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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723932/the-nucleoid-occlusion-factor-noc-controls-dna-replication-initiation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ting Pang, Xindan Wang, Hoong Chuin Lim, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
Successive division events in the spherically shaped bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are oriented in three alternating perpendicular planes. The mechanisms that underlie this relatively unique pattern of division and coordinate it with chromosome segregation remain largely unknown. Thus far, the only known spatial regulator of division in this organism is the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc that inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic ring over the chromosome. However, Noc is not essential in S. aureus, indicating that additional regulators are likely to exist...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716969/genetic-determinants-of-susceptibility-to-silver-nanoparticle-induced-acute-lung-inflammation-in-mice
#2
David K Scoville, Dianne Botta, Karen Galdanes, Stefanie C Schmuck, Collin C White, Patricia L Stapleton, Theo K Bammler, James W MacDonald, William A Altemeier, Michelle Hernandez, Steven R Kleeberger, Lung-Chi Chen, Terry Gordon, Terrance J Kavanagh
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are employed in a variety of consumer products; however, in vivo rodent studies indicate that AgNPs can cause lung inflammation and toxicity in a strain- and particle type-dependent manner, but mechanisms of susceptibility remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in AgNP-induced lung inflammation and toxicity across multiple inbred mouse strains and to use genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify potential candidate susceptibility genes. Mice received doses of 0...
July 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701347/a-casein-kinase-1-prevents-expulsion-of-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-into-a-polar-body-by-regulating-cortical-contractility
#3
Jonathan R Flynn, Francis J McNally
During female meiosis, haploid eggs are generated from diploid oocytes. This reduction in chromosome number occurs through two highly asymmetric cell divisions resulting in one large egg and two small polar bodies. Unlike mitosis, where an actomyosin contractile ring forms between the sets of segregating chromosomes, the meiotic contractile ring forms on the cortex adjacent to one spindle pole, then ingresses down the length of the spindle to position itself at the exact midpoint between the two sets of segregating chromosomes...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698275/crispr-cas9-genome-editing-reveals-that-the-intron-is-not-essential-for-var2csa-gene-activation-or-silencing-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#4
Jessica M Bryant, Clément Regnault, Christine Scheidig-Benatar, Sebastian Baumgarten, Julien Guizetti, Artur Scherf
Plasmodium falciparum relies on monoallelic expression of 1 of 60 var virulence genes for antigenic variation and host immune evasion. Each var gene contains a conserved intron which has been implicated in previous studies in both activation and repression of transcription via several epigenetic mechanisms, including interaction with the var promoter, production of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and localization to repressive perinuclear sites. However, functional studies have relied primarily on artificial expression constructs...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696259/interplay-between-the-phosphatase-phlpp1-and-an-e3-ligase-rnf41-stimulates-proper-kinetochore-assembly-via-the-outer-kinetochore-protein-sgt1
#5
Narmadha Reddy Gangula, Subbareddy Maddika
Kinetochores link chromosomes to spindle microtubules and are essential for accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Kinetochores assemble at the centromeric region of chromosomes as a multi-protein complex. However, the molecular mechanisms of kinetochore assembly have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) as a regulatory phosphatase that facilitates proper kinetochore assembly. We found that PHLPP1 interacted with the essential outer-kinetochore protein SGT1 and stabilized its protein levels...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693264/dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-of-the-breast-a-case-report
#6
Kamil Pohlodek, Iveta Mečiarová, Petr Grossmann, Zdeněk Kinkor
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare malignant tumor of subcutaneous tissue characterized by slow infiltrative growth. The tumor occurs in patients of all ages, with the highest frequency occurring between the second and the fifth decades of age. Genetically, DFSP is characterized by a reciprocal translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13), or more often, as a supernumerary ring chromosome involving chromosomes 17 and 22. Standard treatment of a localized tumor is surgical excision with wide margins. In the present study, a case report of a 43-year-old woman with a growing tumor in the left breast is discussed...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687675/two-dynamin-like-proteins-stabilize-ftsz-rings-during-streptomyces-sporulation
#7
Susan Schlimpert, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Govind Chandra, Maureen J Bibb, Kim C Findlay, Klas Flärdh, Mark J Buttner
During sporulation, the filamentous bacteria Streptomyces undergo a massive cell division event in which the synthesis of ladders of sporulation septa convert multigenomic hyphae into chains of unigenomic spores. This process requires cytokinetic Z-rings formed by the bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ, and the stabilization of the newly formed Z-rings is crucial for completion of septum synthesis. Here we show that two dynamin-like proteins, DynA and DynB, play critical roles in this process. Dynamins are a family of large, multidomain GTPases involved in key cellular processes in eukaryotes, including vesicle trafficking and organelle division...
