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Dilated Aorta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136132/aortic-events-and-reoperations-after-elective-arch-surgery-incidence-surgical-strategies-and-outcomes
#1
Maximilian Luehr, Sven Peterss, Andreas Zierer, Davide Pacini, Christian D Etz, Malakh Lal Shrestha, Konstantinos Tsagakis, Bartosz Rylski, Giampiero Esposito, Klaus Kallenbach, Ruggero De Paulis, Paul P Urbanski
OBJECTIVES: The true incidence of aortic events (AEs) and reoperations (REDO) following elective total aortic arch replacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to review the incidence of AEs and surgical REDO, and its respective outcomes after 1232 elective arch repairs at 11 European aortic centres. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (in the absence of prospective data collection) was performed for statistical analysis. Follow-up was conducted during routine clinical examination or in a telephone interview with patients and/or their respective physicians...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135917/asperlin-inhibits-lps-evoked-foam-cell-formation-and-prevents-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#2
Yue Zhou, Ran Chen, Dong Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Wenhan Lin
Asperlin is a marine-derived natural product with antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In the present study, we isolated asperlin from a marine Aspergillus versicolor LZD4403 fungus and investigated its anti-atherosclerotic effects in vitro and in vivo. Asperlin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- but not oxidated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-evoked foam cell formation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Supplementation with asperlin also suppressed LPS-elicited production of pro-inflammatory factors in RAW264...
November 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120015/ascending-aortic-remodelling-in-fabry-disease-after-long-term-enzyme-replacement-therapy
#3
Pierre Monney, Salah Dine Qanadli, Steven Hajdu, Christel Tran, Juerg Schwitter, Olivier Dormond, Frédéric Barbey
BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies reported a high prevalence of ascending aorta dilations/aneurysms in male adults with Fabry disease, independently of cardiovascular risk factors. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To characterise the remodelling of the ascending aorta in classic Fabry disease under long-term enzyme replacement therapy. METHODS: Diameter of the ascending aorta was measured with magnetic resonance imaging at the sino-tubular junction (STJ), and proximal (pAsAo), and distal ascending aorta (dAsAo) at baseline, and after 5 and 10 years of enzyme replacement therapy in 15 adult Fabry patients (10 males; 5 females)...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118111/differential-cell-matrix-mechanoadaptations-and-inflammation-drive-regional-propensities-to-aortic-fibrosis-aneurysm-or-dissection-in-hypertension
#4
M R Bersi, R Khosravi, A J Wujciak, D G Harrison, J D Humphrey
The embryonic lineage of intramural cells, microstructural organization of the extracellular matrix, local luminal and wall geometry, and haemodynamic loads vary along the length of the aorta. Yet, it remains unclear why certain diseases manifest differentially along the aorta. Toward this end, myriad animal models provide insight into diverse disease conditions-including fibrosis, aneurysm and dissection-but inherent differences across models impede general interpretations. We examined region-specific cellular, matrix, and biomechanical changes in a single experimental model of hypertension and atherosclerosis, which commonly coexist...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111162/a-comparative-study-of-histopathological-changes-in-the-ascending-aorta-and-the-risk-factors-related-to-histopathological-conditions-and-aortic-dilatation-in-patients-with-tetralogy-of-fallot-and-a-functionally-univentricular-heart
#5
Ujjwal K Chowdhury, Sheil Avneesh, Ruma Ray, Srikrishna M Reddy, Mani Kalaivani, Suruchi Hasija, Lakshmi Kumari
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to prospectively evaluate the histologic characteristics of the aortic wall of patients undergoing univentricular type of repair and compare the same with the findings observed in patients undergoing intracardiac repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Operatively excised full-thickness aortic wall tissue from 99 consecutive patients undergoing either intracardiac repair of TOF (group I; n=42) or univentricular repair (group II; n=57) were studied by light microscopy...
September 6, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110750/aortic-elasticity-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-children-with-mitral-valve-prolapse
#6
Elif Erolu, Figen Akalın, Nilüfer Çetiner, Berna Şaylan Çevik
Aim We aimed to study the dimensions, systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle; dimensions and elasticity of the aorta; and carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery in mitral valve prolapse. METHODS: The study group consisted of 43 patients (mean age=13.3±3.9) and 42 healthy children (mean age=12.9±3.4). Left ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic, left atrial diameters, interventricular septum, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness were measured...
