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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727052/rapid-communication-subclinical-bovine-respiratory-disease-loci-and-pathogens-associated-with-lung-lesions-in-feedlot-cattle
#1
J N Kiser, T E Lawrence, M Neupane, C M Seabury, J F Taylor, J E Womack, H L Neibergs
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of feedlot cattle that is caused by viral and bacterial pathogen members of the BRD complex. Many cases of subclinical BRD go untreated and are not detected until slaughter, when lung lesions are identified. The objectives of this study were to identify which BRD pathogens were associated with the presence of lung lesions at harvest and to identify genomic loci that were associated with susceptibility to lung lesions as defined by consolidation of the lung and/or the presence of fibrin tissue...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727007/best-management-practices-for-newly-weaned-calves-for-improved-health-and-well-being
#2
B K Wilson, C J Richards, D L Step, C R Krehbiel
Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714688/design-of-a-chemical-probe-for-the-bromodomain-and-plant-homeodomain-finger-containing-brpf-family-of-proteins
#3
Niall Igoe, Elliott D Bayle, Cynthia Tallant, Oleg Fedorov, Julia C Meier, Pavel Savitsky, Catherine Rogers, Yannick Morias, Sarah Scholze, Helen Boyd, Danen Cunoosamy, David M Andrews, Anne Cheasty, Paul E Brennan, Susanne Müller, Stefan Knapp, Paul V Fish
The bromodomain and PHD finger-containing (BRPF) family are scaffolding proteins important for the recruitment of histone acetyltransferases of the MYST family to chromatin. Here we describe NI-57 (16) as new pan-BRPF chemical probe of the bromodomain (BRD) of the BRPFs. Inhibitor 16 preferentially bound the BRD of BRPF1 and BRD1 over BRPF3, whereas binding to BRD9 was weaker. 16 has excellent selectivity over non-class IV BRD proteins. Target engagement of BRPF1B and BRD1 with 16 was demonstrated in nanoBRET and FRAP assays...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706277/dna-binding-drives-the-association-of-brg1-hbrm-bromodomains-with-nucleosomes
#4
Emma A Morrison, Julio C Sanchez, Jehnna L Ronan, Daniel P Farrell, Katayoun Varzavand, Jenna K Johnson, Brian X Gu, Gerald R Crabtree, Catherine A Musselman
BRG1 and BRM, central components of the BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complex, are critical in chromatin structure regulation. Here, we show that the human BRM (hBRM) bromodomain (BRD) has moderate specificity for H3K14ac. Surprisingly, we also find that both BRG1 and hBRM BRDs have DNA-binding activity. We demonstrate that the BRDs associate with DNA through a surface basic patch and that the BRD and an adjacent AT-hook make multivalent contacts with DNA, leading to robust affinity and moderate specificity for AT-rich elements...
July 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705198/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-detection-of-four-bacterial-agents-commonly-associated-with-bovine-respiratory-disease-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid
#5
Henk J Wisselink, Jan B W J Cornelissen, Fimme J van der Wal, Engbert A Kooi, Miriam G Koene, Alex Bossers, Bregtje Smid, Freddy M de Bree, Adriaan F G Antonis
BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni and Trueperella pyogenes are four bacterial agents commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). In this study a bacterial multiplex real-time PCR (the RespoCheck PCR) was evaluated for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of these four bacterial agents. RESULTS: The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex real-time PCR assay determined on purified DNA and on bacterial cells of the four target pathogens was one to ten fg DNA/assay and 4 × 10(-1) to 2 × 10(0) CFU/assay...
July 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667417/enhanced-biomass-and-oxidative-stress-tolerance-of-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-overexpressing-the-dhar-gene-from-brassica-juncea
#6
Young-Saeng Kim, Il-Sup Kim, Joseph S Boyd, Arnaud Taton, James W Golden, Ho-Sung Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To improve the oxidative stress tolerance, biomass yield, and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate (AsA/DHA) ratio of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 in the presence of H2O2, by heterologous expression of the dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) gene from Brassica juncea (BrDHAR). RESULTS: Under H2O2 stress, overexpression of BrDHAR in the transgenic strain (BrD) of S. elongatus greatly increased the AsA/DHA ratio. As part of the AsA recycling system, the oxidative stress response induced by reactive oxygen species was enhanced, and intracellular H2O2 level decreased...