July 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674002/chromosome-segregation-drives-division-site-selection-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#8
Renske van Raaphorst, Morten Kjos, Jan-Willem Veening
Accurate spatial and temporal positioning of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ is key for proper bacterial cell division. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an oval-shaped, symmetrically dividing opportunistic human pathogen lacking the canonical systems for division site control (nucleoid occlusion and the Min-system). Recently, the early division protein MapZ was identified and implicated in pneumococcal division site selection. We show that MapZ is important for proper division plane selection; thus, the question remains as to what drives pneumococcal division site selection...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666590/regulation-of-dna-damage-tolerance-in-mammalian-cells-by-post-translational-modifications-of-pcna
#9
REVIEW
Rie Kanao, Chikahide Masutani
DNA damage tolerance pathways, which include translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and template switching, are crucial for prevention of DNA replication arrest and maintenance of genomic stability. However, these pathways utilize error-prone DNA polymerases or template exchange between sister DNA strands, and consequently have the potential to induce mutations or chromosomal rearrangements. Post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) play important roles in controlling these pathways...
June 21, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666097/novel-transgenic-mouse-model-of-polycystic-kidney-disease
#10
Yusuke Kito, Chiemi Saigo, Tamotsu Takeuchi
Transmembrane protein 207 (TMEM207) is characterized as an important molecule for invasiveness of gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma cells. To clarify the pathobiological effects of TMEM207, we generated 13 transgenic mouse strains, designated C57BL/6-transgenic (Tg) (ITF-TMEM207), where the mouse Tmem207 is ectopically expressed under the proximal promoter of the murine intestinal trefoil factor gene. A C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse strain unexpectedly exhibited a high incidence of spontaneous kidney cysts with histopathological features resembling human polycystic kidney disease, which were found in approximately all mice within 1 year...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652867/scattered-genomic-amplification-in-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma
#11
Nils Mandahl, Linda Magnusson, Jenny Nilsson, Björn Viklund, Elsa Arbajian, Fredrik Vult von Steyern, Anders Isaksson, Fredrik Mertens
BACKGROUND: Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT), well differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) are cytogenetically characterized by near-diploid karyotypes with no or few other aberrations than supernumerary ring or giant marker chromosomes, although DDLS tend to have somewhat more complex rearrangements. In contrast, pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLS) have highly aberrant and heterogeneous karyotypes. The ring and giant marker chromosomes contain discontinuous amplicons, in particular including multiple copies of the target genes CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 from 12q, but often also sequences from other chromosomes...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642303/molecular-analysis-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome-with-isolated-del-5q-reveals-a-specific-spectrum-of-molecular-mutations-with-prognostic-impact-a-study-on-123-patients-and-27-genes
#12
Manja Meggendorfer, Claudia Haferlach, Wolfgang Kern, Torsten Haferlach
The only cytogenetic aberration defining a myelodysplastic syndrome subtype is the deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5, giving with morphological features the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q). These patients show a good prognosis and respond to treatment such as lenalidomide, but some cases progress to acute myeloid leukemia. However, the molecular mutation pattern is rarely characterized. Therefore, we investigated a large cohort of 123 myelodysplastic syndrome patients with isolated del(5q) diagnosed following the World Health Organization classifications 2008 and 2016 by sequencing 27 genes...
