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Farhana R Pinu, Silas G Villas-Boas
Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS) library...
July 26, 2017: Metabolites
Björn Peters, Markus Mientus, David Kostner, Rolf Daniel, Wolfgang Liebl, Armin Ehrenreich
Acetic acid bacteria are well-known for their membrane-bound dehydrogenases rapidly oxidizing a variety of substrates in the periplasm. Since many acetic acid bacteria have not been successfully cultured in the laboratory yet, studying membrane-bound dehydrogenases directly from a metagenome of vinegar microbiota seems to be a promising way to identify novel variants of these enzymes. To this end, DNA from a mother of vinegar was isolated, sequenced, and screened for membrane-bound dehydrogenases using an in silico approach...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Roberto Fusetto, Shane Denecke, Trent Perry, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham
Resistance to insecticides through enhanced metabolism is a worldwide problem. The Cyp6g1 gene of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a paradigm for the study of metabolic resistance. Constitutive overexpression of this gene confers resistance to several classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMI). The metabolism of IMI in this species has been previously shown to yield oxidative and nitro-reduced metabolites. While levels of the oxidative metabolites are correlated with CYP6G1 expression, nitro-reduced metabolites are not, raising the question of how these metabolites are produced...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaolin Xie, Yu Zheng, Xian Liu, Cheng Cheng, Xianglong Zhang, Ting Xia, Songfeng Yu, Min Wang
One of the most famous Chinese vinegars, Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV), is produced with solid-state fermentation technology. Total antioxidant activity (TAC) is a special property for SAV. In this study, we investigate correlations between total antioxidant activity (TAC) and total polyphenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents of SAV, especially during the brewing process. For SAV, TAC, TP, and TF increased with the increase of aging time. The correlation coefficients between TAC and TP were 0.869 and 0.934, respectively, when analyzed with the method of ABTS and FRAP...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Zijun Xiao, Ling Zhao, Li Tian, Linhui Wang, Jing-Yi Zhao
2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an important health functional composition in vinegars, but there are controversial viewpoints about its formation mechanism and scarce relevant records on TMP content enhancement in vinegar products. In this study, a simple and accurate solvent extraction coupled with GC-FID method was developed for the simultaneous determination of TMP and acetoin in vinegars and 137 worldwide samples were analyzed. Meanwhile, the ammonium contents of all the vinegar samples were determined using the salicylate method...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Zhen-Ming Lu, Zong-Min Wang, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Jian Mao, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu
Over thousands of years, humans have mastered the natural vinegar fermentation technique of cultivating functional microbiota on different raw materials. Functional microbial communities that form reproducibly on non-autoclaved raw materials through repeated batch acetic acid fermentation underpin the flavour development of traditional cereal vinegars. However, how to modulate rationally and optimise the metabolic function of these naturally engineered acidic ecosystems remains unclear. Exploring two key minorities in a vinegar ecosystem, including microbial functions (e...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Ji Zhang, Yan Song, Qiao-Han Wang, Lin Li, De Ji, Wei Gu, Min Hao, Tu-Lin Lu, Chun-Qin Mao
To compare the effects of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizomaon immune hepatic fibrosis, proliferation of HSC-T6, and expressions of α-SMA and Procollagen I. The immunological liver fibrosis model was prepared through intraperitoneal injection with porcine serum 0.5 mL in each rat, twice a week, for 14 weeks. Expressions of serum ALT, AST, PC-Ⅲ, IV-C, LN, HA and HYP, MDA in liver tissues were observed after administration of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma (0.95, 1.90 g•kg⁻¹)...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhiqiang Nie, Yu Zheng, Sankuan Xie, Xianglong Zhang, Jia Song, Menglei Xia, Min Wang
Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) is a well-known vinegar produced by traditional solid-state fermentation and has been used in China for thousands of years. However, how microorganisms and their metabolites change along with fermentation is unclear. Here, 454 high-throughput sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to investigate the composition of microbial community. Metabolites were further analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the composition of bacterial community changed dramatically at different stages of fermentation...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nor Adlin Yusoff, Vuanghao Lim, Bassel Al-Hindi, Khairul Niza Abdul Razak, Tri Widyawati, Dwi Rita Anggraini, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi
BACKGROUND: An aqueous extract (AE) of vinegar made from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. can improve postprandial glucose levels in normoglycaemic rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate its antihyperglycaemic activity further using in vivo and in vitro approaches. METHODS: AE was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats twice daily at three doses (1000, 500, and 250 mg/kg b.w.) for 12 days p.o. Several biochemical analyses and a histological study of the pancreas and liver were performed, accompanied by a cell culture assay...
