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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#1
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333162/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-bip-modulates-prion-propagation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Kyung-Won Park, Gyoung Eun Kim, Rodrigo Morales, Fabio Moda, Ines Moreno-Gonzalez, Luis Concha-Marambio, Amy S Lee, Claudio Hetz, Claudio Soto
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting several mammalian species, characterized by the accumulation of the misfolded form of the prion protein, which is followed by the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GRP78, also called BiP, is a master regulator of the UPR, reducing ER stress levels and apoptosis due to an enhancement of the cellular folding capacity. Here, we studied the role of GRP78 in prion diseases using several in vivo and in vitro approaches...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333098/anti-obesity-and-anti-diabetic-effect-of-neoagarooligosaccharides-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#3
Sun Joo Hong, Je-Hyeon Lee, Eun Joo Kim, Hea Jung Yang, Jae-Seon Park, Soon-Kwang Hong
Neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs), mainly comprising neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, were prepared by hydrolyzing agar with β-agarase DagA from Streptomyces coelicolor, and the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of NAOs on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice were investigated after NAOs-supplementation for 64 days. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD-0.5 group that was fed with HFD + NAOs (0.5%, w/w) showed remarkable reduction of 36% for body weight gain and 37% for food efficiency ratios without abnormal clinical signs...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333092/impact-of-coagulant-and-flocculant-addition-to-an-anaerobic-dynamic-membrane-bioreactor-andmbr-treating-waste-activated-sludge
#4
Guido Kooijman, Wilton Lopes, Zhongbo Zhou, Hongxiao Guo, Merle de Kreuk, Henri Spanjers, Jules van Lier
In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35 °C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1-86), the reactor was operated as a conventional anaerobic digester with a solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 days. In period 2 (day 86-303), the HRT was lowered to 18 days with the application of a dynamic membrane while the SRT was kept the same...
March 23, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332827/subcellular-chemical-imaging-of-antibiotics-in-single-bacteria-using-c60-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#5
Hua Tian, David A Six, Thomas Krucker, Jennifer A Leeds, Nicholas Winograd
The inherent difficulty of discovering new and effective antibacterials and the rapid development of resistance particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, illustrates the urgent need for new methods that enable rational drug design. Here we report the development of 3D imaging cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a label-free approach to chemically map small molecules in aggregated and single Escherichia coli cells, with ~300 nm spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity. The feasibility of quantitative analysis was explored, and a non-linear relationship between treatment dose and signal for tetracycline and ampicillin, two clinically-used antibacterials, was observed...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332248/citrate-attenuates-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-renal-failure-rats
#6
Yan Ou, Zengying Liu, Shuiqin Li, Xiaojing Zhu, Yan Lin, Jin Han, Zhaoyang Duan, Lining Jia, Baosong Gui
Vascular calcification (VC) is a major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction in chronic renal failure (CRF). Citrate binds calcium and inhibits the growth of calcium crystals. This present study intends to evaluate the effect of citrate on VC in adenine-induced CRF rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the citrate control group, model group, model rats with low-dose treatment of citrate (216 mg/kg) and model rats with high-dose treatment of citrate (746 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized at 5 weeks with their blood and aorta in detection...
March 23, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332023/exposure-of-the-freshwater-bivalve-hyridella-australis-to-metal-contaminated-sediments-in-the-field-and-laboratory-microcosms-metal-uptake-and-effects
#7
Chamani P M Marasinghe Wadige, Anne M Taylor, Frank Krikowa, Mark Lintermans, William A Maher
Metal uptake and induced toxic effects on Hyridella australis were investigated by establishing 28 day exposure-dose-response relationships (EDR) of transplanted H. australis at four sites along a sediment metal contamination gradient in the mine affected Molonglo River, NSW. Laboratory exposure of this organism to the same sediments, collected from in situ sites, was run concurrently. Metal concentrations in whole organisms, individual tissues and sub-cellular tissue fractions were measured as organism metal dose...
