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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813453/metabolomics-reveals-that-vine-tea-ampelopsis-grossedentata-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolism-disorder-by-improving-glucose-homeostasis-in-rats
#1
Wenting Wan, Baoping Jiang, Le Sun, Lijia Xu, Peigen Xiao
BACKGROUND: Vine tea (VT), derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD) in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812425/nasunin-inhibits-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-mediator-production-in-raw264-mouse-macrophages-by-suppressing-ros-mediated-activation-of-pi3%C3%A2-k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-signaling-pathways
#2
Wataru Komatsu, Kazuko Itoh, Satomi Akutsu, Hisashi Kishi, Shuji Ohhira
Nasunin is a major anthocyanin in eggplant peel. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of nasunin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264 macrophages and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We found that nasunin reduced the LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner. Nasunin diminished LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing the degradation of inhibitor of κB-α and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB...
August 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812388/silk-nanoparticles-proof-of-lysosomotropic-anticancer-drug-delivery-at-single-cell-resolution
#3
John D Totten, Thidarat Wongpinyochit, F Philipp Seib
Silk nanoparticles are expected to improve chemotherapeutic drug targeting to solid tumours by exploiting tumour pathophysiology, modifying the cellular pharmacokinetics of the payload and ultimately resulting in trafficking to lysosomes and triggering drug release. However, experimental proof for lysosomotropic drug delivery by silk nanoparticles in live cells is lacking and the importance of lysosomal pH and enzymes controlling drug release is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate, in live single human breast cancer cells, the role of the lysosomal environment in determining silk nanoparticle-mediated drug release...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811824/preparation-of-galla-chinensis-oral-solution-as-well-as-its-stability-safety-and-antidiarrheal-activity-evaluation
#4
Yi Yang, Huihui Luo, Xu Song, Li Yu, Juan Xie, Jiajie Yang, Renyong Jia, Juchun Lin, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Lizi Yin, Changliang He, Xiaoxia Liang, Guizhou Yue, Zhongqiong Yin
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: As a widely used traditional medicine, Galla Chinensis is rich in tannins. However, there are few detailed studies about pharmaceutical preparations of Galla Chinensis tannin extract (GTE). In the present experiments, for better application and to investigate the possibility that Galla Chinensis tannin extract can be used as an antidiarrheal drug, we prepared Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: GOS was prepared with GTE, and its physicochemical and microbiological stability was evaluated...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810607/effects-of-low-dose-of-ethanol-on-the-senescence-score-brain-function-and-gene-expression-in-senescence-accelerated-mice-8-samp8
#5
Akiko Kimoto, Hanae Izu, Churan Fu, Sofya Suidasari, Norihisa Kato
Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests light to moderate alcohol intake reduces risk of several chronic diseases. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of low alcohol intake in animal studies. This study investigated the effect of low ethanol dosage on senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8), an animal model of aging and neurodegenaration. Male SAMP8 mice (11 weeks old) had free access to a commercial stock diet with drinking water containing 0, 1 or 2% (v/v) ethanol for 15 weeks...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809444/circannual-variation-of-mitotane-and-its-metabolites-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#6
Jessica Cusato, Silvia De Francia, Sarah Allegra, Simona Carrella, Elisa Pirro, Francesca Maria Piccione, Francesca De Martino, Anna Ferrero, Fulvia Claudia Daffara, Massimo Terzolo, Alfredo Berruti, Francesco Di Carlo, Marco Tampellini, Antonio D'Avolio
OBJECTIVES: Mitotane is the reference drug for the adrenocortical carcinoma treatment; its pharmacological activity seems to depend on drug transformation in two active metabolites: o,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenylethene) and o,p'-DDA (dichlorodiphenylacetate). Mitotane and metabolites are lipophilic agents; thus, they tend to accumulate into adipose tissues (white and brown), which change their prevalence seasonally. Aim of the work was to evaluate mitotane and metabolites plasma levels variation over the year, in adrenocortical cancer patients treated with Lysodren(®) for at least 6 months...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808587/oral-administration-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-during-lactation-effects-on-hypothalamic-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-and-food-intake-in-adult-mice
#7
Carolina Aguirre, Valeska Castillo, Miguel Llanos
We have previously shown that administration of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) during lactation leads to overweight, increased body fat accumulation, and insulin resistance in adult mice. This study was designed to elucidate if these effects are due to increased food intake, stimulated by an augmented abundance and binding ability of the hypothalamic cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R). With this aim, male mice pups were treated with a daily oral dose of AEA during lactation. Adult mice were also treated with a single oral dose of AEA, to evaluate acute food intake during 4 h...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807656/opportunities-for-model-based-precision-dosing-in-the-treatment-of-sickle-cell-anemia
#8
Min Dong, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Alexander A Vinks
Hydroxyurea is the primary pharmacotherapy to prevent complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Accumulated clinical experience across multiple age ranges has suggested that the use of an individualized maximum tolerated dose (MTD) will achieve optimal benefit of hydroxyurea treatment. However, the current empirical and trial-and-error approach for dose escalation often results in a lengthy titration process and is not strictly implemented in many clinics. Opportunities exist for pharmacokinetics model-based precision dosing of hydroxyurea to quickly achieve individual MTD...
