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Neonatal pneumonia.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#1
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333320/cross-resistance-to-lincosamides-streptogramins-a-and-pleuromutilins-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-from-the-usa
#2
Paulina A Hawkins, Caitlin S Law, Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Delois M Jackson, Lars F Westblade, Robert Jerris, Bernard W Beall, Lesley McGee
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia in neonates in the United States. GBS also causes invasive disease in older infants, pregnant women, children and young adults with underlying medical conditions, and older adults. Resistance to lincosamides in the absence of erythromycin resistance is rare in GBS, but has been previously reported in clinical isolates, both on its own or in combination with resistance to streptogramins A and pleuromutilins (L/LSA/LSAP phenotypes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325929/gut-microbiota-neonatal-gut-microbiota-induces-lung-immunity-against-pneumonia
#3
Sabrina Tamburini, Jose C Clemente
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321802/sepsis-risk-factors-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#4
Michaël Levy, Nolwenn Le Sache, Mostafa Mokhtari, Guy Fagherazzi, Gaelle Cuzon, Benjamin Bueno, Virginie Fouquet, Alexandra Benachi, Sergio Eleni Dit Trolli, Pierre Tissieres
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly and remains among the most challenging ICU-managed disease. Beside severe pulmonary hypertension, lung hypoplasia and major abdominal surgery, infective complications remain major determinants of outcome. However, the specific incidence of sepsis as well as associated risk factors is unknown. METHODS: This prospective, 4-year observational study took place in the pediatric intensive care and neonatal medicine department of the Paris South University Hospitals (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France), CDH national referral center and involved 62 neonates with CDH...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321310/neonatal-cholestasis-mimicking-biliary-atresia-could-it-be-urinary-tract-infection
#5
Noella Maria Delia Pereira, Ira Shah
Cholestasis can occur in newborns due to infections. However, the manifestations of the underlying infections usually dominate the presentation. We present a 2-month-old infant who presented with jaundice and no fever or signs of systemic illness. Liver biopsy was suggestive of cholangitis. He was subsequently detected to have urinary tract infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The child was treated with appropriate antibiotics for 2 weeks following which the cholestasis resolved. Thus, neonatal cholestasis due to infections can also occur in the post-neonatal period without clinical manifestations of an underlying infection...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318766/bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-at-birth-and-antibody-responses-to-childhood-vaccines-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#6
Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Gaby Smits, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Lone Graff Stensballe, Mihai G Netea, Fiona van der Klis, Christine Stabell Benn, Ole Pryds
INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants...
March 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301990/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#7
Lene Fogt Lundbo, Thomas Benfield
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a significant burden of disease and mortality in all age groups worldwide despite the development of effective conjugated vaccines. The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is based on complex and incompletely understood host-pathogen interactions. Some of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273858/use-of-a-pan-genomic-dna-microarray-in-determination-of-the-phylogenetic-relatedness-among-cronobacter-spp-and-its-use-as-a-data-mining-tool-to-understand-cronobacter-biology
#8
REVIEW
Ben D Tall, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Christopher J Grim, Isha R Patel, Scott A Jackson, Mark K Mammel, Mahendra H Kothary, Venugopal Sathyamoorthy, Laurenda Carter, Séamus Fanning, Carol Iversen, Franco Pagotto, Roger Stephan, Angelika Lehner, Jeffery Farber, Qiong Q Yan, Gopal R Gopinath
Cronobacter (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These organisms cause a variety of illnesses such as meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and septicemia in neonates and infants, and urinary tract, wound, abscesses or surgical site infections, septicemia, and pneumonia in adults. The total gene content of 379 strains of Cronobacter spp. and taxonomically-related isolates was determined using a recently reported DNA microarray...
March 4, 2017: Microarrays
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273701/-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-and-factors-associated-with-short-term-outcomes-in-early-term-neonates
#9
S S Long, Q X Tang, B X Huang, B Y Lin, L S Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of early term and full term neonates, and analyze the risk factors associated with short term outcomes in early term neonates. Method: Neonates with birth weight (BW) ≥2 500 g from year 2013 were analyzed retrospectively based on American Congress of Obstericians & Gynecologists (ACOG) latest definition of term infants. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, early term (gestational age 37-38 weeks) and full term(gestational age 39-40 weeks) neonates were included, whose morbidity constituent proportion was analyzed by χ(2) test or Fisher accuracy test or t test or Wilcoxon test...
March 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273700/-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-among-premature-infants-34-weeks-gestational-age-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-china-a-multicenter-study
#10
S J Li, S Y Yan, Y Zhou, K L E E Han, W L Guo, Q Xia, S P Vibhuti, J Z Wang, S W Ji, S H A H Yang, S N Yang, C Shan, C Y Liu, Z Z Yi, R B Liu, L Lin, B Wang, J Q He, Z L Li, Y Pan, L Guo, M X Chen, X N Liu, Y Zhou, L Li, C Q Xiong, Q Qi, X Y Hei, J Cao, Y J Jiang, M Y Zhang, Y Shoo
Objective: To investigate the incidence and pathogen distribution of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) among preterm infants admitted to level Ⅲ neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in China. Method: A prospective study was conducted in 25 level Ⅲ NICU, enrolling all preterm infants <34 weeks gestational age admitted to the participating NICU within the first 7 days of life from May 2015 to April 2016. Chi-square test, t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Result: A total of 7 918 patients were enrolled, within whom 4 623(58...
