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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898956/effect-of-timing-of-challenge-following-short-term-natural-exposure-to-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-1b-on-animal-performance-and-immune-response-in-beef-steers
#1
L Carlos-Valdez, B K Wilson, L O Burciaga-Robles, D L Step, B P Holland, C J Richards, M A Montelongo, A W Confer, R W Fulton, C R Krehbiel
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and economically detrimental disease of beef cattle during the postweaning period, causing the majority of morbidity and mortality in feedlots. The pathogenesis of this disease often includes an initial viral infection, which can predispose cattle to a secondary bacterial infection. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of timing of an intratracheal (MH) challenge relative to 72 h of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1b persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, serum antibody production, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, rectal temperature, clinical severity score (CS), and haptoglobin (Hp)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898899/fever-feeding-and-grooming-behavior-around-peak-clinical-signs-in-bovine-respiratory-disease
#2
R L Toaff-Rosenstein, L J Gershwin, C B Tucker
Feedlot cattle are monitored for the sickness response, both physiological and behavioral, to detect bovine respiratory disease (BRD), but this method can be inaccurate. Diagnostic accuracy may improve if the BRD sickness response is better understood. We hypothesized that steers around peak BRD would have fever, anorexia, and less grooming than controls. We also expected sickness response magnitude to be greater as clinical and pathological severity increased. Unvaccinated steers were assigned to challenge with 1 of 5 BRD viruses or bacteria (BRD challenge; = 4/pathogen; 20 total), based on susceptibility as determined by serology...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810220/evolving-views-on-bovine-respiratory-disease-an-appraisal-of-selected-key-pathogens-part-1
#3
REVIEW
Gerard M Murray, Rónan G O'Neill, Simon J More, Máire C McElroy, Bernadette Earley, Joseph P Cassidy
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and interactions of factors associated with the animal, the pathogen and the environment are central to its pathogenesis. Emerging knowledge of a role for pathogens traditionally assumed to be minor players in the pathogenesis of BRD reflects an increasingly complex situation that will necessitate regular reappraisal of BRD pathogenesis and control. This review appraises the role of selected key pathogens implicated in BRD pathogenesis to assess how our understanding of their role has evolved in recent years...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810216/evolving-views-on-bovine-respiratory-disease-an-appraisal-of-selected-control-measures-part-2
#4
REVIEW
Gerard M Murray, Rónan G O'Neill, Simon J More, Máire C McElroy, Bernadette Earley, Joseph P Cassidy
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) control poses significant challenges to the cattle industry worldwide. The sometimes complex interactions of factors associated with the animal, the pathogen and the environment complicate the implementation of effective control measures. Blanket vaccination or mass medication provides inconsistent control and the effective tackling of BRD will require innovative, evidence-based and targeted interventions which, if employed sensibly, offer useful alternatives for addressing this disease...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808386/identification-of-snps-located-on-bta-6-and-bta-20-significantly-associated-with-bovine-respiratory-disease-in-crossbred-cattle
#5
S L Miller, S Mizell, R Walker, T Page, M D Garcia
The objective of the present study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in two quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions (BTA 6 and BTA 20) that are associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). A population of 323 crossbred steers sired by five purebred sire breeds during 2010-2013 (Angus, Braford, Braunvieh, Charolais, and Simmental) were evaluated for BRD susceptibility during the finishing process at a commercial feedlot. A total of 21 animals representing all sire breeds were affected with BRD at some time during the finishing process over the 4-year period...
