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Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Vaibhav Dhyani, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Jitendra Kumar, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Hongyu Chen, Meijing Wang, Thallada Bhaskar, Zengqiang Zhang
In this work, the influence of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition kinetics of pig manure-derived solid wastes was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Wheat straw, biochar, zeolite, and wood vinegar were added to pig manure during composting. The composting was done in the 130 L PVC reactors with 100 L effective volume for 50 days. The activation energy of pyrolysis of samples before and after composting was calculated using Friedman's method, while the pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Limin Feng, Lijuan Liu, Ya Zhao, Ruizhi Zhao
Vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) is clinically used to enhance the pharmacological activity of drugs used to treat liver diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that this effect is dependent on increased drug accumulation in the liver; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that VBRB mediated its effects by altering drug transporters. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of VBRB's main components, saikosaponin A, C, and D, on drug transporters. Transporter activity was determined by measuring the intracellular concentration of transporter substrates...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Ling Liu, Xiaoping Guo, Shuqi Wang, Lei Li, Yang Zeng, Guanhong Liu
In this study, secondary municipal solid waste composts (SC) and wood vinegar treated secondary compost (WV-SC) was prepared to investigate the capability for single-heavy metals and multi-metal systems adsorption. The adsorption sequence of WV-SC for the maximum single metals sorption capacities was Cd (42.7mgg-1) > Cu (38.6mgg-1) > Zn (34.9mgg-1) > Ni (28.7mgg-1) and showed higher than that of SC adsorption isotherm. In binary/quaternary-metal systems, Ni adsorption showed a stronger inhibitory effect compared with Zn, Cd and Cu on both SC and WV-SC...
December 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Youngseok Lee, Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Dhananjay Thakur, Craig Montell
Many animals, ranging from vinegar flies to humans, discriminate a wide range of tastants, including sugars, bitter compounds, NaCl, and sour. However, the taste of Ca2+ is poorly understood, and it is unclear whether animals such as Drosophila melanogaster are endowed with this sense. Here, we examined Ca2+ taste in Drosophila and showed that high levels of Ca2+ are aversive. The repulsion was mediated by two mechanisms-activation of a specific class of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), which suppresses feeding and inhibition of sugar-activated GRNs, which normally stimulates feeding...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
Seong Min Hong, Kyong Hee Soe, Taek Hwan Lee, In Sook Kim, Young Min Lee, Beong Ou Lim
The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) vinegar (BV) on cognitive functions in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia model in mice. In this study, Sco (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to induce amnesia. ICR mice were orally administered donepezil (5 mg/kg), blueberry extract (120 mg/kg), and BV (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. After inducing cognitive impairment by Sco, a behavioral assessment using behavior tests (i.e., Y-maze and passive avoidance tests) was performed...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Joanna Żochowska-Kujawska, Marek Kotowicz, Kazimierz Lachowicz, Małgorzata Sobczak
BACKGROUND: Products from dried meat have been sold for many years as snack foods. The most important sensory attributes of this type of food are texture and flavour, determined by the selection of the raw material and the effect of numerous technological factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the structure, sen- sory and mechanical properties of meat snacks produced under non-commercial conditions using wild boar, roe deer and beef as raw material. METHODS: Jerky was prepared from Longissimus muscle treated (24 h, 4°C) with the follow- ing marinades before drying at 55°C for 6 h: (a) spices, (b) lemon & honey marinade, (c) marinating with balsamic vinegar marinade, (d) dipping into pineapple marinade, and (e) using ginger marinade...
October 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Judy Gopal, Vimala Anthonydhason, Manikandan Muthu, Enkhtaivan Gansukh, Somang Jung, Sechul Chul, Sivanesan Iyyakkannu
These are the days when one would go online first seeking home remedies before seeing a doctor. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is one such popular yet scientifically under-validated remedy. Our results prove the unequivocal antimicrobial activity of ACV to be true at full strength concentrations. However, the activity cannot be generalised because although strong antibacterial activity was observed at 25% concentrations, in terms of antifungal activity, yeasts, especially Candida were found to be less susceptible...
December 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
Jian-Wei Lou, Liang-Liang Cao, Qiao Zhang, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding
The 24 h normal developing zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and the compounds of respective fractions were analyzed by UFLC-Q-TOF-MS simultaneously. Nine concentration groups with respective concentration and a blank control group were designed for each fraction to investigate their effect on survival rates of zebrafish embryos 96 h after drug administration, and calculate the median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of different fractions to zebrafish embryos. The results showed that all of the fractions had acute toxicity to zebrafish embryos except VEKD, and the order was as follows: VEKB, VEKC, VEKA and VEKD...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Masahito Hashimoto, Taichi Matsumoto, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Mami Ozono, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Yasuo Suda
Acetobacter pasteurianus is characterized as a fermenting bacterium of kurozu, which is a common traditional Japanese black vinegar. Recently, we separated acid-resistant and low Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-stimulatory lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from A. pasteurianus. We also showed that their lipid A parts possessed a novel sugar backbone that is responsible for the low TLR4-stimulatory and acid-resistant properties of the LPS. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized spherical structures secreted from many gram-negative bacteria...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Joanne Y Yew, Henry Chung
In recent years, research into the chemical ecology of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has yielded a wealth of information on the neural substrates that detect and process pheromones and control behavior. The studies reveal at the cellular and molecular level how behavioral responses to pheromones are initiated and modulated by social, environmental, and physiological factors. By taking into account both the complexity of the chemical world and the intricacies of the animal's physiological state, the emerging holistic perspective provides insight not only into chemical communication but more generally, how organisms balance internal and external signals when making behavioral decisions...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Penelope J Gauci, Jane McAllister, Ian R Mitchell, Daisy Cybinski, Toby St George, Aneta J Gubala
This report describes the near complete genomic sequence and subsequent analysis of Vinegar Hill virus (VINHV; tentative member of the genus Orthonairovirus, family Nairoviridae, order Bunyavirales). VINHV is the second nairovirus reported to be isolated on mainland Australia and the first to be sequenced and analysed. Our genetic analysis shows that VINHV belongs to the Dera Ghazi Khan genogroup, a group of viruses previously isolated in other parts of the world including Asia, South Africa, and the USA. We discuss possible routes of entry for nairoviruses into Australia and the need to understand the virome of Australian ticks in the context of new and emerging disease...