March 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272077/changing-trend-in-bacterial-etiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-sepsis-of-intramural-neonates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#11
M P Roy, M Bhatt, V Maurya, S Arya, R Gaind, H K Chellani
BACKGROUND: Septicemia is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, organized data on causative organisms and their resistant pattern are scanty from developing countries. The changing trend in causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance is yet to be documented in India. The present study examines the trends in bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance of the organisms causing sepsis in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective laboratory-based analysis of blood cultures obtained from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi was done for the period of 1999-2014, divided into five phases...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257500/pediatric-emergency-care-capacity-in-a-low-resource-setting-an-assessment-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#12
Celestin Hategeka, Jean Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Cynthia Kenyon, David F Cechetto, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+)-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256474/long-term-outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-third-generation-cephalosporin-use-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-north-india
#13
Tuhina Banerjee, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Supriya Upadhyay, Shweta Mishra, Karuna Tiwari, Shampa Anupurba, Malay Ranjan Sen, Sriparna Basu, Ashok Kumar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporin has contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study was undertaken to elaborate the genetic behaviour of ESBL - producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India causing successive outbreaks in context with empirical third generation cephalosporin use...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250116/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a6-infection-for-evaluation-of-antiviral-and-vaccine-efficacy
#14
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Qingjuan Wei, Michael J Carr, Juan Li, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus 71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD, however, a third enterovirus A species, CoxsackievirusA6 (CVA6), has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We have developed and characterized a murine model of CVA6 infection which was employed to evaluate the antiviral activities of different drugs and the protective efficacies of CVA6-inactivated vaccines...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241263/bridging-knowledge-gaps-to-understand-how-zika-virus-exposure-and-infection-affect-child-development
#15
Bill G Kapogiannis, Nahida Chakhtoura, Rohan Hazra, Catherine Y Spong
Importance: The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has profoundly affected the lives of children and families across the Americas. As the number of children born with ZIKV-related complications continues to grow, the long-term developmental trajectory for these children and the effect on their families remains largely unknown. In September 2016, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and partner National Institutes of Health institutes convened a workshop to develop a research agenda to improve the evaluation, monitoring, and management of neonates, infants, or children affected by ZIKV and its complications...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#16
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226008/time-trends-in-hospitalizations-for-ambulatory-care-sensitive-conditions-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-cear%C3%A3-brazil-2000-2012
#17
Líllian de Queiroz Costa, Elzo Pereira Pinto, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to analyze time trends and describe the causes of hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) in children under five years old in Ceará, Brazil, 2000-2012. METHODS: this is an ecological time series study using data from the National Hospital Information System; trends were analyzed using Prais-Winsten regression. RESULTS: from 2000 and 2016 ACSC hospitalization rates fell from 32.5 to 11.2/1,000 inhabitants under five years old (annual variation of -16...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212478/-risk-factors-related-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-therapy
#18
Juan Pablo Romo-Gamboa, Bertha Alicia Sandoval-Pérez, Ana Bertha Rodríguez-López, Marco Antonio Torres-González, Juan Carlos Barrera-de León
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents the second cause of nosocomial infections and it is associated with greater morbility, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and hospital stay. The objective was to determine factors related with VAP in neonates. METHODS: Analytical transversal study including newborns admitted already intubated with at least 48 hours of MV or who were intubated in Neonatal Therapy. VAP was defined according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "those patients submitted to MV during at least 48 hours"...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201768/first-reported-case-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-sepsis-caused-by-cedecea-lapagei-in-a-brazilian-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#19
Charbell Miguel Haddad Kury, Aline Azevedo Yabrudi, Thyara Boechat de Souza, Elisa Carvalhal de Souza, Ludmyla Tavares E Silva Costa, Charles Bruno Soares, Gabrielle Assumpção Calixto, Mariana Rodrigues Gramático
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196284/early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-is-associated-with-a-high-heart-rate-during-automatically-selected-stationary-periods
#20
Nga Nguyen, Laurent Vandenbroucke, Alfredo Hernández, Tu Pham, Alain Beuchée, Patrick Pladys
AIM: This study examined the heart rate variability characteristics associated with early onset neonatal sepsis in a prospective, observational controlled study. METHODS: Eligible patients were full-term neonates hospitalised with clinical signs that suggested early onset sepsis and a C reactive protein of > 10 mg/L. Sepsis was considered proven in cases of symptomatic septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia or enterocolitis. Heart rate variability parameters (n=16) were assessed from five, 15 and 30 minutes stationary sequences automatically selected from electrocardiographic recordings performed at admission and compared with a control group using the U-test with post-hoc Benjamini-Yekutieli correction...
February 14, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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