October 6, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774624/bet-bromodomain-suppression-inhibits-vascular-inflammation-by-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-activation
#6
Mingcheng Huang, Shan Zeng, Yaoyao Zou, Maohua Shi, Qian Qiu, Youjun Xiao, Guoqiang Chen, Xiuyan Yang, Liuqin Liang, Hanshi Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing evidence indicates the critical role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins in regulating immune and inflammatory responses, however, their contribution to vascular inflammation remains to be defined. In this study, we investigated the effect of BET bromodomain inhibition on regulating vascular inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from fresh umbilical cords...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769354/role-of-bet-proteins-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#7
Ester Fernandez-Salas, Shaomeng Wang, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a deadly disease with few therapeutic options once patients become resistant to second generation drugs targeting the AR-transcriptional program. The BET-BRD readers of chromatin are key regulators of AR-, ERG-, and c-Myc-mediated transcription in CRPC. BET-BRD inhibitors have demonstrated pre-clinical efficacy in models of CRPC and are currently being evaluated in several clinical trials. These novel drugs have the potential to transform the way we treat CRPC in the near future...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769353/erythropoiesis-provides-a-brd-s-eye-view-of-bet-protein-function
#8
REVIEW
Aaron J Stonestrom, Sarah C Hsu, Michael T Werner, Gerd A Blobel
Pharmacologic inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) protein family are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, yet the functions of individual BET proteins remain largely uncharacterized. We review the molecular roles of BETs in the context of erythropoiesis. Studies in this lineage have provided valuable insights into their mechanisms of action, and helped define the individual and overlapping functions of BET protein family members BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4. These studies have important ramifications for our understanding of the molecular and physiologic roles of BET proteins, and provide a framework for elucidating some of the beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacologic inhibitors...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757418/promiscuous-targeting-of-bromodomains-by-bromosporine-identifies-bet-proteins-as-master-regulators-of-primary-transcription-response-in-leukemia
#9
Sarah Picaud, Katharina Leonards, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Oliver Dovey, Christopher Wells, Oleg Fedorov, Octovia Monteiro, Takao Fujisawa, Chen-Yi Wang, Hannah Lingard, Cynthia Tallant, Nikzad Nikbin, Lucie Guetzoyan, Richard Ingham, Steven V Ley, Paul Brennan, Susanne Muller, Anastasia Samsonova, Anne-Claude Gingras, Juerg Schwaller, George Vassiliou, Stefan Knapp, Panagis Filippakopoulos
Bromodomains (BRDs) have emerged as compelling targets for cancer therapy. The development of selective and potent BET (bromo and extra-terminal) inhibitors and their significant activity in diverse tumor models have rapidly translated into clinical studies and have motivated drug development efforts targeting non-BET BRDs. However, the complex multidomain/subunit architecture of BRD protein complexes complicates predictions of the consequences of their pharmacological targeting. To address this issue, we developed a promiscuous BRD inhibitor [bromosporine (BSP)] that broadly targets BRDs (including BETs) with nanomolar affinity, creating a tool for the identification of cellular processes and diseases where BRDs have a regulatory function...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664447/a-retrospective-epidemiological-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-a-primary-necropsy-diagnosis-of-bovine-respiratory-disease
#10
G M Murray, J P Cassidy, T A Clegg, J A Tratalos, J McClure, R G O'Neill, D J Sammin, M J Casey, M McElroy, B Earley, N Bourke, S J More
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disease and the primary cause of both bovine morbidity and mortality in Ireland. The risk factors associated with a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD among cattle in the traditional (non-feedlot) husbandry systems prevalent in Ireland have not been investigated previously. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate those risk factors among cattle of all ages over an 8 year period. A total of 3,090 BRD cases and 5,236 controls were matched by submitting veterinary practitioner...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663380/seroprevalence-of-respiratory-viral-pathogens-of-indigenous-calves-in-western-kenya
#11
R Callaby, P Toye, A Jennings, S M Thumbi, J A W Coetzer, I C Conradie Van Wyk, O Hanotte, M N Mbole-Kariuki, B M de C Bronsvoort, L E B Kruuk, M E J Woolhouse, H Kiara
Most studies of infectious diseases in East African cattle have concentrated on gastro-intestinal parasites and vector-borne diseases. As a result, relatively little is known about viral diseases, except for those that are clinically symptomatic or which affect international trade such as foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease. Here, we investigate the seroprevalence, distribution and relationship between the viruses involved in respiratory disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), bovine parainfluenza virus Type 3 (PIV3) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in East African Shorthorn Zebu calves...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640804/-construction-of-bromodomain-deleted-brd7-mutation-vector-based-on-homologous-recombination-and-reverse-pcr-amplification
#12
Weihong Niu, Xinye Wang, Yao Zhou, Xiayu Li, Guiyuan Li, Ming Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To construct a eukaryotic expression vector of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) with deletion of bromodomain (BRD7△brd) using the homologous recombination and reverse PCR amplification techniques. METHODS: The linear DNA fragments of bromodomain-deleted mutation of BRD7 (pIRES2-EGFP- 3Flag/BRD7△brd) were amplified by one pair of reverse PCR primers using high-fidelity enzyme, and then these fragments were transformed into E.coli to obtain the eukaryotic expression vector expressing BRD7△brd protein based on homologous recombination and plasmid cyclization...