August 9, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805698/artemisia-iwayomogi-extract-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertriglyceridemia-in-mice-potential-involvement-of-the-adiponectin-ampk-pathway-and-very-low-density-lipoprotein-assembly-in-the-liver
#9
Jinhui Lee, Vikram P Narayan, Eun Young Hong, Wan Kyunn Whang, Taesun Park
This study aimed to examine the protective effect of Artemisia iwayomogi extract (AI) against hypertriglyceridemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6N mice were fed chow, HFD, HFD + 0.1% AI, HFD + 0.25% AI, or HFD + 0.5% AI for 10 weeks. The addition of 0.25% and 0.5% AI resulted in dose-dependent improvements in the major parameters of hypertriglyceridemia, including plasma triglyceride, free fatty acids, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein lipase, with parallel reductions in body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803882/changes-in-coumarin-kinetics-and-subcellular-localization-of-cyp2e1-contribute-to-bile-duct-damage-and-reduce-hepatocellular-damage-after-repeated-administration-of-coumarin-in-rats
#10
Yasuhiro Tanaka, Wataru Fujii, Hisako Hori, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Kiyokazu Ozaki
Coumarin exhibits different hepatotoxicity in rats depending on the administration frequency. To investigate the underlying mechanisms for the differences, we administered coumarin to rats as a single dose or repeatedly for 4 weeks. We found large increases in blood levels of liver enzymes and noticeable centrilobular hepatic necrosis after a single dose of coumarin. After repeated administration, enzyme levels mildly increased, while those of γ-GTP and total bilirubin significantly increased, suggesting bile duct damage...
August 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803071/responses-of-szarvasi-1-energy-grass-to-sewage-sludge-treatments-in-hydroponics
#11
Ambrus Rév, Brigitta Tóth, Ádám Solti, Gyula Sipos, Ferenc Fodor
Sewage sludge (SS) originating from communal wastewater is a hazardous material but have a potentially great nutritive value. Its disposal after treatment in agricultural lands can be a very economical and safe way of utilization once fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants of renewable energy production are cultivated. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this application, was grown in hydroponics in order to assess its metal accumulation and tolerance under increasing SS amendments...
August 1, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802738/bioaccumulation-and-toxicity-of-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#12
Liang Hu, Guangming Zeng, Guiqiu Chen, Zhenzhen Huang, Jia Wan, Anwei Chen, Zhigang Yu, Jiangli Yang, Kai He, Lei Qin
The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has raised considerable concerns regarding their toxicological impact. Consequently, there has been a need to understand the underlying toxicity mechanism of QDs. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the bioaccumulation and toxicity of three CdSe/ZnS QDs (COOH CdSe/ZnS 525, NH2 CdSe/ZnS 525, and NH2 CdSe/ZnS 625) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) using confocal laser scanning microscopy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements, and cell viability assays...
