no-reward cues, whereby in the ADHD group, the reverse pattern was observed (nonreward > reward)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420972/multi-modal-multi-measure-and-multi-class-discrimination-of-adhd-with-hierarchical-feature-extraction-and-extreme-learning-machine-using-structural-and-functional-brain-mri
#20
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi, Jooyoung Oh, Beomjun Min, Hang Joon Jo, Boreom Lee
Structural and functional MRI unveil many hidden properties of the human brain. We performed this multi-class classification study on selected subjects from the publically available attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD-200 dataset of patients and healthy children. The dataset has three groups, namely, ADHD inattentive, ADHD combined, and typically developing. We calculated the global averaged functional connectivity maps across the whole cortex to extract anatomical atlas parcellation based features from the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data and cortical parcellation based features from the structural MRI (sMRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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