September 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631103/acetylation-reader-proteins-linking-acetylation-signaling-to-genome-maintenance-and-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Fade Gong, Li-Ya Chiu, Kyle M Miller
Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can alter chromatin structure as well as function by providing binding signals for reader proteins containing acetyl-lysine recognition domains, including the bromodomain (BRD)...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621183/brd4-regulates-fructose-inducible-lipid-accumulation-related-genes-in-the-mouse-liver
#14
Aki Yamada, Kazue Honma, Kazuki Mochizuki, Toshinao Goda
OBJECTIVE: Fructose intake induces hepatic steatosis by activating fat synthesis. In this study, we searched for genes that showed acute induction in the livers of mice force-fed with fructose, and examined how this induction is regulated. MATERIALS/METHODS: We identified genes induced at 6h after the fructose force-feeding using a microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Histone acetylation and an acetylated histone binding protein bromodomain containing (BRD)4 binding around the fructose-inducible genes were examined using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617704/discovery-and-optimization-of-a-selective-ligand-for-the-switch-sucrose-nonfermenting-related-bromodomains-of-polybromo-protein-1-by-the-use-of-virtual-screening-and-hydration-analysis
#15
Vassilios Myrianthopoulos, Nicolas Gaboriaud-Kolar, Cynthia Tallant, Michelle-Lynn Hall, Stylianos Grigoriou, Peter Moore Brownlee, Oleg Fedorov, Catherine Rogers, David Heidenreich, Marek Wanior, Nikolaos Drosos, Nikitia Mexia, Pavel Savitsky, Tina Bagratuni, Efstathios Kastritis, Evangelos Terpos, Panagis Filippakopoulos, Susanne Müller, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Jessica Ann Downs, Stefan Knapp, Emmanuel Mikros
Bromodomains (BRDs) are epigenetic interaction domains currently recognized as emerging drug targets for development of anticancer or anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, development of a selective ligand of the fifth BRD of polybromo protein-1 (PB1(5)) related to switch/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes is presented. A compound collection was evaluated by consensus virtual screening and a hit was identified. The biophysical study of protein-ligand interactions was performed using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569838/comparative-efficacy-of-biorelease-deslorelin%C3%A2-injection-for-induction-of-ovulation-in-oestrus-mares-a-field-study
#16
S A Finan, E L Lamkin, A O McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the comparative efficacy of BioRelease Deslorelin® (BRD) and Ovuplant® for induction of ovulation in cyclic mares in Australia. METHODS: Ovarian follicular activity of 60 mares for a total of 95 cycles was monitored by ultrasonography until they developed a follicle ≥30 mm and a uterine oedema pattern of 3. Mares were then randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: (1) treatment with 1.25 mg BRD, (2) a single Ovuplant pellet or (3) 1 mL compound sodium lactate control...
September 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530814/analysis-of-post-traumatic-brain-injury-gene-expression-signature-reveals-tubulins-nfe2l2-nfkb-cd44-and-s100a4-as-treatment-targets
#17
Anssi Lipponen, Jussi Paananen, Noora Puhakka, Asla Pitkänen
We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527782/observations-on-macrolide-resistance-and-susceptibility-testing-performance-in-field-isolates-collected-from-clinical-bovine-respiratory-disease-cases
#18
Keith D DeDonder, Dayna M Harhay, Michael D Apley, Brian V Lubbers, Michael L Clawson, Gennie Schuller, Gregory P Harhay, Brad J White, Robert L Larson, Sarah F Capik, Jim E Riviere, Ted Kalbfleisch, Ronald K Tessman
The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503259/computational-characterization-of-iron-metabolism-in-the-tsetse-disease-vector-glossina-morsitans-ire-stem-loops
#19
Zahra Jalali Sefid Dashti, Junaid Gamieldien, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Iron metabolism and regulation is an indispensable part of species survival, most importantly for blood feeding insects. Iron regulatory proteins are central regulators of iron homeostasis, whose binding to iron response element (IRE) stem-loop structures within the UTRs of genes regulate expression at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the extensive literature on the mechanism of iron regulation in human, less attention has been given to insect and more specifically the blood feeding insects, where research has mainly focused on the characterization of ferritin and transferrin...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409794/expression-of-the-bovine-nk-lysin-gene-family-and-activity-against-respiratory-pathogens
#20
Junfeng Chen, Chingyuan Yang, Polyana C Tizioto, Huan Huang, Mi O K Lee, Harold R Payne, Sara D Lawhon, Friedhelm Schroeder, Jeremy F Taylor, James E Womack
Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals...
2016: PloS One
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