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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700674/effects-of-taurine-on-resting-state-fmri-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Li-Jeng Chen, Hong-Chun Chou, Jun-Cheng Weng, Bor-Show Tzang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667891/anomalous-prefrontal-limbic-activation-and-connectivity-in-youth-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#2
Kiki Chang, Amy Garrett, Ryan Kelley, Meghan Howe, Erica Marie Sanders, Tenah Acquaye, Layla Bararpour, Sherrie Li, Manpreet Singh, Booil Jo, Joachim Hallmayer, Allan Reiss
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal prefrontal-limbic brain activation in response to facial expressions has been reported in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is less clear whether these abnormalities exist prior to onset of mania, thus representing a biomarker predicting development of BD. METHODS: We examined brain activation in 50 youth at high risk for BD (HR-BD), compared with 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. HR-BD was defined as having a parent with BD, as well as current mood or attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, or a history of at least one depressive episode...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659040/defining-the-neural-substrate-of-the-adult-outcome-of-childhood-adhd-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study-of-response-inhibition
#3
Eszter Szekely, Gustavo P Sudre, Wendy Sharp, Ellen Leibenluft, Philip Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural processes tied to the adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could guide novel interventions to improve its clinical course. It has been argued that normalization of prefrontal cortical activity drives remission from ADHD, while anomalies in subcortical processes are "fixed," present even in remission. Using multimodal neuroimaging of inhibitory processes, the authors tested these hypotheses in adults followed since childhood, contrasting remitted against persistent ADHD...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657141/neural-correlates-of-atomoxetine-improving-inhibitory-control-and-visual-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Li-Ying Fan, Tai-Li Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656805/verbal-working-memory-related-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-the-effects-of-methylphenidate
#5
Zhao-Min Wu, Janita Bralten, Li An, Qing-Jiu Cao, Xiao-Hua Cao, Li Sun, Lu Liu, Li Yang, Maarten Mennes, Yu-Feng Zang, Barbara Franke, Martine Hoogman, Yu-Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated verbal working memory-related functional connectivity patterns in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we aimed to compare working memory-related functional connectivity patterns in healthy children and those with ADHD, and study effects of methylphenidate (MPH). METHOD: Twenty-two boys with ADHD were scanned twice, under either MPH (single dose, 10 mg) or placebo, in a randomised, cross-over, counterbalanced placebo-controlled design...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655564/enhanced-limbic-impaired-cortical-loop-connection-onto-the-hippocampus-of-nhe-rats-application-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-a-preclinical-adhd-model
#6
F Zoratto, G M Palombelli, L A Ruocco, E Carboni, G Laviola, A G Sadile, W Adriani, R Canese
Due to a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system, Naples-High-Excitability (NHE) rats have been proposed to model for the meso-cortical variant of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared to Naples Random-Bred (NRB) controls, NHE rats show hyperactivity, impaired non-selective attention (Aspide et al., 1998), and impaired selective spatial attention (Ruocco et al., 2009a, 2014). Alteration in limbic functions has been proposed; however, resulting unbalance among forebrain areas has not been assessed yet...