August 23, 2017: Nutrients
Kai-Cheng Zhang, Yu-Dan Cao, Fang Yao, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding
The embryos of model organism zebrafish were used to evaluate the acute toxicity of the extracts of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and vinegar-processing Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix, and the total terpene content of each extract was determined by using euphol as the reference standards. Twenty-four h normally developed zebrafish embryos were chosen, and 8 concentrations were adopted for each extract. Then the growth and death of zebrafish embryos were observed at 96 h after administration, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the different samples on zebrafish embryos were calculated...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Anders Eriksson, Marlena Raczkowska, Rapeechai Navawongse, Deepak Choudhury, James C Stewart, Yi Ling Tang, Zhiping Wang, Adam Claridge-Chang
Animals have evolved to maintain homeostasis in a changing external environment by adapting their internal metabolism and feeding behaviour. Metabolism and behaviour are coordinated by neuromodulation; a number of the implicated neuromodulatory systems are homologous between mammals and the vinegar fly, an important neurogenetic model. We investigated whether silencing fly neuromodulatory networks would elicit coordinated changes in feeding, behavioural activity and metabolism. We employed transgenic lines that allowed us to inhibit broad cellular sets of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, octopaminergic, tyraminergic and neuropeptide F systems...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fangzhou Yin, Hui Dai, Lin Li, Tuling Lu, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai, Wu Yin
The ripened fruit of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus has unique medical properties in Chinese medicine. It is commonly used after vinegar steaming. Vinegar steaming changes the color of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from red to black and enhances its acidic and astringent properties. Lignans are the well-investigated components in this herb. However, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is acidic in the theory of Chinese medicine, and whether vinegar processing changes its organic acid components remains largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Rouhollah Khani, Zeinab Rostami, Ghodsieh Bagherzade, Vahid Khojeh
In this study, for the monitoring and quantification of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) in vinegar, carrot juice, and seed extract from the plant species Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, an efficient and low-cost analytical method has been applied. For this purpose, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method, followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection, was used. To form a cloudy solution, a binary mixture containing ethanol as a disperser solvent and chloroform as an extraction solvent was rapidly injected by syringe into a sample solution containing p-CA...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Guangpeng Pei, Yuxin Li, Yuen Zhu, Weiyu Shi, Hua Li
This paper presents a new soil amendment used for immobilization of soil Pb, produced from vinegar residue, stainless steel slag, and weathered coal. The pH value measuring, granulation and adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the optimal composition of soil amendment. Optimizing soil amendment B2 was composed of vinegar residue, weathered coal (humic acid 61.53 wt%), and stainless steel slag with the ratio of 80∶16∶4, and particle size was in the range of 2-4 mm. In the leaching column experiment, B2 addition reduced the Pb release from the soil as well as increasing leachate pH and decreasing the bioavailable Pb concentration...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhiyuan Zhu, Kequan Xia, Zhiwei Xu
Transient electronics are becoming a hot topic due to the rapid development of bioelectronics, self-destructive devices and environmental sensors. This letter reports a novel scheme for triggering degradation of 250 μm-thick Mg target using acetic acid regarding transient electronics applications. The triggered transience has also been demonstrated using commercial vinegar. To achieve programmable transience as well as device protection, polypropylene carbonate (PPC) was investigated as passivation layer. The proposed method has demonstrated simplicity, high safety, low cost and low trigger temperature...
July 2017: Heliyon
Małgorzata Drewnowska, Anetta Hanć, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Jerzy Falandysz
Mushrooms are considered as potential bio-remediation agents in soil polluted with heavy metals, while many species which efficiently accumulate them in flesh are edible. Question is if there is any possible culinary use of edible mushrooms with high heavy metal contents? This study aimed to investigate and discuss a fate of cadmium (Cd) in common household-treated fruitbodies of common chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius. The samples of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. were collected from five spatially distanced sites in Poland in 2011-2012...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Perry N Alagappan, Jessica Heimann, Lauren Morrow, Enrico Andreoli, Andrew R Barron
Although clean and abundant water is the keystone of thriving communities, increasing demand and volatile climate patterns are depleting rivers and aquifers. Moreover, the quality of such water sources is threatened by noxious contaminants, of which heavy metals represents an area of growing concern. Recently, graphene oxide (GO) has been suggested as an adsorbent; however, a support is desirable to ensure a high surface area and an immobile phase. Herein, we described the preparation and characterization of a supported-epoxidized carbon nanotube (SENT) via the growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) onto a quartz substrate...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Boon Kee Beh, Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Sook Yee Boo, Joelle Yi Heng Chua, Sheau Wei Tan, Wan Yong Ho, Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin, Kamariah Long, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen
Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hua-Wei Yuan, Li Tan, Hao Chen, Zhao-Yong Sun, Yue-Qin Tang, Kenji Kida
To establish a zero emission process, the post-distillation slurry of a new type of rice shochu (NTRS) was used for the production of health promoting vinegar. Since the NTRS post-distillation slurry contained caproic acid and lactic acid, the effect of these two organic acids on acetic acid fermentation was first evaluated. Based on these results, Acetobacter aceti CICC 21684 was selected as a suitable strain for subsequent production of vinegar. At the laboratory scale, acetic acid fermentation of the NTRS post-distillation slurry in batch mode resulted in an acetic acid concentration of 41...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Zhenbin Wang, Tingting Li, Fengye Liu, Cunsheng Zhang, Haile Ma, Lin Wang, Shuai Zhao
High-quality vinegars are traditionally produced by aging them in barrels or bottles. However, these processes are very time-consuming. To accelerate of Zhenjiang vinegar maturation, the ultrasound was used to treat the steeped vinegar. Results showed that, the optimum ultrasonic power, time and ethanol addition for aging vinegar were determined to be 50W/100mL, 75min and 0.75% (V/V), respectively. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the total amino acid of fresh vinegar decreased from 1082.259mg/100mL to 871...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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