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Dilated Aorta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317480/novel-insights-into-complex-cardiovascular-pathologies-using-4d-flow-analysis-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Adam James Lewandowski, Betty Raman, Rajarshi Banerjee, Matteo Milanesi
BACKGROUND: It is essential that we are able to assess variations in blood flow in order to fully understand cardiovascular function in disease pathologies and for identification of individuals at long-term risk of cardiovascular disease development. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of blood flow by imaging modalities have been limited, and much of the accurate quantification has relied on invasive measures. METHODS: This review discusses how four-dimensional velocity cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) offers increasing potential for the non-invasive assessment of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels such as the aorta...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301310/glass-fiber-based-mr-safe-guidewire-for-mr-imaging-guided-endovascular-interventions-in-vitro-and-preclinical-in-vivo-feasibility-study
#2
Alexander Massmann, Arno Buecker, Guenther K Schneider
Purpose To evaluate glass-fiber-based guidewires that are safe for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided endovascular interventions by using a phantom and an in vivo swine model. Materials and Methods MR imaging-safe guidewires were made from micropultruded glass and/or aramid fibers and epoxy resin with diameters of 0.89 mm (0.035 inch) for standard and stiff guidewires and 0.36 mm (0.014 inch) for micro guidewires. MR imaging visibility and mechanical properties were assessed in a pulsatile flow model. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, MR imaging guidewires were evaluated for standard endovascular procedures in nine pigs...
March 14, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296545/the-effects-of-nicotine-administration-on-the-pathophysiology-of-rat-aortic-wall
#3
H Kugo, N Zaima, H Tanaka, T Urano, N Unno, T Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the progressive dilation of the abdominal aorta. Nicotine is reported to be associated with the development and rupture of AAA, but the pathological effects of nicotine on normal rat aorta have not been determined. We investigated pathological changes in the aortic wall of rats caused by the administration of nicotine. Nicotine administration weakened the vascular wall, increased gelatinolytic activity and promoted the destruction of elastin and collagen in the rat abdominal aorta...
2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292591/the-ifs-ands-and-buts-of-the-dilated-aorta
#4
EDITORIAL
Joseph A Dearani, Alberto Pochettino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290181/acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-beyond-the-diameter
#5
Calogera Pisano, Carmela Rita Balistreri, Oreste Fabio Triolo, Vincenzo Argano, Giovanni Ruvolo
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition in which early diagnosis, treatment and close follow up are critical for survival. Between 60% and 70% of patients with acute aortic dissection are affected at the ascending aorta, classified as Stanford type A (TAD). Preventive surgery of the aorta in asymptomatic patients on the basis of aortic size alone remains controversial among patient populations without known risk factors for aortic dissection. In fact, many dissection patients do not appear to have markedly dilated aortas at the time of presentation...
November 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274751/predictors-of-early-aortic-neck-dilatation-after-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-with-endoanchors
#6
Apostolos K Tassiopoulos, Spyridon Monastiriotis, William D Jordan, Bart E Muhs, Kenneth Ouriel, Jean Paul De Vries
OBJECTIVE: Dilatation of the aorta within the proximal neck after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) can be associated with late endoleaks and migration. This study was designed to identify predictors of early neck dilation in patients undergoing EVAR with Heli-FX EndoAnchors (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif) measured perioperatively to 1 year at different longitudinal levels of neck length. METHODS: The study group of Aneurysm Treatment Using the Heli-FX Aortic Securement System (ANCHOR) comprises 257 consecutive patients prospectively enrolled between April 2012 and September 2014 undergoing EVAR with Heli-FX EndoAnchor implantation at 38 investigational sites...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269231/hemodynamic-effects-of-synchronizing-an-intra-aortic-vad-in-reverse-rotation-control-with-left-ventricle-a-mock-loop-study
#7
Yaxin Wang, P Alex Smith, Daniel L Timms, Po-Lin Hsu, Richard A McMahon
The IntraVAD is an intra-aortic left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to be located in the ascending aorta. In order to enhance unloading and promote coronary flow for the left ventricle (LV), an operating mechanism, reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode, has been developed for the IntraVAD and tested in vitro in a mock circulation loop (MCL). The RRc mode consists of forward rotation (FR) and reverse rotation (RR). The synchronization between the IntraVAD and the LV was studied to offload the ventricle more effectively and to improve myocardial perfusion...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268004/aortic-shear-stress-in-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve-with-stenosis-and-insufficiency
#8
Yan Shan, Jun Li, Yongshi Wang, Boting Wu, Alex J Barker, Michael Markl, Chunsheng Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Xianhong Shu
OBJECTIVES: Bicuspid aortic valve, characterized by valve malformation and risk for aortopathy, displays profound alteration in systolic aortic outflow and wall shear stress distribution. The present study performed 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in patients with bicuspid aortic valve with right-left cusp fusion, focusing on the impact of valve function on hemodynamic status within the ascending aorta. METHODS: Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 50 subjects with right-left bicuspid aortic valve and 15 age- and aortic size-matched controls with tricuspid aortic valve...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267550/a-correlative-study-of-aortic-valve-rotation-angle-and-thoracic-aortic-sizes-using-ecg-gated-ct-angiography
#9
Farhood Saremi, Steven Cen, Nazila Tayari, Houman Alizadeh, Amir Emami, Leah Lin, Fernando Fleischman
OBJECTIVE: Various degrees of aortic valve rotation may be seen in individuals with no history of congenital cardiovascular malformations, but its association with aortic sizes has not been studied. METHODS: Gated computed tomographic (CT angiograms in 217 patients were studied (66.7±15; 22-97 years old)). Aortic diameters were determined at 5 anatomic locations. The length of the aorta from sinus to left subclavian artery was measured. The angle of valve rotation was recorded by measuring the angle between a line connecting the midpoint of the non-coronary sinus to the anterior commissure and another line along the interatrial septum...
