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Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shin-Eui Park, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Julián Benito-León, Elan D Louis, Virginia Mato-Abad, Ulrike Dydak, Juan Álvarez-Linera, Juan Antonio Hernández-Tamames, José Antonio Molina-Arjona, Norberto Malpica, Michele Matarazzo, Juan Pablo Romero, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferro
The pathogenesis of orthostatic tremor (OT) remains unclear, although some evidence points to dysfunction in the brainstem or cerebellum. We used single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) (3 T) to investigate whether neurochemical changes underlie abnormal cerebellar or cortical function in OT. Fourteen OT patients and 14 healthy controls underwent 1H-MRS studies with voxels placed in midparietal gray matter and cerebellum (vermis and central white matter). Spectral analysis was analyzed using the software package LCModel (version 6...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hyeonjin Kim, Sungjin Kim, Hyeong Hun Lee, Hwon Heo
The diagnostic and prognostic potential of an onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) as a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detectable biomarker of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutated (IDH-MT) gliomas has drawn attention of neuroradiologists recently. However, due to severe spectral overlap with background signals, quantification of 2HG can be very challenging. In this technical review for neuroradiologists, first, the biochemistry of 2HG and its significance in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas are summarized...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Ming-Feng Xia, Hannele Yki-Järvinen, Hua Bian, Huan-Dong Lin, Hong-Mei Yan, Xin-Xia Chang, You Zhou, Xin Gao
OBJECTIVES: Presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can predict risks for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and advanced liver disease in the general population. We aimed to establish a non-invasive score for prediction of NAFLD in Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in the world, and detect whether ethnicity influences the accuracy of such a score. METHODS: Liver fat content (LFAT) was measured by quantitative ultrasound in 3548 subjects in the Shanghai Changfeng Community and a Chinese score was created using multivariate logistic regression analyses...
2016: PloS One
S Andrea Wijtenburg, Susan N Wright, Stephanie A Korenic, Frank E Gaston, Nkemdilim Ndubuizu, Joshua Chiappelli, Robert P McMahon, Hongji Chen, Anya Savransky, Xiaoming Du, Danny J J Wang, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
The neurobiology of schizophrenia (SZ) may be altered in older versus younger adults with SZ, as less frequent episodes of symptom exacerbation and increased sensitivity to medications are observed in older age. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of age and diagnosis on glutamate and cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in adults with SZ and healthy controls. Young and older adults with SZ and healthy controls were recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and neuroimaging that included optimized magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure anterior cingulate (AC) glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) and arterial spin labeling evaluation for rCBF...
October 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ilana Frydman, Juliana B de Salles Andrade, Paula Vigne, Leonardo F Fontenelle
In this integrative review, we discuss findings supporting the use neuroimaging biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To do so, we have selected the most recent studies that attempted to identify the underlying pathogenic process associated with OCD and whether they provide useful information to predict clinical features, natural history or treatment responses. Studies using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in OCD patients are generally supportive of an expanded version of the earlier cortico-striatal-thalamus-cortical (CSTC) model of OCD...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Meriam Koob, Angèle Viola, Yann Le Fur, Patrick Viout, Hélène Ratiney, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Patrick J Cozzone, Nadine Girard
Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates...
2016: PloS One
Duygu Kirtaş, Rukiye Filiz Karadağ, Melike Ceyhan Balci Şengül, Yılmaz Kiroğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to compare metabolite levels of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), thalamus, and hippocampus in patients with chronic schizophrenia (CSPs) and first psychotic episode patients (FEPs) by the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty CSPs, 20 FEPs, and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, choline (Cho), and myoinositol levels of the DLPFC, ACG, thalamus, and hippocampus were measured by 1H-MRS...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Poonam Rana, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
: : Improved therapeutic assessment of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), would immensely benefit its therapeutic management. Neurometabolite patterns at injury site, measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) after MSCs transplantation, may serve as a bio-indicator of the recovery mechanism. This study used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-MRS to evaluate the therapeutic prospects of implanted MSCs at injury site in experimental mice longitudinally up to 21 days...
August 8, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Sara Poletti, Clara Locatelli, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Jennifer Geske, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
BACKGROUND: Quantifying craving longitudinally during the course of withdrawal, early abstinence, and relapse is essential for optimal management of alcohol use disorder (AUD). In an effort to identify biological correlates of craving, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to investigate the correlation between craving and glutamate levels in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) of patients with AUD. METHODS: Participants underwent 1H-MRS of the LDLPFC with 2-dimensional J-resolved (2DJ) averaged PRESS...
August 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Eva-Maria Ratai, R Gilberto González
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a noninvasive imaging technique that can easily be added to the conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Using MRS one can directly compare spectra from pathologic or abnormal tissue and normal tissue. Metabolic changes arising from pathology that can be visualized by MRS may not be apparent from anatomy that can be visualized by conventional MR imaging. In addition, metabolic changes may precede anatomic changes. Thus, MRS is used for diagnostics, to observe disease progression, monitor therapeutic treatments, and to understand the pathogenesis of diseases...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Lauren J Rice, Jim Lagopoulos, Michael Brammer, Stewart L Einfeld
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by infantile hypotonia, hypogonadism, small hands and feet, distinct facial features and usually intellectual impairment. The disorder is associated with severe behavioral disturbances which include hyperphagia leading to morbid obesity, temper outbursts, skin-picking, and compulsive behaviors. While the brain mechanisms that underpin these disturbances are unknown these behaviors suggest a lack of inhibition and thus gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter may be implicated...
June 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Stephanie Njau, Shantanu H Joshi, Randall Espinoza, Amber M Leaver, Megha Vasavada, Antonio Marquina, Roger P Woods, Katherine L Narr
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective brain stimulation treatment for severe depression. Identifying neurochemical changes linked with ECT may point to biomarkers and predictors of successful treatment response. METHODS: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure longitudinal changes in glutamate/glutamine (Glx), creatine (Cre), choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the dorsal (dACC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and bilateral hippocampus in patients receiving ECT scanned at baseline, after the second ECT session and after the ECT treatment series...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Kate Merritt, Alice Egerton, Matthew J Kempton, Matthew J Taylor, Philip K McGuire
Importance: Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission may be fundamental to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and the glutamatergic system is a target for novel therapeutic interventions in the disorder. Objective: To investigate the nature of brain glutamate alterations in schizophrenia by conducting a meta-analysis of glutamate proton magnetic resonance (MRS) spectroscopy studies. Data Sources: The MEDLINE database was searched for studies published from January 1, 1980, to April 1, 2015...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Sara Tremblay, Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Sébastien Proulx, Vincent Beaulé, Alex Latulipe-Loiselle, Julien Doyon, Małgorzata Marjańska, Hugo Théoret
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess, in healthy individuals, the impact of M1-M1 tDCS on primary motor cortex excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation and sensorimotor metabolite concentration using 1H-MRS. METHODS: For both experiments, each participant received the three following interventions (20 min tDCS, 1 mA): left-anodal/right-cathodal, left-cathodal/right-anodal, sham. The effects of tDCS were assessed via motor evoked potentials (experiment 1) and metabolite concentrations (experiment 2) immediately after and 12 minutes following the end of stimulation and compared to baseline measurement...
May 24, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza, Bruno F Pastorello, Cláudia da Costa Leite, Anke Henning, Ricardo A Moreno, Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. METHODS: Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4...
August 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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