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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100637/a-zip3-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-crossover-formation-in-the-sc-less-meiosis-of-the-protist-tetrahymena
#1
Anura Shodhan, Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
When programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo recombinational repair, genetic crossovers (COs) may be formed. A certain level of these are required for the faithful segregation of chromosomes, but the majority of DSBs are processed toward a safer alternative, namely non-crossovers (NCOs), via non-reciprocal DNA exchange. At the crossroads between these two DSB fates are the Msh4-Msh5 (MutSγ) complex, which stabilizes CO-destined recombination intermediates, and members of the Zip3/RNF212 family of RING finger proteins, which in turn stabilize MutSγ...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096334/role-of-cct-chaperonin-in-the-disassembly-of-mitotic-checkpoint-complexes
#2
Sharon Kaisari, Danielle Sitry-Shevah, Shirly Miniowitz-Shemtov, Adar Teichner, Avram Hershko
The mitotic checkpoint system prevents premature separation of sister chromatids in mitosis and thus ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. When this checkpoint is active, a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, Bub3, and Cdc20, is assembled. MCC inhibits the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whose action is necessary for anaphase initiation. When the checkpoint signal is turned off, MCC is disassembled, a process required for exit from checkpoint-arrested state...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094809/genome-wide-identification-evolution-and-expression-analysis-of-ring-finger-protein-genes-in-brassica-rapa
#3
Intikhab Alam, Yan-Qing Yang, Yong Wang, Mei-Lan Zhu, Heng-Bo Wang, Boulos Chalhoub, Yun-Hai Lu
More and more RING finger genes were found to be implicated in various important biological processes. In the present study, a total of 731 RING domains in 715 predicted proteins were identified in Brassica rapa genome (AA, 2n = 20), which were further divided into eight types: RING-H2 (371), RING-HCa (215), RING-HCb (47), RING-v (44), RING-C2 (38), RING-D (10), RING-S/T (5) and RING-G (1). The 715 RING finger proteins were further classified into 51 groups according to the presence of additional domains...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072566/guard-the-guardian-a-crl4-ligase-stands-watch-over-histone-production
#4
Fabienne Lampert, Mia M L Brodersen, Matthias Peter
Histones are evolutionarily conserved proteins that together with DNA constitute eukaryotic chromatin in a defined stoichiometry. Core histones are dynamic scaffolding proteins that undergo a myriad of post-translational modifications, which selectively engage chromosome condensation, replication, transcription and DNA damage repair. Cullin4-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases are known to hold pivotal roles in a wide spectrum of chromatin biology ranging from chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression, to sensing of cytotoxic DNA lesions...
January 10, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065318/in-vitro-reactivation-of-the-cytokinetic-contractile-ring-of-fission-yeast-cells
#5
I Mabuchi, J Kashiwazaki, M Mishra
Cytokinesis is a process by which a mother cell is divided into two daughter cells after chromosome segregation. In both animal and fungal cells, cytokinesis is carried out by the constriction of the contractile ring made up of actin, myosin-II, and other conserved proteins. Detailed genetic and cell biological analysis of cytokinesis has led to the identification of various genes involved in the process of cytokinesis including the cytological description of the process. However, detailed biochemical analysis of the process is lacking...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060322/analysis-of-the-ambient-particulate-matter-induced-chromosomal-aberrations-using-an-in-vitro-system
#6
Isabelle R Miousse, Igor Koturbash, Marie-Cécile Chalbot, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Ilias Kavouras, Rupak Pathak
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a major world health concern, which may damage various cellular components, including the nuclear genetic material. To assess the impact of PM on nuclear genetic integrity, structural chromosomal aberrations are scored in the metaphase spreads of mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PM is collected from ambient air with a high volume total suspended particles sampler. The collected material is solubilized and filtered to retain the water-soluble, fine portion. The particles are characterized for chemical composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984612/-molecular-cytogenetic-analysis-of-a-case-with-ring-chromosome-3-syndrome
#7
