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Postprandial lipaemia

Niki Katsiki, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. These patients are also more prone to heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Furthermore, coronary interventions performed in such high-risk patients have worse outcomes. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia on the risk of CHD in patients with T2DM. The effects of hypolipidaemic, antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs on lipid and glucose metabolism in T2DM are also considered...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Matthew D Campbell, Mark Walker, Ramzi A Ajjan, Karen M Birch, Javier T Gonzalez, Daniel J West
AIM: To evaluate an additional rapid-acting insulin bolus on postprandial lipaemia, inflammation and pro-coagulation following high-carbohydrate high-fat feeding in people with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 10 males with type 1 diabetes [HbA1c 52.5 ± 5.9 mmol/mol (7.0% ± 0.5%)] underwent three conditions: (1) a low-fat (LF) meal with normal bolus insulin, (2), a high-fat (HF) meal with normal bolus insulin and (3) a high-fat meal with normal bolus insulin with an additional 30% insulin bolus administered 3-h post-meal (HFA)...
March 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Deasy Irawati, John C L Mamo, Karin M Slivkoff-Clark, Mario J Soares, Anthony P James
TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that in the fasted state, the majority of chylomicrons are small enough for transcytosis to arterial subendothelial space and accelerate atherogenesis. However, the size distribution of chylomicrons in the absorptive state is unclear. This study explored in normolipidaemic subjects the postprandial distribution of the chylomicron marker, apoB-48, in a TAG-rich lipoprotein plasma fraction (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf>400), in partially hydrolysed remnants (Sf 20-400) and in a TAG-deplete fraction (Sf<20), following ingestion of isoenergetic meals with either palm oil (PO), rice bran or coconut oil...
February 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Dae-Bang Seo, Hyun Woo Jeong, Yeon-Ji Kim, Sukyung Kim, Jeongkee Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Kyungmi Joo, Jin Kyu Choi, Song Seok Shin, Sung-Joon Lee
Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT)...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Anne Grethe Schioldan, Søren Gregersen, Stine Hald, Ann Bjørnshave, Mette Bohl, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kjeld Hermansen
PURPOSE: Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD)...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Sam R Emerson, Mark D Haub, Colby S Teeman, Stephanie P Kurti, Sara K Rosenkranz
Research points to postprandial glucose and TAG measures as preferable assessments of cardiovascular risk as compared with fasting values. Although elevated postprandial glycaemic and lipaemic responses are thought to substantially increase chronic disease risk, postprandial glycaemia and lipaemia have historically only been considered separately. However, carbohydrates and fats can generally 'compete' for clearance from the stomach, small intestine, bloodstream and within the peripheral cell. Further, there are previous data demonstrating that the addition of carbohydrate to a high-fat meal blunts the postprandial lipaemic response, and the addition of fat to a high-carbohydrate meal blunts the postprandial glycaemic response...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Wendy L Hall, Sara Iqbal, Helen Li, Robert Gray, Sarah E E Berry
PURPOSE: Interesterification of palm stearin and palm kernal (PSt/PK) is widely used by the food industry to create fats with desirable functional characteristics for applications in spreads and bakery products, negating the need for trans fatty acids. Previous studies have reported reduced postprandial lipaemia, an independent risk factor for CVD, following interesterified (IE) palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats that are not currently widely used by the food industry. The current study investigates the effect of the most commonly consumed PSt/PK IE blend on postprandial lipaemia...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Kim G Jackson, Yue Li, Miriam F Ryan, Eileen R Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Helen M Roche, Christine M Williams, Julie A Lovegrove, Karani S Vimaleswaran
BACKGROUND: Reported associations between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFA) and the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response have been inconsistent, which could be due to variations in the TNFA gene, meal fat composition or participant's body weight. Hence, we investigated the association of TNFA polymorphism (-308G → A) with body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipaemia and also determined the impact of BMI on the association of the polymorphism with postprandial lipaemia...
July 25, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Israa M Shatwan, Anne-Marie Minihane, Christine M Williams, Julie A Lovegrove, Kim G Jackson, Karani S Vimaleswaran
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. Given that postprandial assessment of lipoprotein metabolism may provide a more physiological perspective of disturbances in lipoprotein homeostasis compared to assessment in the fasting state, we have investigated the influence of two commonly studied LPL polymorphisms (rs320, HindIII; rs328, S447X) on postprandial lipaemia, in 261 participants using a standard sequential meal challenge...
March 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
B Cariou
The combination of basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) is an emerging option for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). GLP-1RAs have been shown to improve glycaemic control with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and to promote body weight loss. However, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are widely expressed in extrapancreatic tissues and could sustain pleiotropic actions of GLP-1RAs beyond glycaemic control. The underlying molecular mechanisms maintaining these extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 are complex, and involve GLP-1R signalling in both the brain and several peripheral tissues...
December 2015: Diabetes & Metabolism
C Silva Correa, R C Rebolledo Cobos, Á Reischak-Oliveira
The development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been associated to alterations on lipid profile as well found during postprandial period, phenomenon known as postprandial lipaemia (PL). Physical exercise is currently the major non-pharmacological intervention used to prevention and reduction of risk factors to developing of CVD. For this reason, there is growing interest under the effects of physical exercise, especially strength training, on regulation and balance of lipid metabolism, particularly of risk groups such as post-menopausal women that have more prone to CVD than men and lose much of the cardioprotective effect of estradiol during and after menopause period...
