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citric acid cycle

Curtis C Hughey, Elijah Trefts, Deanna P Bracy, Freyja D James, E Patrick Donahue, David H Wasserman
Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is the most abundant liver methyltransferase regulating the availability of the biological methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM).  Moreover, GNMT has been identified to be down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  Despite its role in regulating SAM levels and association of its down-regulation with liver tumorigenesis, the impact of reduced GNMT on metabolic reprogramming prior to the manifestation of HCC has not been investigated in detail.  Herein we used 2 H/13 C metabolic flux analysis in conscious, unrestrained mice to test the hypothesis that the absence of GNMT causes metabolic reprogramming...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rayssa Ferreira Zanatta, Daniele Mara da Silva Ávila, Karen Mayumi Miyamoto, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Alessandra Bühler Borges
This study investigated the effect of surfactants associated with sodium fluoride (NaF) on enamel erosion prevention, using an erosion-remineralization in vitro model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polysorbate 20 (P20), and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) were tested, at concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%, and associated or not with NaF (275 ppm). The control groups were distilled water and the NaF solution. Bovine enamel samples (n = 12) were prepared and submitted to a 5-day cycling model: acid challenge (0.3% citric acid, pH 2...
June 6, 2018: Caries Research
Vitor M C Madeira
Bioenergetic science started in the eighteenth century with the pioneer works by Joseph Priestley and Antoine de Lavoisier on photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. New developments were implemented by Pasteur in the 1860s with the description of fermentations associated with microorganisms, further documented by Buchner brothers who discovered that fermentations also occurred in cell extracts in the absence of living cells. In the beginning of the twentieth century, Harden and Young demonstrated that orthophosphate and other heat-resistant compounds (cozymase), later identified as NAD, ADP, and metal ions, were mandatory in the fermentation of glucose...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Timothy C Cairns, Corrado Nai, Vera Meyer
In 1917, a food chemist named James Currie made a promising discovery: any strain of the filamentous mould Aspergillus niger would produce high concentrations of citric acid when grown in sugar medium. This tricarboxylic acid, which we now know is an intermediate of the Krebs cycle, had previously been extracted from citrus fruits for applications in food and beverage production. Two years after Currie's discovery, industrial-level production using A. niger began, the biochemical fermentation industry started to flourish, and industrial biotechnology was born...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Masaki Kajimoto, Muhammad Nuri, Nancy G Isern, Isabelle Robillard-Frayne, Christine Des Rosiers, Michael A Portman
BACKGROUND: Surgical palliation or repair of complex congenital heart disease in early infancy can produce right ventricular (RV) pressure overload, often leading to acute hemodynamic decompensation. The mechanisms causing this acute RV dysfunction remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the immature right ventricle lacks the ability to modify substrate metabolism in order to meet increased energy demands induced by acute pressure overloading. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-two infant male mixed breed Yorkshire piglets were randomized to a sham operation (Control) or pulmonary artery banding yielding >2-fold elevation over baseline RV systolic pressure...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
M L Peng, S N Li, Q Q He, J L Zhao, L L Li, H T Ma
Metabolic disorder is a major health problem and is associated with a number of metabolic diseases. Due to native hyperglycaemia and resistance to exogenous insulin, chickens as a model had used in the studies of adipose tissue biology, metabolism and obesity. But no detailed information is available about the comprehensive changes of serum metabolites at different stages of chicken embryonic development. This study employed LC/MS-QTOF to determine the changes of major functional metabolites at incubation day 14 (E14d), 19 (E19d) and hatching day 1 (H1d), and the associated pathways of differential metabolites during chicken embryonic development were analysed using Metabolite Set Enrichment Analysis method...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Raquel Guidetti Vendruscolo, Michelle Maria Xavier Facchi, Mariana Manzoni Maroneze, Mariane Bittencourt Fagundes, Alexandre José Cichoski, Leila Queiroz Zepka, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Eduardo Jacob-Lopes, Roger Wagner
A method to simultaneously extract polar (PC) and non-polar compounds (NPC) from microalgae was developed for further determination of intracellular metabolites by gas chromatography. The proposed method was validated and used to characterize two Chlorophyceae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus, and two Cyanobacteria, Aphanothece microscopica Nagëli and Phormidium autumnale. The compounds were extracted with a reduced amount of organic solvent mixture (methanol-chloroform), compared to the reference method, under different conditions of homogenization and/or cell disruption...
July 2018: Food Research International
Nicholas S Akins, Tanner C Nielson, Hoang V Le
Cancer cells have a very different metabolism from that of normal cells from which they are derived. Their metabolism is elevated, which allows them to sustain higher proliferative rate and resist some cell death signals. This phenomenon, known as the "Warburg effect", has become the focus of intensive efforts in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and new cancer drugs. Both glycolysis and glutaminolysis pathways are enhanced in cancer cells. While glycolysis is enhanced to satisfy the increasing energy demand of cancer cells, glutaminolysis is enhanced to provide biosynthetic precursors for cancer cells...
