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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904952/what-to-expect-and-when-to-expect-it-an-fmri-study-of-expectancy-in-children-with-adhd-symptoms
#1
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
Changes in cognitive control and timing have both been implicated in ADHD. Both are involved in building and monitoring expectations about the environment, and altering behavior if those expectations are violated. In ADHD, problems with expectations about future events have high face validity, as this would be associated with behavior that is inappropriate only given a certain context, similar to symptoms of the disorder. In this fMRI study, we used a timing manipulated go/nogo task to assess brain activity related to expectations about what (cognitive control) and when (timing) events would occur...
December 1, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881961/functional-connectivity-of-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients-correlation-with-iq
#2
Bo-Yong Park, Jisu Hong, Seung-Hak Lee, Hyunjin Park
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818941/functional-connectivity-in-cortico-subcortical-brain-networks-underlying-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects are region-specific or related to changes in functional connectivity of networks supporting reward processing. Here we use resting-state fMRI to comprehensively delineate the functional connectivity architecture underlying aberrant reward processing in ADHD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776388/the-effects-of-equine-assisted-activities-and-therapy-on-resting-state-brain-function-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-pilot-study
#4
Jae Hyun Yoo, Yunhye Oh, Byongsu Jang, Jihye Song, Jiwon Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Hye-Yeon Shin, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Yun-Hee Kim, Bumseok Jeong, Yoo-Sook Joung
Objective: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates. Methods: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738997/default-mode-network-activity-and-neuropsychological-profile-in-male-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-conduct-disorder
#5
Merve Cikili Uytun, Emel Karakaya, Didem Behice Oztop, Serife Gengec, Kazım Gumus, Sevgi Ozmen, Selim Doğanay, Semra Icer, Esra Demirci, Saliha Demirel Ozsoy
It is known that patients with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Conduct disorder (CD) commonly shows greater symptom severity than those with ADHD alone and worse outcomes. This study researches whether Default mode network (DMN) is altered in adolescents with ADHD + CD, relative to ADHD alone and controls or not. Ten medication-naïve boys with ADHD + CD, ten medication-naïve boys with ADHD and 10-age-matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans in the resting state and neuropsychological tasks such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Test TBAG Form (STP), Auditory Verbal learning Test (AVLT), Visual Auditory Digit Span B (VADS B) were applied to all the subjects included...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713929/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-science-in-development
#6
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678006/children-with-adhd-symptoms-show-decreased-activity-in-ventral-striatum-during-the-anticipation-of-reward-irrespective-of-adhd-diagnosis
#7
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Dienke J Bos, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to more effective treatment options. However, differences in reward processing may not be specific to ADHD, but may be a trans-diagnostic feature of disorders that involve ADHD-like symptoms...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659116/neurofeedback-training-effects-on-inhibitory-brain-activation-in-adhd-a-matter-of-learning
#8
Sarah Baumeister, Isabella Wolf, Nathalie Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Nicoletta Adamo, Martin Holtmann, Matthias Ruf, Tobias Banaschewski, Sarah Hohmann, Daniel Brandeis
Neurofeedback training (NF) is a promising non-pharmacological treatment for ADHD that has been associated with improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms as well as changes in electrophysiological measures. However, the functional localization of neural changes following NF compared to an active control condition, and of successful learning during training (considered to be the critical mechanism for improvement), remains largely unstudied. Children with ADHD (N=16, mean age: 11...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648848/hyperactivity-in-motor-response-inhibition-networks-in-unmedicated-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Isabelle Massat, Hichem Slama, Thomas Villemonteix, Alison Mary, Simon Baijot, Ariadna Albajara Sáenz, Danièle Balériaux, Thierry Metens, Martin Kavec, Philippe Peigneux
OBJECTIVES: Hypo/reduced activity in motor response inhibition (RI) cerebral networks was recently proposed as a promising specific neurobiological marker of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Before adopting such a pattern as a key diagnosis tool, we aim to replicate in an independent study the mechanisms underlying reduced RI-related activity in ADHD, after controlling for potentially confounding effects. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we investigated the neural networks mediating successful and failed motor RI in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC) using the stop signal task (SST) paradigm...
September 20, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629707/methylphenidate-modulates-functional-network-connectivity-to-enhance-attention
#10
Monica D Rosenberg, Sheng Zhang, Wei-Ting Hsu, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, R Todd Constable, Chiang-Shan R Li, Marvin M Chun
UNLABELLED: Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained attention task, and a low-attention network, comprising connections negatively correlated with performance...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622136/amplitude-variability-over-trials-in-hemodynamic-responses-in-adolescents-with-adhd-the-role-of-the-anterior-default-mode-network-and-the-non-specific-role-of-the-striatum
#11
L Sørensen, T Eichele, H van Wageningen, K J Plessen, M C Stevens
It has been suggested that intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance on attention and other cognitive tasks might be a cognitive endophenotype in individuals with ADHD. Despite robust IIV findings in behavioral data, only sparse data exist on how what type of brain dysfunction underlies variable response times. In this study, we asked whether ADHD IIV in reaction time on a commonly-used test of attention might be related to variation in hemodynamic responses (HRs) observed trial-to-trial. Based on previous studies linking IIV to regions within the "default mode" network (DMN), we predicted that adolescents with ADHD would have higher HR variability in the DMN compared with controls, and this in turn would be related to behavioral IIV...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607439/attention-network-dysfunction-in-bulimia-nervosa-an-fmri-study
#12
Jochen Seitz, Manuel Hueck, Brigitte Dahmen, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Tanja Legenbauer, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN. METHOD: Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569542/functional-decoding-and-meta-analytic-connectivity-modeling-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Samuele Cortese, F Xavier Castellanos, Claudia R Eickhoff, Giulia D'Acunto, Gabriele Masi, Peter T Fox, Angela R Laird, Simon B Eickhoff
BACKGROUND: Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. METHODS: We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD...