Kaihui Zhang, Fengling Song, Dongdong Zhang, Haiyan Zhang, Ying Wang, Rui Dong, Yufeng Zhang, Yi Liu, Zhongtao Gai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic cause for a child with developmental delay and congenital heart disease through molecular cytogenetic analysis. METHODS: G-banded karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were performed for the patient and his parents. RESULTS: The proband's karyotype was detected as ring chromosome 3, and a 3q26.3-25.3 deletion encompassing 45 genes has been found with CMA. Testing of both parents was normal...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981936/ring-chromosome-10-in-a-case-of-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#8
Sheeba Shehzad, Muhammad Nadeem, Saira Shan, Tahir Sultan Shamsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965027/a-functional-centromere-lacking-cento-sequences-in-a-newly-formed-ring-chromosome-in-rice
#9
Rui Yang, Yafei Li, Yan Su, Yi Shen, Ding Tang, Qiong Luo, Zhukuan Cheng
An awned rice (Oryza sativa) plant carrying a tiny extra chromosome was discovered among the progeny of a telotrisomic line 2n+4L. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome specific BAC clones revealed that this extra chromosome was a ring chromosome derived from part of the long arm of chromosome 4. So the aneuploidy plant was accordingly named as 2n+4L ring. We did not detect any CentO FISH signals on the ring chromosome, and found only the centromeric probe Centromeric Retrotransposon of Rice (CRR) was co-localized with the centromere-specific histone CENH3 as revealed by sequential FISH after immunodetection...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939944/a-sumo-dependent-protein-network-regulates-chromosome-congression-during-oocyte-meiosis
#10
Federico Pelisch, Triin Tammsalu, Bin Wang, Ellis G Jaffray, Anton Gartner, Ronald T Hay
During Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte meiosis, a multi-protein ring complex (RC) localized between homologous chromosomes, promotes chromosome congression through the action of the chromokinesin KLP-19. While some RC components are known, the mechanism of RC assembly has remained obscure. We show that SUMO E3 ligase GEI-17/PIAS is required for KLP-19 recruitment to the RC, and proteomic analysis identified KLP-19 as a SUMO substrate in vivo. In vitro analysis revealed that KLP-19 is efficiently sumoylated in a GEI-17-dependent manner, while GEI-17 undergoes extensive auto-sumoylation...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910910/genome-wide-characterisation-and-expression-profile-of-the-grapevine-atl-ubiquitin-ligase-family-reveal-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-responsive-and-development-related-members
#11
Pietro Ariani, Alice Regaiolo, Arianna Lovato, Alejandro Giorgetti, Andrea Porceddu, Salvatore Camiolo, Darren Wong, Simone Castellarin, Elodie Vandelle, Annalisa Polverari
The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909798/the-loading-of-condensin-in-the-context-of-chromatin
#12
REVIEW
Xavier Robellet, Vincent Vanoosthuyse, Pascal Bernard
The packaging of DNA into chromosomes is a ubiquitous process that enables living organisms to structure and transmit their genome accurately through cell divisions. In the three kingdoms of life, the architecture and dynamics of chromosomes rely upon ring-shaped SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) condensin complexes. To understand how condensin rings organize chromosomes, it is essential to decipher how they associate with chromatin filaments. Here, we use recent evidence to discuss the role played by nucleosomes and transcription factors in the loading of condensin at transcribed genes...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906128/two-subunits-of-human-orc-are-dispensable-for-dna-replication-and-proliferation
#13
Etsuko Shibata, Manjari Kiran, Yoshiyuki Shibata, Samarendra Singh, Shashi Kiran, Anindya Dutta
The six-subunit Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is believed to be an essential eukaryotic ATPase that binds to origins of replication as a ring-shaped heterohexamer to load MCM2-7 and initiate DNA replication. We have discovered that human cell lines in culture proliferate with intact chromosomal origins of replication after disruption of both alleles of ORC2 or of the ATPase subunit, ORC1. The ORC1 or ORC2-depleted cells replicate with decreased chromatin loading of MCM2-7 and become critically dependent on another ATPase, CDC6, for survival and DNA replication...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902442/the-whcd-gene-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-plays-roles-in-cell-division-and-envelope-formation
#14
Dong-Seok Lee, Younhee Kim, Heung-Shick Lee
In this study, we analyzed the whcD gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which encodes a homolog of whiB, a Streptomyces coelicolor gene required for the sporulation of aerial hyphae. Deletion of the gene (ΔwhcD) severely affected cell growth in C. glutamicum. The ΔwhcD strain exhibited a large, filamentous, branched, and bud-shaped morphology with multiple septa. The transcription levels of the cell division genes involved in Z-ring assembly and septal peptidoglycan synthesis, including ftsZ, sepF, ftsQ, and ftsI, were markedly decreased in the ΔwhcD strain...