May 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
David Talavera, Christopher J Kershaw, Joseph L Costello, Lydia M Castelli, William Rowe, Paul F G Sims, Mark P Ashe, Chris M Grant, Graham D Pavitt, Simon J Hubbard
The transcriptional responses of yeast cells to diverse stresses typically include gene activation and repression. Specific stress defense, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation genes are activated, whereas protein synthesis genes are coordinately repressed. This view was achieved from comparative transcriptomic experiments delineating sets of genes whose expression greatly changed with specific stresses. Less attention has been paid to the biological significance of 1) consistent, albeit modest, changes in RNA levels across multiple conditions, and 2) the global gene expression correlations observed when comparing numerous genome-wide studies...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tyler Sowers, Dinesh Adhikari, Jian Wang, Yu Yang, Donald L Sparks
Organo-mineral associations of organic carbon (OC) with iron (Fe) oxides play a major role in environmental OC sequestration, a process crucial to mitigating climate change. Calcium has been found to have high co-association with OC in soils containing high Fe content, increase OC sorption extent to poorly-crystalline Fe oxides, and has long been suspected to form bridging complexes with Fe and OC. Due to the growing realization that Ca may be an important component of C cycling, we launched a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) investigation, paired with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, in order to spatially resolve Fe, Ca, and OC relationships and probe the effect of Ca on sorbed OC speciation...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yang Ouyang, Hongbin Tong, Ping Luo, Hongwei Kong, Zhiliang Xu, Peiyuan Yin, Guowang Xu
Periodical changes of steroid hormones have a great impact on the homeostasis of the female. However, there are few studies concerning the metabolome changes during the cycle. To study the periodic metabolic changes, a female cohort was enrolled with time-series serum samples collected during a menstrual cycle. To meet the requirement of the large-scale sample analysis, a high throughput metabolomics method was established by using an efficient sample preparation on a 96 well filter plate and a rapid LC condition in 12 min, which reduces about 70% of the samples preprocessing time and 60% analysis time...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Andrew M Brunner, David P Steensma
It has been more than 10 years since any new disease-modifying therapies have received regulatory approval for indications related to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Advances in our collective biological understanding of MDS in the last decade, however, have made it possible to hope that effective therapeutics can be designed to improve MDS-associated cytopenias and patients' quality of life, and perhaps even delay clonal progression and extend survival. Classes of MDS-associated mutations and disordered biological pathways targeted by developmental therapeutics include the following: aberrant messenger RNA splicing, neomorphic enzymes in the citric acid cycle with oncogenic activity, overactivated tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases, epigenetic and chromatin remodeling alterations, abnormal telomere dynamics, and failed protection of DNA integrity...
January 2018: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Titilayo D O Falade, Panagiotis K Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Mary Fletcher, Ross Darnell, Sam Korie, Glen Fox
Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk), R4 (dough), and R5 (dent) stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined...
May 7, 2018: Toxins
Cristiane Meira Assunção, Adrian Lussi, Jonas Almeida Rodrigues, Thiago Saads Carvalho
AIM: To evaluate the erosive preventive effect of toothpastes in permanent (PT) and deciduous teeth (dt). DESIGN: Enamel samples were divided into five groups (n = 20): G1: placebo toothpaste; G2: NaF toothpaste; G3: AmF-NaF-SnCl2 anti-erosion toothpaste; G4: SnF2- toothpaste; and G5: NaF anti-erosion toothpaste for children. The samples were exposed to five erosion-abrasion cycles (artificial saliva incubation; 3 min in 1% citric acid; 2 min in slurry, toothbrush abrasion, 50 strokes, 200 g)...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Sofya K Garushyants, Alexandra Y Beliavskaia, Dmitry B Malko, Maria D Logacheva, Maria S Rautian, Mikhail S Gelfand
While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula , a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria , and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thien B Tran, Phillip J Bergen, Darren J Creek, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Polymyxins are currently used as the last-resort antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . As resistance to polymyxins emerges in A. baumannii with monotherapy, combination therapy is often the only remaining treatment option. A novel approach is to employ the combination of polymyxin B with non-antibiotic drugs. In the present study, we employed metabolomics to investigate the synergistic mechanism of polymyxin B in combination with the antineoplastic drug mitotane against polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiaopeng Mu, Pengfei Wang, Junjie Du, Yu Gary Gao, Jiancheng Zhang
Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok and Cerasus glandulosa (Thunb.) Lois are economically important fruit-producing shrubs. Although these two species have similar looking fruits, their fruit organic acid contents differ drastically. In this study, we focused on comparing the organic acid content, activity of enzymes gene expression involved in organic acid metabolism in both C. humilis and C. glandulosa fruits. To investigate the differences of organic acid metabolism in fruits of these two species, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed...
2018: PloS One
Meng Li, Jia Yue Chen, Jing Fang Xie, Jia Li Lyu, Shao Long Gao, Rui Qing Liu
To investigate the influences of sewage and cadmium combined stress on maize seedling metabolites, we took GC-MS metabonomics technology to analyze the metabolite species, content and metabolic pathways. A total of 50 kinds of metabolites were identified. Under single stress of Cd, the malic acid content in maize seedling decreased, the citric acid content increased significantly, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle was relatively stable. Under the combined stress, both malic acid and citric acid contents increased significantly, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle was inhibited...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yuan Zhou, Weizhu He, Wulin Zheng, Qiling Tan, Zongzhou Xie, Cangsong Zheng, Chengxiao Hu
The fruit quality of 6 citrus cultivars growing in the same orchard was determined at ripening stage in both 2014 and 2015. We further measured the components of sugar (sucrose, fructose and glucose), organic acid (citric, malate and quinic acid), enzymes related to Glycolysis and Krebs cycle and mineral elements at 5 stages of fruit development in the second year. The results showed that at ripening stage of both years, 'Newhall' cultivar had higher TSS concentration and the TSS/TA ratio but lower TA concentration, while 'Flame' cultivar was exactly opposite...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jack A Rall
This is a story about a great scientist, luck, great discovery that changed the future direction of muscle research, war, a clandestine war mission, postwar politics, and an attempt to rewrite scientific history. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, at 44 yr of age, won the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his work on vitamin C and the establishment of the groundwork of the citric acid cycle. He now wanted to investigate one of the fundamental aspects of life and settled on the study of muscle contraction. The Szent-Gyorgyi laboratory in Hungary during World War II demonstrated that contraction could be reproduced in vitro by threads consisting of just two proteins, myosin and the newly discovered protein by Bruno Straub that they called actin...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
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