June 30, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630323/role-of-the-cbp-catalytic-core-in-intramolecular-sumoylation-and-control-of-histone-h3-acetylation
#7
Sangho Park, Robyn L Stanfield, Maria A Martinez-Yamout, H Jane Dyson, Ian A Wilson, Peter E Wright
The histone acetyl transferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300 play a critical role in numerous cellular processes. Dysregulation of their catalytic activity is associated with several human diseases. Previous work has elucidated the regulatory mechanisms of p300 acetyltransferase activity, but it is not known whether CBP activity is controlled similarly. Here, we present the crystal structure of the CBP catalytic core encompassing the bromodomain (BRD), CH2 (comprising PHD and RING), HAT, and ZZ domains at 2...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624514/bromodomain-containing-proteins-in-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Alfonso Urbanucci, Ian G Mills
Several oncogenic factors have been involved in prostate cancer progression. However, therapeutic approaches still focus on suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. In fact, whereas the full-length AR incorporates a ligand-binding domain, which has become a drug target for competitive inhibitors, other transcription factors often do not have tractable binding pockets that aid drug development. Consequently drug development efforts have turned to transcription co-regulators, often chromatin-modifying enzymes or factors that bind to epigenetic modifications to chromatin...
June 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619153/identification-of-candidate-protein-markers-of-bovine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-infection-using-an-in-vitro-model
#9
Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Simon Doherty, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615070/a-randomised-clinical-trial-of-a-metaphylactic-treatment-with-tildipirosin-for-bovine-respiratory-disease-in-veal-calves
#10
J Berman, D Francoz, J Dubuc, S Buczinski
BACKGROUND: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major problem in veal calf rearing units. The objective of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of tildipirosin as a metaphylactic treatment in veal calves on the number of BRD treatments, lung consolidation on thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) and average daily gain (ADG). A total of 209 veal calves from a pre-weaning fattening unit were randomly allocated to receive one of two treatments (tildipirosin 4 mg/kg, subcutaneously, n = 109; placebo 0...
June 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602021/evaluation-of-mollicutes-microorganisms-in-respiratory-disease-of-cattle-and-their-relationship-to-clinical-signs
#11
G Tortorelli, N Carrillo Gaeta, B L Mendonça Ribeiro, L Miranda Marques, J Timenetsky, L Gregory
BACKGROUND: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important problem in cattle production that is responsible for economic losses in dairy herds. Mycoplasma spp. are described as an important etiological agent of BRD. HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the occurrence of the most important mycoplasmas in the lower respiratory tract of healthy and BRD cattle in relationship to clinical signs of BRD. ANIMALS: Sixty young dairy cattle were classified as healthy (n = 32) or cattle showing clinical signs of BRD (n = 28)...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592170/current-options-to-manage-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinemia
#12
Giulia Benevolo, Maura Nicolosi, Elisa Santambrogio, Umberto Vitolo
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, incurable B-cell lymphoma, with a median survival of 5-10 years in symptomatic patients. There is no consensus on the standard of care and several agents are currently used in these patients. Areas covered: In this article, we will review the use of standard therapies and new drugs investigated such as monoclonal antibodies, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors and novel agents in early-stage development. Expert commentary: RCD (Rituximab/Cyclophosphamide/Dexamethasone) is an effective and safe treatment in first line in WM...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591577/androgen-receptor-deregulation-drives-bromodomain-mediated-chromatin-alterations-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Alfonso Urbanucci, Stefan J Barfeld, Ville Kytölä, Harri M Itkonen, Ilsa M Coleman, Daniel Vodák, Liisa Sjöblom, Xia Sheng, Teemu Tolonen, Sarah Minner, Christoph Burdelski, Kati K Kivinummi, Annika Kohvakka, Steven Kregel, Mandeep Takhar, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Elai Davicioni, Nicholas Erho, Paul Lloyd, R Jeffrey Karnes, Ashley E Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Donald J Vander Griend, Stefan Knapp, Eva Corey, Felix Y Feng, Peter S Nelson, Fahri Saatcioglu, Karen E Knudsen, Teuvo L J Tammela, Guido Sauter, Thorsten Schlomm, Matti Nykter, Tapio Visakorpi, Ian G Mills
Global changes in chromatin accessibility may drive cancer progression by reprogramming transcription factor (TF) binding. In addition, histone acetylation readers such as bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) have been shown to associate with these TFs and contribute to aggressive cancers including prostate cancer (PC). Here, we show that chromatin accessibility defines castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We show that the deregulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression is a driver of chromatin relaxation and that AR/androgen-regulated bromodomain-containing proteins (BRDs) mediate this effect...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541716/investigational-bet-bromodomain-protein-inhibitors-in-early-stage-clinical-trials-for-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-aml
#14
REVIEW
Thorsten Braun, Claude Gardin
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies driven by genetic mutations and deregulated epigenetic control. Relapse/refractory disease remains frequent in younger patients and even more so in older patients, including treatment with epigenetic drugs in this age group, mainly with hypomethylating agents. New treatment strategies are urgently needed. The recent discovery that epigenetic readers of the bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal (BET) protein family, are crucial for AML maintenance by transcription of oncogenic c-MYC lead to rapid development of BET inhibitors entering clinical trials...