November 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895712/philadelphia-chromosome-duplication-as-a-ring-shaped-chromosome
#15
Cesar Borjas-Gutierrez, Juan Ramon Gonzalez-Garcia
The gain of a second copy of the Philadelphia chromosome is one of the main secondary chromosomal changes related to the clonal evolution of cells with t(9;22) in chronic myelogenous leukemia. This gain causes the acquisition of another copy of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene. Isochromosomes of the der(22) chromosome or double minute chromosomes are well known to lead an increased copy number of BCR/ABL1 gene. There is no antecedent of Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring chromosome. A recent published report contains evidence that strongly suggests that the Philadelphia chromosome was duplicated as a ring chromosome, observation that was overlooked by the authors...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882407/a-novel-system-for-correcting-large-scale-chromosomal-aberrations-ring-chromosome-correction-via-reprogramming-into-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc
#16
REVIEW
Taehyun Kim, Kathleen Plona, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris
Approximately 1 in 500 newborns are born with chromosomal abnormalities that include trisomies, translocations, large deletions, and duplications. There is currently no therapeutic approach for correcting such chromosomal aberrations in vivo or in vitro. When we attempted to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models from patient-derived fibroblasts that contained ring chromosomes, we found that the ring chromosomes were eliminated and replaced by duplicated normal copies of chromosomes through a mechanism of uniparental isodisomy (Bershteyn et al...
November 23, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862526/systems-genetics-reveals-a-transcriptional-network-associated-with-susceptibility-in-the-maize-gray-leaf-spot-pathosystem
#17
Nanette Christie, Alexander A Myburg, Fourie Joubert, Shane L Murray, Maryke Carstens, Yao-Cheng Lin, Jacqueline Meyer, Bridget G Crampton, Shawn A Christensen, Jean F Ntuli, Sara S Wighard, Yves Van de Peer, Dave K Berger
We used a systems genetics approach to elucidate molecular mechanisms of maize responses to gray leaf spot (GLS) disease, caused by Cercospora zeina, a threat to maize production globally. Expression analysis of earleaf samples in a sub-tropical maize RIL population (CML444 X SC Malawi) subjected in field to C. zeina infection allowed detection of 20,206 expression QTLs (eQTL). Four trans-eQTL hotspots coincided with GLS disease QTLs mapped in the same field experiment. Co-expression network analysis identified three expression modules correlated with GLS disease scores...
November 12, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860551/congenital-variants-and-anomalies-of-the-aortic-arch
#18
Kate Hanneman, Beverley Newman, Frandics Chan
Congenital variants and anomalies of the aortic arch are important to recognize as they may be associated with vascular rings, congenital heart disease, and chromosomal abnormalities, and can have important implications for prognosis and management. The purpose of this article is to review cross-sectional imaging techniques used in the evaluation of the aortic arch, describe the embryology and anatomy of the aortic arch system, discuss aortic arch variants and anomalies, and review other malformations of the aortic arch, including interrupted aortic arch, hypoplastic aortic arch, and aortic coarctation...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849610/dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-limits-chromosomal-damage-and-promotes-cell-survival-following-aflatoxin-exposure
#19
Ying-Chih Lin, Nichole Owen, Irina G Minko, Sabine S Lange, Liang Li, Michael P Stone, Richard D Wood, Amanda K McCullough, R Stephen Lloyd
Routine dietary consumption of foods that contain aflatoxins is the second leading cause of environmental carcinogenesis worldwide. Aflatoxin-driven mutagenesis is initiated through metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to its epoxide form that reacts with N7 guanine in DNA. The resulting AFB1-N7-dG adduct undergoes either spontaneous depurination or imidazole-ring opening yielding formamidopyrimidine AFB1 (AFB1-Fapy-dG). Because this latter adduct is known to persist in human tissues and contributes to the high frequency G-to-T mutation signature associated with many hepatocellular carcinomas, we sought to establish the identity of the polymerase(s) involved in processing this lesion...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849184/ring-chromosome-7-a-rare-structural-abnormality-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml
#20
Kristie Q Liu, Carlos A Tirado
Ring chromosomes, often leading to partial deletions, are found in about 2% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are typically associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we present the case of a 62-year-old female who showed markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of myeloblasts, monoblasts, and promonocytes, confirmed by flow cytometry and cases of AML with r(7) have been reported. Analysis of these cases demonstrated that r(7) was a sole abnormality in 20%, a primary abnormality in 14%, and in the context of a complex karyotype in 66%...
2016: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
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