September 2015: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Saravana Pillai Arjunan, Kevin Deighton, Nicolette C Bishop, James King, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Alice Rogan, Matthew Sedgwick, Alice E Thackray, David Webb, David J Stensel
PURPOSE: Heart disease risk is elevated in South Asians possibly due to impaired postprandial metabolism. Running has been shown to induce greater reductions in postprandial lipaemia in South Asian than European men, but the effect of walking in South Asians is unknown. METHODS: Fifteen South Asian and 14 white European men aged 19-30 years completed two, 2-day trials in a randomised crossover design. On day 1, participants rested (control) or walked for 60 min at approximately 50 % maximum oxygen uptake (exercise)...
December 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Bert Bond, Craig A Williams, Sarah R Jackman, Adam Woodward, Neil Armstrong, Alan R Barker
PURPOSE: To examine the influence of exercise intensity on postprandial health outcomes in adolescents when exercise is accumulated throughout the day. METHODS: 19 adolescents (9 male, 13.7±0.4 years old) completed three 1-day trials in a randomised order: (1) rest (CON); or four bouts of (2) 2×1 min cycling at 90% peak power with 75 s recovery (high-intensity interval exercise; HIIE); or (3) cycling at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (moderate-intensity exercise; MIE), which was work-matched to HIIE...
September 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
B A Griffin
In contrast to the decline in mortality from many non-infectious, chronic diseases in the UK, death from liver disease has increased exponentially in men and women over the past 40 years. This is primarily because of the over consumption of alcohol, but also the increased prevalence of obesity, which is linked to early pathology through the accumulation of liver fat. Supra-physiological intakes of fructose-containing sugar can produce acute, adverse effects on lipid metabolism, and deliver excess energy that increases bodyweight and the deposition of fat in sites other than adipose tissue, including the liver...
August 2015: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Cleiton Silva Correa, Bruno Costa Teixeira, Roberto Carlos Rebolledo Cobos, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira Macedo, Renata Lopes Kruger, Randall Bruce Kreismann Carteri, Régis Radaelli, Julia Silveira Gross, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 11 weeks of low-volume resistance training (LVRT) and high-volume resistance training (HVRT) on muscle strength, muscle thickness (MT), and postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six healthy and untrained postmenopausal women (age, 58.9 ± 5.8 years; 68.6 ± 10.3 kg; and BMI, 26.9 ± 4.8 kg · m(-2)) participated in resistance training 3× per week for 11 weeks (HVRT = 12; LVRT = 13; and control group = 11). Biochemical variables, both pretraining and post-training, were evaluated 16 h after the administration of an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and metabolic variable during [energy expenditure (EE)] and after training session [excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)]...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
Karani Santhanakrishnan Vimaleswaran, Anne M Minihane, Yue Li, Rosalyn Gill, Julie A Lovegrove, Christine M Williams, Kim G Jackson
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein (apo)B is the structural apoprotein of intestinally- and liver- derived lipoproteins and plays an important role in the transport of triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol. Previous studies have examined the association between the APOB insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs17240441) and postprandial lipaemia in response to a single meal; however the findings have been inconsistent with studies often underpowered to detect genotype-lipaemia associations, focused mainly on men, or with limited postprandial characterisation of participants...
2015: Nutrition & Metabolism
O Markey, D Vasilopoulou, D I Givens, J A Lovegrove
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence at a global level is predicted to increase substantially over the next decade due to the increasing ageing population and incidence of obesity. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to focus on modifiable contributors to CVD risk, including a high dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). As an important source of SFA in the UK diet, milk and dairy products are often targeted for SFA reduction. The current paper acknowledges that milk is a complex food and that simply focusing on the link between SFA and CVD risk overlooks the other beneficial nutrients of dairy foods...
June 2014: Nutrition Bulletin
Dick C Chan, Annette T Y Wong, Jing Pang, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
Postprandial lipaemia, due to elevated plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 concentrations, contributes to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in obesity. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and apoC-III may play a role in regulating triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-apoB-48 metabolism. We investigated the associations between plasma PCSK9 and apoC-III concentrations and the kinetics of apoB-48 in obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects were given an oral fat load. ApoB-48 tracer/tracee ratios were measured after an intravenous 2H3-leucine administration using GC-MS...
March 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
Anthony P James, John C Mamo
Chylomicron particles are continually synthesised and secreted from the intestine even in the absence of ingested fat. It is possible that following consumption of low doses of fat the basal level of chylomicron secretion and subsequent metabolism are sufficient to metabolise this fat without an increase in postprandial chylomicron concentrations. To test this hypothesis, healthy male subjects were randomised to receive, on three separate occasions, meals containing a range of doses of fat (average 8·1-19 g) and effects on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron concentration were determined...
2012: Journal of Nutritional Science
Maria Voukali, Irene Kastrinelli, Sapfo Stragalinou, Dimitra Tasiopoulou, Pinelopi Paraskevopoulou, Nicholas Katsilambros, Alexandros Kokkinos, Nicholas Tentolouris, Ioannis Ioannidis
Therapeutic approaches based on the actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 have been widely established in the management of T2DM. Nevertheless, much less research has been aimed at elucidating the role of GLP-1 in lipid metabolism and in particular postprandial dyslipidemia. Exenatide and liraglutide are two GLP-1 receptor agonists which are currently available as subcutaneously administered treatment for T2DM but their chronic effects on postprandial lipaemia have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of treatment with either liraglutide or exenatide for two weeks on postprandial lipaemia in obese subjects with T2DM...
2014: Journal of Diabetes Research
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