April 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264657/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-enos-dysfunction-in-humans
#10
Marcello Persico, Mario Masarone, Antonio Damato, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Alessandro Federico, Valerio Rosato, Tommaso Bucci, Albino Carrizzo, Carmine Vecchione
BACKGROUND: NAFLD is associated to Insulin Resistance (IR). IR is responsible for Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) through the impairment of eNOS function. Although eNOS derangement has been demonstrated in experimental models, no studies have directly shown that eNOS dysfunction is associated with NAFLD in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate eNOS function in NAFLD patients. METHODS: Fifty-four NAFLD patients were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and liver biopsy...
March 7, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255211/endovascular-management-of-flush-common-iliac-artery-occlusive-disease-challenges-and-solutions
#11
Baker Ghoneim, Walied Eldaly, Hussein Elwan, Ahmed Taha
The aim of this study was to assess the difficulties met with possible recommendations in management of flush common iliac artery occlusive disease (FCIAOD). This a prospective study assessing FCIAOD along the period of 24 months. We defined FCIAOD as more than 90% occlusion of diameter of common iliac artery (CIA) with less than 2 mm patent iliac stump from its origin from the abdominal aorta. Our study included 51 cases. Technical success was achieved in 47 patients (92%); 82.5% of cases were done via two accesses (65% of cases were done using bilateral femoral)...
March 2017: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251911/sex-differences-in-phenotypes-of-bicuspid-aortic-valve-and-aortopathy-insights-from-a-large-multicenter-international-registry
#12
William K F Kong, Madelien V Regeer, Arnold C T Ng, Louise McCormack, Kian Keong Poh, Tiong Cheng Yeo, Miriam Shanks, Sarah Parent, Roxana Enache, Bogdan A Popescu, James W Yip, Lawrence Ma, Vasileios Kamperidis, Enno T van der Velde, Bart Mertens, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
BACKGROUND: This large multicenter, international bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) registry aimed to define the sex differences in prevalence, valve morphology, dysfunction (aortic stenosis/regurgitation), aortopathy, and complications (endocarditis and aortic dissection). METHODS AND RESULTS: Demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic data at first presentation of 1992 patients with BAV (71.5% men) were retrospectively analyzed. BAV morphology and valve function were assessed; aortopathy configuration was defined as isolated dilatation of the sinus of Valsalva or sinotubular junction, isolated dilatation of the ascending aorta distal to the sinotubular junction, or diffuse dilatation of the aortic root and ascending aorta...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242409/stent-migration-during-endovascular-treatment-of-traumatic-arterio-venous-fistula-following-lumbar-spine-surgery
#13
Kiron Varghese, Srilakshmi M Adhyapak
We report the endovascular treatment of an arterio-venous fistula involving the right common iliac artery and left common iliac veinin a 48 year old male patient who had previously undergone lumbar spine disc surgery. A balloon expandable covered stent was deployed in the common iliac artery which got partially dislodged into the aorta during attempted post dilatation of the stent. The proximal end of the stent was secured in place with an inflated balloon in the aorta, introduced from the contralateral iliac artery, allowing successfulretrieval and dilatation of the stent graft through the ipsilateral femoral vascular access...