August 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802231/phytochemical-properties-and-pharmacological-effects-of-quercus-ilex-l-aqueous-extract-on-gastrointestinal-physiological-parameters-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Kaïs Rtibi, Imen Hammami, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. METHODS: Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802226/taraxerol-a-pentacyclic-triterpenoid-from-abroma-augusta-leaf-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#14
Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycaemia coupled with inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of Abroma augusta leaf against DN using rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was experimentally induced by high fat diet and a single low-single dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, i.p.). Accumulation of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid, activation of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinin kinase, and release of urinary albumin represented the glomerular damage and the progression of nephropathy in T2D rats...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802142/overexpression-of-ho-1-assisted-pm2-5-induced-apoptosis-failure-and-autophagy-related-cell-necrosis
#15
Wei Zhou, Xiaoyan Yuan, Li Zhang, Baoting Su, Dongdong Tian, Yang Li, Jun Zhao, Yimei Wang, Shuangqing Peng
Severe smog/haze events accompanied by extremely high concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have emerged frequently in China and the potential health risks have attracted ever-growing attention. During these episodes, a surge in hospital visits for acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases exacerbation has been reported to be associated with acute exposure to high-levels of particulate matters. To investigate cell fate determination and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms during severe haze episodes or smog events, we exposed human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to PM2...
August 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802050/distinct-dc-subsets-regulate-adaptive-th1-and-2-responses-during-trichuris-muris-infection
#16
Mimoza Demiri, Katarzyna Müller-Luda, William W Agace, Marcus Svensson-Frej
Low and high-dose infections with the murine large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large-intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris infection, yet their role in driving adaptive responses to infection remains largely unknown. We performed low and high-dose T. muris infections of mice deficient in defined cDC subsets to investigate their role in induction of adaptive immune responses...
August 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801766/absence-of-cardiotoxicity-with-prolonged-treatment-and-large-accumulating-doses-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin
#17
N Blank, I Laskov, R Kessous, L Kogan, S Lau, I A Sebag, Walter H Gotlieb, L Rudski
BACKGROUND: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is used as a second-line therapy for gynecologic cancers, with a better short-term toxicity profile compared to doxorubicin or other anthracyclines. METHODS: We screened 14 patients with recurrent gynecologic cancers, who underwent prolonged treatment with large cumulative doses of PLD for overt or subtle signs of cardiotoxicity (CTX) using standard and advanced echocardiography techniques [3D volumetric method for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular/right ventricular global longitudinal strain]...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801605/luteolin-a-natural-flavonoid-inhibits-methylglyoxal-induced-apoptosis-via-the-mtor-4e-bp1-signaling-pathway
#18
Yi Liu, Jie Huang, Xian Zheng, Xia Yang, Yan Ding, Tongyong Fang, Yuyun Zhang, Shuaishuai Wang, Xiaofei Zhang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Yinghua Yu, Xu-Feng Huang
Methylglyoxal (MG) accumulation has been observed in human cerebrospinal fluid and body tissues under hyperglycaemic conditions. Recent research has demonstrated that MG-induces neuronal cell apoptosis, which promotes the development of diabetic encephalopathy. Our previous animal study has shown that luteolin, a natural flavonoid, attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction. To further explore the neuroprotective properties of luteolin, we investigated the inhibitive effect of luteolin on MG-induced apoptosis in PC12 neuronal cells...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801072/irinotecan-chemotherapy-induced-intestinal-oxidative-stress-underlying-causes-of-disturbed-mucosal-water-and-electrolyte-transport
#19
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
Irinotecan, a chemotherapy drug, can cause acute diarrhea immediately after administration. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances after an intraperitoneal (IP) administration of irinotecan in rats.Twenty Wistar rats were separated into two groups of ten. Group A was considered as a control group (NaCl, 0.9%). Group B was treated with irinotecan at a single dose of 200mgkg(-1). The rats were observed for defecation. For the enteropooling test, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation 1h post-treatment...
July 23, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800532/cell-cycle-arrest-mediated-by-cd-induced-dna-damage-in-arabidopsis-root-tips
#20
Weina Cui, Hetong Wang, Jie Song, Xia Cao, Hilary J Rogers, Dennis Francis, Chunyun Jia, Lizong Sun, Meifang Hou, Yuesuo Yang, Peidong Tai, Wan Liu
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the aberrant expression of cell cycle regulation and DNA repair genes can result in abnormal cell proliferation and genomic instability in eukaryotic cells under different stresses. Herein, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings were grown hydroponically on 0.5 × MS media containing cadmium (Cd) at 0-2.5mgL(-1) for 5d of treatment. Real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that expression of DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation genes, including BRCA1, MRE11, WEE1, CDKA;1 and PCNA1, showed an inverted U-shaped dose-response...
August 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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