June 22, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#13
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619713/molecular-model-of-fission-yeast-centrosome-assembly-determined-by-superresolution-imaging
#14
Andrew J Bestul, Zulin Yu, Jay R Unruh, Sue L Jaspersen
Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), known as centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in fungi, are important for the faithful distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells during mitosis as well as for other cellular functions. The cytoplasmic duplication cycle and regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe SPB is analogous to centrosomes, making it an ideal model to study MTOC assembly. Here, we use superresolution structured illumination microscopy with single-particle averaging to localize 14 S...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617979/the-turner-syndrome-life-course-project-karyotype-phenotype-analyses-across-the-lifespan
#15
Antoinette Cameron-Pimblett, Clementina La Rosa, Thomas F J King, Melanie C Davies, Gerard S Conway
INTRODUCTION: Turner Syndrome is associated with a variety of morbidities affecting nearly every body system, some of which increase in prevalence in adult life. The severity of clinical features in TS is roughly in parallel with the magnitude of the deficit of X chromosome material. The aim of this study was to extend the established karyotype phenotype relationships using data from a large adult cohort. MATERIALS & METHODS: Karyotypes were available in 656 (78...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614209/newly-described-entities-in-salivary-gland-pathology
#16
Alena Skálová, Douglas R Gnepp, James S Lewis, Jennifer L Hunt, Justin A Bishop, Henrik Hellquist, Alessandra Rinaldo, Vincent Vander Poorten, Alfio Ferlito
Salivary glands may give rise to a wide spectrum of different tumors. This review concentrates on 4 salivary gland tumors that have been accepted in the recent literature as new neoplastic entities: mammary analog secretory carcinoma, cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands (CASG), sclerosing polycystic adenosis/adenoma (SPA), and the mucinous/secretory variant of myoepithelioma. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma is a distinctive low-grade malignant salivary cancer that harbors a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(12;15) (p13;q25), resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion...
August 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607419/two-step-atp-driven-opening-of-cohesin-head
#17
Íñigo Marcos-Alcalde, Jesús I Mendieta-Moreno, Beatriz Puisac, María Concepción Gil-Rodríguez, María Hernández-Marcos, Diego Soler-Polo, Feliciano J Ramos, José Ortega, Juan Pié, Jesús Mendieta, Paulino Gómez-Puertas
The cohesin ring is a protein complex composed of four core subunits: Smc1A, Smc3, Rad21 and Stag1/2. It is involved in chromosome segregation, DNA repair, chromatin organization and transcription regulation. Opening of the ring occurs at the "head" structure, formed of the ATPase domains of Smc1A and Smc3 and Rad21. We investigate the mechanisms of the cohesin ring opening using techniques of free molecular dynamics (MD), steered MD and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics MD (QM/MM MD). The study allows the thorough analysis of the opening events at the atomic scale: i) ATP hydrolysis at the Smc1A site, evaluating the role of the carboxy-terminal domain of Rad21 in the process; ii) the activation of the Smc3 site potentially mediated by the movement of specific amino acids; and iii) opening of the head domains after the two ATP hydrolysis events...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604966/-detection-of-a-patient-with-ring-chromosome-15-by-low-coverage-massively-parallel-copy-number-variation-sequencing
#18
Qiong Pan, Li Zhang, Fengting Zhang, Xin Jin, Yue Hu, Liyan Zhu, Longfei Cheng, Qigang Zhang, Ying Ning
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic cause for a child with developmental delay. METHODS: The karotypes of the child and her parents were analyzed with G-banding analysis. Their genome DNA was analyzed with low-coverage massively parallel copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and verified by single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array). RESULTS: The karyotype of the child was ascertained as 46,XX,r(15)(p13q26.3), while both parents showed a normal karyotype...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596365/pcgf3-5-prc1-initiates-polycomb-recruitment-in-x-chromosome-inactivation
#19
Mafalda Almeida, Greta Pintacuda, Osamu Masui, Yoko Koseki, Michal Gdula, Andrea Cerase, David Brown, Arne Mould, Cassandravictoria Innocent, Manabu Nakayama, Lothar Schermelleh, Tatyana B Nesterova, Haruhiko Koseki, Neil Brockdorff
Recruitment of the Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 by Xist RNA is an important paradigm for chromatin regulation by long noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that the noncanonical Polycomb group RING finger 3/5 (PCGF3/5)-PRC1 complex initiates recruitment of both PRC1 and PRC2 in response to Xist RNA expression. PCGF3/5-PRC1-mediated ubiquitylation of histone H2A signals recruitment of other noncanonical PRC1 complexes and of PRC2, the latter leading to deposition of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation chromosome-wide...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588710/the-clinical-analysis-of-small-supernumerary-marker-chromosomes-in-17-children-with-mos-45-x-46-x-mar-karyotype
#20
Hongying Wang, Ting Wang, Naichao Yang, Yaxiang He, Linqi Chen, Liyi Hong, Xuejun Shao, Hong Li, Hong Zhu, Haibo Li
Small supernumerary maker chromosome (sSMC) is a type of structurally abnormal chromosome. In order to identify the origin, morphology and other characteristics of sSMCs in children with mos 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype, 17 patients (16 females and 1 male) were analyzed. All patients underwent general physical examination, gonadal imaging and molecular cytogenetic analyses, including Giemsa banding, dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and detection of the sex-determining region Y gene by polymerase chain reaction...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
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