December 5, 2017: Viruses
S Harzsch, J Krieger
Malacostracan crustaceans display a large diversity of sizes, morphs and life styles. However, only a few representatives of decapod taxa have served as models for analyzing crustacean olfaction, such as crayfish and spiny lobsters. Crustaceans bear multiple parallel chemosensory pathways represented by different populations of unimodal chemosensory and bimodal chemo- and mechanosensory sensilla on the mouthparts, the walking limbs and primarily on their two pairs of antennae. Here, we focus on the olfactory pathway associated with the unimodal chemosensory sensilla on the first antennal pair, the aesthetascs...
November 29, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Anita Arya, S K Mendiratta, Tarun Pal Singh, Ravikant Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar Bharti
Now a day's meat and meat products are not only generating convenience trends; they have been recognized as core of meat industry. Meat spread is a convenience cooked spreadable product prepared with meat and non-meat additives. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of three different levels of honey (10, 15, 20 g), vinegar (2.0, 6.0, 10.0 ml) and tomato powder (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g) on response variables viz. color/appearance, flavor, spreadability, texture, after taste, adhesiveability, overall acceptability, while standardizing the process of development of sweet and sour chicken meat spread box-behnken experimental design was used in which 17 different runs with 5 trials of three similar centre point...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Lin Cao, Xunyu Song, Yukun Song, Jingran Bi, Shuang Cong, Chenxu Yu, Mingqian Tan
Naturally occurring nanoparticles may be present in food. In this paper we report the discovery of fluorescent nanoparticles (FNs) in Chinese mature vinegar. The physicochemical properties of these FNs were investigated. The FNs were shown to emit bright blue fluorescence under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, with a fluorescence quantum yield of 5.71%. They are highly soluble in aqueous solution, and exhibit excitation-dependent emission behavior. TEM characterization showed that the average size of FNs is about 1...
November 23, 2017: Food & Function
Rodrigo Lasa, Eduardo Tadeo, Ricardo A Toledo-Hérnandez, Lino Carmona, Itzel Lima, Trevor Williams
The improvement of trap-lure combinations is an important part of integrated pest management programs that involve monitoring pests for timely insecticide applications, or for their use in control strategies such as mass trapping or bait stations. In this study improvements in the capture of Drosophila suzukii were not observed following the inclusion of different color stimuli with respect to a red-black stripe cup trap. This red-black stripe trap with a hemispherical dome-shaped lid had a significantly improved physical retention of flies compared to traps fitted with a flat lid...
2017: PloS One
Jannik Vollmer, Fernando Casares, Dagmar Iber
The size and shape of organs are characteristic for each species. Even when organisms develop to different sizes due to varying environmental conditions, such as nutrition, organ size follows species-specific rules of proportionality to the rest of the body, a phenomenon referred to as allometry. Therefore, for a given environment, organs stop growth at a predictable size set by the species's genotype. How do organs stop growth? How can related species give rise to organs of strikingly different size? No definitive answer has been given to date...
November 2017: Open Biology
Aydan H Yatmaz, Tetsuaki Kinoshita, Akio Miyazato, Masahiro Takagi, Yoshio Tsujino, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
Vinegar is a widely used condiment in the world, and is produced from ethanol by acetic acid fermentation. Different fruits, vegetables, cereals, and wines can be used as ingredients for vinegar production. It is known that vinegar has many nutrient components such as organic acids, polyphenols, and aromatic compounds. Because of these bioactive components, it has many health benefits. China has a long history of producing vinegar and has been using it for health products and as medicine. Chinese aromatic Zhenjiang vinegar (Kozu) is produced from sticky rice...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Jeong-Won Kim, Deokyeol Jeong, Youngsuk Lee, Dongyup Han, Ju-Ock Nam, Won-Young Lee, Dong-Hyuck Hong, Soo Rin Kim, Yu Shin Ha
Elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum), which belongs to the Alliaceae family along with onion and garlic, has a flavor and shape similar to those of normal garlic, but is not true garlic. Additionally, its properties are largely unknown, and its processing and product development have not been reported. In this study, we focused on using elephant garlic to produce a new type of vinegar, for which the market is rapidly growing because of its health benefits. First, we evaluated the effects of elephant garlic addition on acetic acid fermentation of rice wine by Acetobacter pasteurianus...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sofia Lalou, Maria Ferentidou, Fani Th Mantzouridou, Maria Z Tsimidou
Taguchi design was used to examine the effect of parameters that should be optimized in order to control the alcoholic fermentation of the concentrated grape must (CGM) from cv. Xinomavro using the best-performing indigenous Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as multistarters. The "optimum" combination of conditions (cell ratio of H. uvarum/S. cerevisiae; inoculum size and inoculation time of S. cerevisiae; fermentation time and temperature) resulted in an alcoholic product that meets ethanol (79 g/kg) and residual sugar (164 g/kg) content requirements for further use in the production of balsamic type vinegar...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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