November 7, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107003/elevated-wall-tension-initiates-interleukin-6-expression-and-abdominal-aortic-dilation
#7
Adam W Akerman, Robert E Stroud, Ryan W Barrs, R Tyler Grespin, Lindsay T McDonald, R Amanda C LaRue, Rupak Mukherjee, John S Ikonomidis, Jeffery A Jones, Jean Marie Ruddy
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN) has long been associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development and these cardiovascular pathologies are biochemically characterized by elevated plasma levels of Angiotensin-II (AngII) as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6). A biologic relationship between HTN and AAA has not been established, however. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether elevated tension may initiate IL-6 production to accumulate monocyte/macrophages and promote dilation of the abdominal aorta (AA)...
October 26, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105689/-feasibility-and-safety-of-right-subclavian-access-for-edwards-sapien-3-balloon-expandable-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#8
Alessandro Iadanza, Marco Solari, Enrico Tucci, Carlo Pierli
Despite the technical advancements in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), this procedure in patients with peripheral artery disease remains challenging and requires a patient-tailored management by the Heart Team. In-depth assessment of the patient's vascular anatomy is of utmost importance for the management of TAVI procedures with the aim to use the less invasive approach according to the specific patient characteristics. The trans-subclavian approach should be the preferred option in patients with femoral arterial disease undergoing TAVI; however, self-expandable valves have potential limitations, as in case of ascending aorta dilation and high implantation...
October 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101266/a-59-year-old-woman-with-visible-precordial-pulsations
#9
Alastair J Moss, Renzo Pessotto, Andrew D Flapan
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A retired 59-year-old woman presented to the cardiology clinic concerned with cardiac pulsations that were visible on her chest wall. These were not associated with dyspnoea, syncope or chest discomfort.Of note, 8 years previously, she complained of recurrent nocturnal diaphoresis and 5 kg weight loss. Blood sampling at that time revealed a microcytic anaemia, reactive thrombocytosis and raised inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate 99 mm/hour, C-reactive protein 161 mg/L)...
November 3, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097367/sex-chromosome-complement-defines-diffuse-versus-focal-angiotensin-ii-induced-aortic-pathology
#10
Yasir Alsiraj, Sean E Thatcher, Eric Blalock, Bradley Fleenor, Alan Daugherty, Lisa A Cassis
OBJECTIVE: Aortic pathologies exhibit sexual dimorphism, with aneurysms in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta (ie, abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA]) exhibiting higher male prevalence. Women have lower prevalence of aneurysms, but when they occur, aneurysms progress rapidly. To define mechanisms for these sex differences, we determined the role of sex chromosome complement and testosterone on the location and progression of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced aortic pathologies. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used transgenic male mice expressing Sry on an autosome to create Ldlr (low-density lipoprotein receptor)-deficient male mice with an XY or XX sex chromosome complement...
November 2, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095713/bicuspid-aortic-valve-associated-aortopathy-update-on-biomarkers
#11
Ashna K Maredia, Steven C Greenway, Subodh Verma, Paul W M Fedak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-associated aortopathy is common and its progression for individual patients is difficult to predict. The present review aims to identify recent developments using biomarkers for the determination of risk and progression of disease in patients with BAV aortopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel rare genetic variants and epigenetic methylation signatures affecting non-cytosine phosphate guanine (non-CpG) and CpG sites, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and Sod expression may lead to improved prediction of the aortopathy phenotype...
October 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082441/deletion-of-t-type-calcium-channels-cav3-1-or-cav3-2-attenuates-endothelial-dysfunction-in-aging-mice
#12
Anne D Thuesen, Kenneth Andersen, Kristina S Lyngsø, Mark Burton, Charlotte Brasch-Andersen, Paul M Vanhoutte, Pernille B L Hansen
Impairment of endothelial function with aging is accompanied by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. Endothelial function was determined in mesenteric arteries (perfusion) and aortae (isometric contraction) of young and old wild-type (WT), Cav3.1, and Cav3.2 knockout mice. NO production was measured by fluorescence imaging in mesenteric arteries...