March 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331003/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-taselisib-gdc-0032-an-oral-pi3k-inhibitor-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#8
Dejan Juric, Ian Krop, Ramesh K Ramanathan, Timothy R Wilson, Joseph A Ware, Sandra Sanabria Bohorquez, Heidi Savage, Deepak Sampath, Laurent Salphati, Ray Lin, Huan Jin, Hema Parmar, Jerry Y Hsu, Daniel D Von Hoff, José Baselga
Taselisib is a potent and selective tumor growth inhibitor through PI3K pathway suppression. Thirty-four patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors were treated (phase I study, modified 3+3 dose escalation; 5 cohorts; 3-16 mg taselisib once daily capsule). Taselisib pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional; mean half-life was 40 hours. Frequent dose-dependent, treatment-related adverse events included diarrhea, hyperglycemia, decreased appetite, nausea, rash, stomatitis, and vomiting. At 12 and 16 mg dose levels, dose limiting toxicities (DLT) were observed, with an accumulation of higher-grade adverse events after the cycle 1 DLT assessment window...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326744/nutritional-parameters-and-carbohydrate-and-fat-metabolism-after-prolonged-salsolinol-administration-in-rats-fed-normal-or-high-fat-diets
#9
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that exogenous salsolinol might contribute to myenteric cell death and altered gastrointestinal motility. Because the entire gut mucosal, entero-endocrine and motor functions are integrated by the enteric nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged intraperitoneal salsolinol administration alters basic metabolism and nutritional parameters in adult Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps for 2 or 4 weeks and fed either a normal or high-fat diet...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325757/loss-of-cd73-prevents-accumulation-of-alternatively-activated-macrophages-and-the-formation-of-prefibrotic-macrophage-clusters-in-irradiated-lungs
#10
Simone de Leve, Florian Wirsdörfer, Federica Cappuccini, Alexandra Schütze, Alina V Meyer, Katharina Röck, Linda F Thompson, Jens W Fischer, Martin Stuschke, Verena Jendrossek
While radiotherapy is a mainstay for cancer therapy, pneumonitis and fibrosis constitute dose-limiting side effects of thorax and whole body irradiation. So far, the contribution of immune cells to disease progression is largely unknown. Here we studied the role of ecto-5'-nucelotidase (CD73)/adenosine-induced changes in the myeloid compartment in radiation-induced lung fibrosis. C57BL/6 wild-type or CD73(-/-) mice received a single dose of whole thorax irradiation (WTI, 15 Gy). Myeloid cells were characterized in flow cytometric, histologic, and immunohistochemical analyses as well as RNA analyses...
March 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324249/evaluation-of-organic-amendment-on-the-effect-of-cadmium-bioavailability-in-contaminated-soils-using-the-dgt-technique-and-traditional-methods
#11
EDITORIAL
Yu Yao, Qin Sun, Chao Wang, Pei-Fang Wang, Shi-Ming Ding
Organic amendments have been widely proposed as a remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils, but there exist controversial results on their effectiveness. In this study, the effect of pig manure addition on cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils was systematically evaluated by one dynamic, in situ technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and four traditional methods based on the equilibrium theory (soil solution concentration and the three commonly used extractants, i.e...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323983/autophagic-degradation-of-collagen-1a1-by-cortisol-in-human-amnion-fibroblasts
#12
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Chao Liu, Jiangwen Lu, Wenjiao Li, Rujuan Zuo, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen is the crucial factor determining the tensile strength of the membranes. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 exists in fetal membranes. It remains undetermined whether cortisol contributes to collagen reduction in fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for collagen reduction in human amnion fibroblasts, the major source of collagens in the membranes...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323657/histology-and-gadolinium-distribution-in-the-rodent-brain-after-the-administration-of-cumulative-high-doses-of-linear-and-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#13
Jessica Lohrke, Anna-Lena Frisk, Thomas Frenzel, Laura Schöckel, Martin Rosenbruch, Gregor Jost, Diana Constanze Lenhard, Martin A Sieber, Volker Nischwitz, Astrid Küppers, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution...
March 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323199/acute-toxicity-bioaccumulation-and-effects-of-dietary-transfer-of-silver-from-brine-shrimps-exposed-to-pvp-pei-coated-silver-nanoparticles-to-zebrafish
#14
José María Lacave, Álvaro Fanjul, Eider Bilbao, Nerea Gutierrez, Irantzu Barrio, Inmaculada Arostegui, Miren P Cajaraville, Amaia Orbea
The extensive use and release to the aquatic environment of silver nanoparticles (NPs) could lead to their incorporation into the food web. Brine shrimp larvae of 24h showed low sensitivity to the exposure to PVP/PEI-coated Ag NPs (5nm), with EC50 values at 24h of 19.63mg Ag L(-1), but they significantly accumulated silver after 24h of exposure to 100μg L(-1) of Ag NPs. Thus, to assess bioaccumulation and effects of silver transferred by the diet in zebrafish, brine shrimp larvae were exposed to 100ng L(-1) of Ag NPs as an environmentally relevant concentration or to 100μg L(-1) as a potentially effective concentration and used to feed zebrafish for 21days...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322896/pharmacokinetics-of-opicapone-a-third-generation-comt-inhibitor-after-single-and-multiple-oral-administration-a-comparative-study-in-the-rat
#15
Daniela Gonçalves, Gilberto Alves, Ana Fortuna, Patrício Soares-da-Silva, Amílcar Falcão
Opicapone is a novel potent, reversible and purely peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor that has been developed to be used as an adjunct to levodopa/aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor therapy for Parkinson's disease. Thus, this study aimed to compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of opicapone and its active metabolite (BIA 9-1079) after the administration of single and multiple oral doses to rats. Wistar rats (n=8 per group) were orally treated with single (30, 60 or 90mg/kg) or multiple (30mg/kg once-daily for seven consecutive days) oral doses of opicapone...