December 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564545/the-link-between-callous-unemotional-traits-and-neural-mechanisms-of-reward-processing-an-fmri-study
#14
Kim Veroude, Daniel von Rhein, Roselyne J M Chauvin, Eelco V van Dongen, Maarten J J Mennes, Barbara Franke, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jeffrey C Glennon, Jan K Buitelaar
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, i.e., unconcernedness and lack of prosocial feelings, may manifest in Conduct Disorder (CD), but also in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These disorders have been associated with aberrant reward processing, while the influence of CU traits is unclear. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we examined whether CU traits affect the neural circuit for reward. A Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task was administered to 328 adolescents and young adults with varying levels of CU traits: 40 participants with ODD/CD plus ADHD, 101 participants with ADHD only, 84 siblings of probands with ADHD and 103 typically developing (TD) individuals...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529063/forethought-in-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-fmri-study-of-sex-specific-differences
#15
H Poissant, L Rapin, S Chenail, A Mendrek
Objective. The majority of studies investigating neurocognitive processing in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been conducted on male participants. Few studies evaluated females or examined sex differences. Among various cognitive anomalies in ADHD, deficit in forethought seems particularly important as children with ADHD often fail to adequately use previous information in order to prepare for responses. The main goal of this study was to assess sex-specific differences in behavioral and neural correlates of forethought in youth with ADHD...
2016: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489770/quantifying-patterns-of-brain-activity-distinguishing-unaffected-siblings-from-participants-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#16
Thomas Wolfers, Daan van Rooij, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Andre F Marquand
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and heritable psychiatric disorders. While previous studies have focussed on mapping focal or connectivity differences at the group level, the present study employed pattern recognition to quantify group separation between unaffected siblings, participants with ADHD, and healthy controls on the basis of spatially distributed brain activations. This was achieved using an fMRI-adapted version of the Stop-Signal Task in a sample of 103 unaffected siblings, 184 participants with ADHD, and 128 healthy controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423255/the-neuro-bureau-adhd-200-preprocessed-repository
#17
Pierre Bellec, Carlton Chu, François Chouinard-Decorte, Yassine Benhajali, Daniel S Margulies, R Cameron Craddock
In 2011, the "ADHD-200 Global Competition" was held with the aim of identifying biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and structural MRI (s-MRI) data collected on 973 individuals. Statisticians and computer scientists were potentially the most qualified for the machine learning aspect of the competition, but generally lacked the specialized skills to implement the necessary steps of data preparation for rs-fMRI. Realizing this barrier to entry, the Neuro Bureau prospectively collaborated with all competitors by preprocessing the data and sharing these results at the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC) (http://www...
July 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422412/network-structure-among-brain-systems-in-adult-adhd-is-uniquely-modified-by-stimulant-administration
#18
Robert P Cary, Siddharth Ray, David S Grayson, Julia Painter, Samuel Carpenter, Leeza Maron, Olaf Sporns, Alexander A Stevens, Joel T Nigg, Damien A Fair
Current research in connectomics highlights that self-organized functional networks or "communities" of cortical areas can be detected in the adult brain. This perspective may provide clues to mechanisms of treatment response in psychiatric conditions. Here we examine functional brain community topology based on resting-state fMRI in adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 22) and controls (n = 31). We sought to evaluate ADHD patterns in adulthood and their modification by short term stimulants administration...
July 14, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399612/ventral-striatal-hyperconnectivity-during-rewarded-interference-control-in-adolescents-with-adhd
#19
Ili Ma, Mieke van Holstein, Gabry W Mies, Maarten Mennes, Jan Buitelaar, Roshan Cools, Antonius H N Cillessen, Ruth M Krebs, Anouk Scheres
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by cognitive deficits (e.g., interference control) and altered reward processing. Cognitive control is influenced by incentive motivation and according to current theoretical models, ADHD is associated with abnormal interactions between incentive motivation and cognitive control. However, the neural mechanisms by which reward modulates cognitive control in individuals with ADHD are unknown. METHOD: We used event-related functional resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural responses during a rewarded Stroop color-word task in adolescents (14-17 years) with ADHD (n = 25; 19 boys) and healthy controls (n = 33; 22 boys)...
September 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394716/double-dissociation-between-the-mechanism-leading-to-impulsivity-and-inattention-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#20
Masafumi Sanefuji, Michael Craig, Valeria Parlatini, Mitul A Mehta, Declan G Murphy, Marco Catani, Leonardo Cerliani, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Two core symptoms characterize Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes: inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. While previous brain imaging research investigated ADHD as if it was a homogenous condition, its two core symptoms may originate from different brain mechanisms. We, therefore, hypothesized that the functional connectivity of cortico-striatal and attentional networks would be different between ADHD subtypes. We studied 165 children (mean age 10.93 years; age range, 7-17 year old) diagnosed as having ADHD based on their revised Conner's rating scale score and 170 typical developing individuals (mean age 11...
June 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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