February 24, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238238/bicuspid-aortic-valve-a-review-of-its-genetics-and-clinical-significance
#14
Lei Wang, Li Ming Wang, Wen Chen, Xin Chen
The aim of this review was to describe recent advancements in the understanding of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly, and affects between 0.46% and 1.37% of the population. There is a male predominance of approximately 3:1.While isolated BAV is found in certain patients, it is often associated with other congenital cardiac lesions, including dilatation of the thoracic aorta, coarctation of the aorta and abnormalities of the coronary anatomy. In most cases, it remains undetected until the patient contracts infective endocarditis, or calcification occurs...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228701/chiropractic-management-of-a-patient-with-thoracic-pain-and-a-stable-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-a-case-report
#15
Shawn M Neff, Casey S Okamoto
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report was to describe chiropractic management of thoracic pain in a patient with a stable thoracic aortic aneurysm. CLINICAL FEATURES: An 89-year-old man presented with axial mid- and upper back pain localized predominantly at the T8 and T1 spinal segmental levels. A review of available imaging revealed a stable aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta, which measured 4.3 cm. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: Because the thoracic pain was musculoskeletal in nature and the thoracic aortic aneurysm was stable, mechanical manipulation was provided using the Impulse adjusting instrument...
March 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228220/-measurements-of-pulmonary-artery-size-for-assessment-of-pulmonary-hypertension-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-and-clinical-application
#16
Fan Yang, Dong Li, Zhenwen Yang, Zhang Zhang, Dan Wang, Tielian Yu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often leads to dilatation of main pulmonary artery (MPA). MPA measurements can be used to predict PH. This aim of this study is to investigate power of MPA vessel indices, which are acquired from cardiovascular magnetic resonance, to evaluate PH. METHODS: Cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-determined parameters of MPA were acquired and calculated in 83 PH patients, whose diagnosis were confirmed with right heart catheterization and 49 healthy volunteers; these parameters included MPA diameter (DPA), ratio of DPA and ascending aorta diameter (DPA/DAo), max mean diameter (MDmax), min mean diameter (MDmin), fraction transverse diameter (fTD), fraction longitudinal diameter (fLD), and distensibility...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227463/hemodynamic-effects-of-synchronizing-an-intra-aortic-vad-in-reverse-rotation-control-with-left-ventricle-a-mock-loop-study
#17
Yaxin Wang, P Alex Smith, Daniel L Timms, Po-Lin Hsu, Richard A McMahon, Yaxin Wang, P Alex Smith, Daniel L Timms, Po-Lin Hsu, Richard A McMahon, Richard A McMahon, Daniel L Timms, Po-Lin Hsu, Yaxin Wang, P Alex Smith
The IntraVAD is an intra-aortic left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to be located in the ascending aorta. In order to enhance unloading and promote coronary flow for the left ventricle (LV), an operating mechanism, reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode, has been developed for the IntraVAD and tested in vitro in a mock circulation loop (MCL). The RRc mode consists of forward rotation (FR) and reverse rotation (RR). The synchronization between the IntraVAD and the LV was studied to offload the ventricle more effectively and to improve myocardial perfusion...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222756/proximal-aortic-stiffening-in-turner-patients-may-be-present-before-dilation-can-be-detected-a-segmental-functional-mri-study
#18
Daniel G H Devos, Katya De Groote, Danilo Babin, Laurent Demulier, Yves Taeymans, Jos J Westenberg, Luc Van Bortel, Patrick Segers, Eric Achten, Jean De Schepper, Ernst Rietzschel
BACKGROUND: To study segmental structural and functional aortic properties in Turner syndrome (TS) patients. Aortic abnormalities contribute to increased morbidity and mortality of women with Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows segmental study of aortic elastic properties. METHOD: We performed Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and distensibility measurements using CMR of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in 55 TS-patients, aged 13-59y, and in a control population (n = 38;12-58y)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214688/h2s-causes-contraction-and-relaxation-of-major-arteries-of-the-rabbit
#19
Martin Caprnda, Tawar Qaradakhi, Joanne L Hart, Nazarii Kobyliak, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Anthony Zulli
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by atherosclerosis remains a worldwide burden. Hydrogen sulfide is a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of CVD, however reports show exogenous H2S has both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects depending on organ examined, and in vitro studies in animal models which are not resistant to developing atherosclerosis are limited. We sought to determine if rabbit arteries constricted or dilated to hydrogen sulfide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aorta, carotid, renal and iliac arteries were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits (n=4) and subjected to a concentration response curve to the fast H2S releaser NaHS...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213405/inhibition-of-the-mtor-pathway-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-implication-of-smooth-muscle-cell-contractile-phenotype-inflammation-and-aneurysm-expansion
#20
Guangxin Li, Lingfeng Qin, Lei Wang, Xuan Li, Alexander W Caulk, Jian Zhang, Pei-Yu Chen, Shijie Xin
The development of effective pharmacological treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) potentially offers great benefit to patients with pre-aneurysmal aortic dilation by slowing the expansion of aneurysms and reducing the need for surgery. To date, therapeutic targets for slowing aortic dilation have had low efficacy. Thus, in this study, we aim to elucidate possible mechanisms driving aneurysm progression in order to identify potential targets for pharmacological intervention. We demonstrate that mTOR signaling is over activated in aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) which contributes to murine AAA...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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