July 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516829/factors-associated-with-failure-of-emergency-wait-time-targets-for-high-acuity-discharges-and-intensive-care-unit-admissions
#15
Ivy Cheng, Merrick Zwarenstein, Alex Kiss, Maaret Castren, Mats Brommels, Michael Schull
OBJECTIVE: Ontario established emergency department length-of-stay (EDLOS) targets but has difficulty achieving them. We sought to determine predictors of target time failure for discharged high acuity patients and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of 2012 Sunnybrook Hospital emergency department data. The main outcome measure was failing to meet government EDLOS targets for high acuity discharges and ICU emergency admissions...
May 18, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506208/a-strategy-to-apply-quantitative-epistasis-analysis-on-developmental-traits
#16
Marta K Labocha, Wang Yuan, Boanerges Aleman-Meza, Weiwei Zhong
BACKGROUND: Genetic interactions are keys to understand complex traits and evolution. Epistasis analysis is an effective method to map genetic interactions. Large-scale quantitative epistasis analysis has been well established for single cells. However, there is a substantial lack of such studies in multicellular organisms and their complex phenotypes such as development. Here we present a method to extend quantitative epistasis analysis to developmental traits. METHODS: In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we applied RNA interference on mutants to inactivate two genes, used an imaging system to quantitatively measure phenotypes, and developed a set of statistical methods to extract genetic interactions from phenotypic measurement...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504695/epigenetic-pathway-inhibitors-represent-potential-drugs-for-treating-pancreatic-and-bronchial-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
K E Lines, M Stevenson, P Filippakopoulos, S Müller, H E Lockstone, B Wright, S Grozinsky-Glasberg, A B Grossman, S Knapp, D Buck, C Bountra, R V Thakker
Cancer is associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications and methylation of DNA, and inhibitors targeting epigenetic mechanisms represent a novel class of anti-cancer drugs. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas (PNETs) and bronchus (BNETs), which may have 5-year survivals of <50% and as low as 5%, respectively, represent targets for such drugs, as >40% of PNETs and ~35% of BNETs have mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes menin that modifies histones by interacting with histone methyltransferases...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464950/illumina-miseq-16s-amplicon-sequence-analysis-of-bovine-respiratory-disease-associated-bacteria-in-lung-and-mediastinal-lymph-node-tissue
#18
Dayle Johnston, Bernadette Earley, Paul Cormican, Gerard Murray, David Anthony Kenny, Sinead Mary Waters, Mark McGee, Alan Kieran Kelly, Matthew Sean McCabe
BACKGROUND: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. Next generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR amplicons (NGS 16S amplicon analysis) is a powerful culture-independent open reference method that has recently been used to increase understanding of BRD-associated bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of BRD cattle. However, it has not yet been used to examine the microbiome of the bovine lower respiratory tract...
May 2, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464093/a-retrospective-analysis-of-risk-factors-associated-with-bovine-respiratory-disease-treatment-failure-in-feedlot-cattle
#19
T D Avra, K M Abell, D D Shane, M E Theurer, R L Larson, B J White
The objective of this project was to identify risk factors associated with the probability of failing to resolve clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) after initial antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective data analysis was performed with 194,062 animals treated for BRD with an antimicrobial from 10 U.S. feedlots from 2005 to 2009. A binary variable classified cattle as a treatment failure if they were retreated for BRD or died following an initial BRD treatment. A generalized logistic mixed model was created to evaluate associations of quarter of the year at feedlot arrival, arrival weight, sex, risk classification (high vs...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460753/population-level-effects-of-risk-factors-for-bovine-respiratory-disease-in-australian-feedlot-cattle
#20
K E Hay, J M Morton, A C A Clements, T J Mahony, T S Barnes
Results obtained from a nationwide longitudinal study were extended to estimate the population-level effects of selected risk factors on the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) during the first 50days at risk in medium-sized to large Australian feedlots. Population attributable fractions (PAF) and population attributable risks (PAR) were used to rank selected risk factors in order of importance from the perspective of the Australian feedlot industry within two mutually exclusive categories: 'intervention' risk factors had practical strategies that feedlot managers could implement to avoid exposure of cattle to adverse levels of the risk factor and a precise estimate of the population-level effect while 'others' did not...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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