June 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634439/inconsistency-in-abnormal-brain-activity-across-cohorts-of-adhd-200-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Jian-Bao Wang, Li-Jun Zheng, Qing-Jiu Cao, Yu-Feng Wang, Li Sun, Yu-Feng Zang, Hang Zhang
Many papers have shown results from the multi-site dataset of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a data-sharing project named ADHD-200. However, few studies have illustrated that to what extent the pooled findings were consistent across cohorts. The present study analyzed three voxel-wise whole-brain metrics, i.e., amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) based on the pooled dataset as well as individual cohort of ADHD-200...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423978/reward-processing-deficits-during-a-spatial-attention-task-in-patients-with-adhd-an-fmri-study
#9
Baris Metin, Zeynep C Tas, Merve Çebi, Ayşe Büyükaslan, Aysegül Soysal, Deniz Hatıloglu, Nevzat Tarhan
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore how cues signaling rewards and feedbacks about rewards are processed in ADHD. METHOD: Inside the scanner, 16 healthy children and 19 children with ADHD completed a spatial attention paradigm where cues informed about the availability of reward and feedbacks were provided about the earned reward. RESULTS: In ventral anterior thalamus (VA), the controls exhibited greater activation in response to reward-predicting cues, as compared with no-reward cues, whereby in the ADHD group, the reverse pattern was observed (nonreward > reward)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420972/multi-modal-multi-measure-and-multi-class-discrimination-of-adhd-with-hierarchical-feature-extraction-and-extreme-learning-machine-using-structural-and-functional-brain-mri
#10
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi, Jooyoung Oh, Beomjun Min, Hang Joon Jo, Boreom Lee
Structural and functional MRI unveil many hidden properties of the human brain. We performed this multi-class classification study on selected subjects from the publically available attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD-200 dataset of patients and healthy children. The dataset has three groups, namely, ADHD inattentive, ADHD combined, and typically developing. We calculated the global averaged functional connectivity maps across the whole cortex to extract anatomical atlas parcellation based features from the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data and cortical parcellation based features from the structural MRI (sMRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342214/real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Analucia A Alegria, Melanie Wulff, Helen Brinson, Gareth J Barker, Luke J Norman, Daniel Brandeis, Daniel Stahl, Anthony S David, Eric Taylor, Vincent Giampietro, Katya Rubia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. Real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) allows participants to gain self-control over dysregulated brain regions. Despite evidence for beneficial effects of electrophysiological-NF on ADHD symptoms, no study has applied the spatially superior rtfMRI-NF neurotherapy to ADHD. A randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of rtfMRI-NF of right inferior prefrontal cortex (rIFG), a key region that is compromised in ADHD and upregulated with psychostimulants, on improvement of ADHD symptoms, cognition, and inhibitory fMRI activation...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295280/structural-and-functional-connectivity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Dienke J Bos, Bob Oranje, Michelle Achterberg, Chantal Vlaskamp, Sara Ambrosino, Marcel A de Reus, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Serge A R B Rombouts, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has frequently been associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity, and decreased white matter (WM) integrity. In the current study, we investigated functional connectivity within Default Mode and frontal control resting-state networks (RSNs) in children with and without ADHD. We hypothesized the RSNs of interest would show a pattern of impaired functional integration and segregation and corresponding changes in WM structure...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292705/prefrontal-and-parietal-correlates-of-cognitive-control-related-to-the-adult-outcome-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosed-in-childhood
#13
Kurt P Schulz, Xiaobo Li, Suzanne M Clerkin, Jin Fan, Olga G Berwid, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey M Halperin
The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD...
May 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268524/differences-in-connectivity-patterns-between-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#14
Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder for a broad range of ages. Child and adolescent ADHD patients show different behavior patterns. The differences between child and adolescent ADHD patients have not been fully explored in terms of brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the differences of connectivity patterns between child and adolescent ADHD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of 52 ADHD patients (26 children and 26 adolescents)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262138/prefrontal-oxygenation-during-verbal-fluency-and-cognitive-function-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-type-ii
#15
Yasuki Ono, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Hideo Nakatani, Masako Murakami, Manami Nishisaka, Tomoko Muramatsu, Toshio Munesue, Yoshio Minabe
Evaluation of depressive states in children can be challenging. Most of the studies that have investigated cognitive function and cerebral blood volume changes using functional MRI (fMRI) in bipolar disorder (BD) have been confined to BDI or heterogeneous cohorts with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated cognitive functions in adolescents with BDII and without ADHD using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS). Ten patients with BDII and without ADHD symptoms and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235692/abnormal-fear-circuitry-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-controlled-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Andrea E Spencer, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R Milad, Thomas J Spencer, Olivia E Bogucki, Amanda L Pope, Natalie Plasencia, Brittany Hughes, Edward F Pace-Schott, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Joseph Biederman
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226698/differences-in-connectivity-patterns-between-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#17
Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park, Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park, Hyunjin Park, Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder for a broad range of ages. Child and adolescent ADHD patients show different behavior patterns. The differences between child and adolescent ADHD patients have not been fully explored in terms of brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the differences of connectivity patterns between child and adolescent ADHD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of 52 ADHD patients (26 children and 26 adolescents)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#18
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#20
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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