March 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322436/modelling-hydraulic-transport-and-anaerobic-uptake-by-paos-and-gaos-during-wastewater-feeding-in-ebpr-granular-sludge-reactors
#16
David G Weissbrodt, Christof Holliger, Eberhard Morgenroth
New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322342/therapy-targeted-to-the-metastatic-niche-is-effective-in-a-model-of-stage-iv-breast-cancer
#17
Byunghee Yoo, Amol Kavishwar, Ping Wang, Alana Ross, Pamela Pantazopoulos, Michael Dudley, Anna Moore, Zdravka Medarova
Treatment of stage IV metastatic breast cancer patients is limited to palliative options and represents an unmet clinical need. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of miRNA-10b - a master regulator of metastatic cell viability - leads to elimination of distant metastases in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. This was achieved using the miRNA-10b inhibitory nanodrug, MN-anti-miR10b, which consists of magnetic nanoparticles, conjugated to LNA-based miR-10b antagomirs. Intravenous injection of MN-anti-miR10b into mice bearing lung, bone, and brain metastases from breast cancer resulted in selective accumulation of the nanodrug in metastatic tumor cells...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322329/an-expanded-multi-scale-monte-carlo-simulation-method-for-personalized-radiobiological-effect-estimation-in-radiotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#18
Ying Zhang, Yuanming Feng, Wei Wang, Chengwen Yang, Ping Wang
A novel and versatile "bottom-up" approach is developed to estimate the radiobiological effect of clinic radiotherapy. The model consists of multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations from organ to cell levels. At cellular level, accumulated damages are computed using a spectrum-based accumulation algorithm and predefined cellular damage database. The damage repair mechanism is modeled by an expanded reaction-rate two-lesion kinetic model, which were calibrated through replicating a radiobiological experiment. Multi-scale modeling is then performed on a lung cancer patient under conventional fractionated irradiation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322108/polymeric-glabrescione-b-nanocapsules-for-passive-targeting-of-hedgehog-dependent-tumor-therapy-in-vitro
#19
Cinzia Ingallina, Pedro M Costa, Francesca Ghirga, Rebecca Klippstein, Julie T Wang, Simone Berardozzi, Naomi Hodgins, Paola Infante, Steven M Pollard, Bruno Botta, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
AIM: With the purpose of delivering high doses of glabrescione B (GlaB) to solid tumors after systemic administration, long-circulating GlaB-loaded oil-cored polymeric nanocapsules (NC-GlaB) were formulated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Synthesis of GlaB and its encapsulation in nanocapsules (NCs) was performed. Empty and GlaB-loaded NCs were assessed for their physico-chemical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biodistribution. RESULTS: GlaB was efficiently loaded into NCs (∽90%), which were small (∽160 nm), homogeneous and stable upon storage...
March 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321545/tissue-distribution-of-oral-vitamin-b12-is-influenced-by-b12-status-and-b12-form-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#20
Linda S Kornerup, Sergey N Fedosov, Christian B Juul, Eva Greibe, Christian W Heegaard, Ebba Nexo
PURPOSE: Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) is the dominating Cbl form in food, whereas cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) is common in vitamin pills and oral supplements. This study compares single-dose absorption and distribution of oral HO[(57)Co]Cbl and CN[(57)Co]Cbl in Cbl-deficient and normal rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (7 weeks) were fed a 14-day diet with (n = 15) or without (n = 15) Cbl. We compared the uptakes of HO[(57)Co]Cbl (free or bound to bovine transcobalamin) and free CN[(57)Co]Cbl administered by gastric gavage (n = 5 in each diet group)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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