October 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076377/investigating-the-performance-of-four-specific-types-of-material-grafts-and-their-effects-on-hemodynamic-patterns-as-well-as-on-von-mises-stresses-in-a-grafted-three-layer-aortic-model-using-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis
#13
Shahrokh Rahmani, Amin Jarrahi, Mahdi Navidbakhsh, Mansour Alizadeh
One of the important parts of the cardiac system is aorta which is the fundamental channel and supply of oxygenated blood in the body. Diseases of the aorta represent critical cardiovascular bleakness and mortality around the world. This study aims at investigation of hemodynamic parameters in a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of three-layer grafted aorta using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). It assumes that a damaged part of aorta, which may happen as a result of some diseases like aneurysm, dissection and post-stenotic dilatation, is replaced with a biomaterial graft...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070880/effect-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-on-vascular-calcification-in-rats-with-adenine-induced-kidney-disease
#14
Shinya Yokote, Yuichi Katsuoka, Akifumi Yamada, Ichiro Ohkido, Takashi Yokoo
Previous studies have investigated the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat damaged kidneys. However, the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still poorly understood. In the present study, we explored the potential of ASCs for the treatment of CKD and vascular calcification. CKD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding them a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 4 weeks. ASCs transplantation significantly reduced serum inorganic phosphorus (Pi) as compared to that in the control...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069357/annuloplasty-band-implantation-in-adults-with-partial-atrioventricular-septal-defect-a-propensity-matched-study
#15
Tianyu Zhou, Jun Li, Hao Lai, Kai Zhu, Yongxin Sun, Yongshi Wang, Wenjun Ding, Tao Hong, Chunsheng Wang
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of recurrent left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) regurgitation is generally high after repair of partial atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implanting an additional annuloplasty band into the LAVV during partial AVSD repair and to assess the late outcomes of recurrent LAVV regurgitation. METHODS: This study enrolled 133 patients who underwent repair of partial AVSD at our institution from January 2005 to December 2015...
October 24, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061718/inhibition-of-aneurysm-progression-by-direct-renin-inhibition-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
Takashi Miyake, Tetsuo Miyake, Hideo Shimizu, Ryuichi Morishita
Angiotensin II is thought to participate in aneurysm formation, because of its ability to induce and perpetuate inflammation in the aortic wall. Because activation of renin is the first step of the renin-angiotensin system, renin inhibition could inhibit all components of this system effectively. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that direct inhibition of renin activity could decrease the expansion of aortic aneurysm using a rabbit model. Aortic dilatation was induced by incubation with elastase around the rabbit abdominal aorta...
October 23, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051112/in-vivo-and-in-silico-evaluation-of-a-new-nitric-oxide-donor-s-s-dinitrosobucillamine
#17
Marie-Lynda Bouressam, Benjamin Meyer, Ariane Boudier, Igor Clarot, Pierre Leroy, Alessandro Genoni, Manuel Ruiz-Lopez, Philippe Giummelly, Patrick Liminana, Valérie Salgues, Mostafa Kouach, Caroline Perrin-Sarrado, Isabelle Lartaud, François Dupuis
PURPOSE: In a previous work, we have synthetized a new dinitrosothiol, i.e. S,S'-dinitrosobucillamine BUC(NO)2 combining S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (NACNO) in its structure. When exposed to isolated aorta, we observed a 1.5-fold increase of (•)NO content and a more potent vasorelaxation (1 log higher pD2) compared to NACNO and SNAP alone or combined (Dahboul et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed the thermodynamics and kinetics for the release of (•)NO through computational modeling techniques and correlated it to plasma assays...
October 16, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049807/impact-of-initial-aortic-diameter-and-false-lumen-area-ratio-on-type-b-aortic-dissection-prognosis
#18
Akihito Matsushita, Takashi Hattori, Yu Tsunoda, Yasunori Sato, Wahei Mihara
OBJECTIVES: Medical treatment is the gold standard for uncomplicated acute Type B aortic dissection (ATBAD). Although endovascular treatment could become an alternative therapy, it is unclear which ATBAD patients should undergo endovascular intervention. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with uncomplicated ATBAD and identify the risk factors for major adverse events. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 134 consecutive patients who underwent initial treatment for uncomplicated ATBAD between 2004 and 2015...
October 12, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049702/aortic-root-and-hemiarch-replacement-in-a-patient-with-loeys-dietz-and-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndromes
#19
Eltayeb Mohamed Ahmed, Alexandru Ciprian Visan, Graham Stuart, Serban Stoica
A 15-year-old patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome underwent 3-stage palliation by the age of 3 years. He was later diagnosed with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. On follow-up imaging, the neoaorta was dilated at 50 mm in diameter. He underwent aortic root replacement with a composite valve conduit and hemiarch replacement, using a boat-shaped Dacron graft. The uncertainty of how univentricular circulation would tolerate long bypass time steered us away from a total arch replacement. His postoperative recovery was uneventful...
October 11, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045974/-echocardiographic-diagnosis-of-infracardiac-total-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection
#20
S T Ren, Y Wang, J H Zhou, J Long, C H Wang, D B Li, Y Z Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical usefulness of echocardiography in the diagnosis of infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (ITAPVC) in neonates and infants. METHODS: Retrospective analysis on 8 patients with ITAPVC was performed using echocardiography between April 2006 and December 2016. There were 4 boys and 4 girls with a mean age of 79.8 days (ranging from 15 to 195 days). A combined scanning via parasternal, subcostal and apical acoustic windows had been employed to diagnose ITAPVC and to trace the course and site of the anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, and to confirm the direction of the inter-atrial shunt and enlargement of right atrium and right ventricle...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
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