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citric acid cycle

He Lin, Zhongying Liu, Zifeng Pi, Lihui Men, Weijia Chen, Zhiqiang Liu
Estrogens are biologically active steroid hormones mainly released from the ovary by ovarian secretion of estrogen into the circulating blood to regulate or function at the distal target. Estrogens play an important role in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system, especially for post-menopausal women. Panax ginseng Mayer has been reported to relieve women's menopausal symptoms and affect estrogen activities. However, the mechanism of its estrogen regulation has not yet been clearly investigated...
February 19, 2018: Food & Function
Yabing Liu, Lejia Hu, Tengfei Ma, Jun Yang, Jianping Ding
Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. In the α 2 βγ heterotetramer of NAD-IDH, the γ subunit plays the regulatory role and the β subunit the structural role. Previous biochemical data have shown that mammalian NAD-IDHs can be inhibited by NADH; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this work, we show that the αβ, αγ and α 2 βγ enzymes of human NAD-IDH can be inhibited by NADH, and further determine the crystal structure of the αγ heterodimer bound with an Mg 2+ and an NADH at the active site and an NADH at the allosteric site, which resembles that of the inactive α Mg γ heterodimer...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Srdja Drakulic, Jay Rai, Steen Vang Petersen, Monika M Golas, Bjoern Sander
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) bridges glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. In human, PDC deficiency leads to severe neurodevelopmental delay and progressive neurodegeneration. The majority of cases are caused by variants in the gene encoding the PDC subunit E1α. The molecular effects of the variants, however, remain poorly understood. Using yeast as a eukaryotic model system, we have studied the substitutions A189V, M230V, and R322C in yeast E1α (corresponding to the pathogenic variants A169V, M210V, and R302C in human E1α) and evaluated how substitutions of single amino acid residues within different functional E1α regions affect PDC structure and activity...
February 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hao Jiang, Yong Liu, Wenzhang Li, Jie Li
Proper design and simple preparation of nonnoble bifunctional electrocatalysts with high cost performance and strong durability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is highly demanded but still full of enormous challenges. In this work, a spontaneous gas-foaming strategy is presented to synthesize cobalt nanoparticles confined in 3D nitrogen-doped porous carbon foams (CoNCF) by simply carbonizing the mixture of citric acid, NH4 Cl, and Co(NO3 )2 ·6H2 O. Thanks to its particular 3D porous foam architecture, ultrahigh specific surface area (1641 m2 g-1 ), and homogeneous distribution of active sites (C-N, Co-Nx , and Co-O moieties), the optimized CoNCF-1000-80 (carbonized at 1000 °C, containing 80 mg Co(NO3 )2 ·6H2 O in precursors) catalyst exhibits a remarkable bifunctional activity and long-term durability toward both ORR and OER...
February 12, 2018: Small
Xiufang Bi, Yongtao Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Xiaojun Liao
Resistance of sublethally injured cells (SICs) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced by high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) to salt, low temperature, mild heat, nisin, acids and low pHs was investigated in this study. The SICs of E. coli were obtained following HPCD at 5 MPa and 25 °C for 40-60 min or 5 MPa and 45 °C for 20 min. The untreated cells could survive normally while the HPCD-treated cells showed 2.87 log10 cycles' reduction on tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 3% NaCl. The counts of the untreated cells were not significantly changed during 5 h incubation at 4 °C or 40 min incubation at 45 °C, and the HPCD-treated cells were also not affected by 5 h incubation at 4 °C but showed 1...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Letícia Oba Sakae, Sávio José Cardoso Bezerra, Samira Helena João-Souza, Alessandra Buhler Borges, Idalina V Aoki, Ana Cecília Côrrea Aranha, Taís Scaramucci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the viscosity and frequency of application of solutions containing fluoride (F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2) on enamel erosion prevention. DESIGN: Bovine enamel specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10), according to the following study factors: solution (C: deionized water; F: 500 ppm F-; F + Sn: 500 ppm F- + 800 ppm Sn2+); viscosity (low and high); and frequency of application (once and twice a day)...
February 3, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
H P Vivek, G M Prashant, Seema Geetha, Sabari Chandramohan, Md Imranulla, P B Srinidhi
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mouth-rinses containing olive oil, fluoride, and their combination on enamel erosion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro study of 45 enamel specimens, which were prepared from 45 extracted teeth, was employed. Each specimen was subjected to 10 alternative demineralization and remineralization cycles. Remineralizing cycle includes 5 minutes exposure with one of the mouthrinse, and demineralizing cycle includes 3 minute exposure to 1% citric acid...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Qiuwen He, Chenxia Cao, Wenyan Hui, Jie Yu, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
Lactobacillus plantarum, commonly isolated from plant material, is widely used to produce various types of fermented foods. However, nutrient-limiting conditions are often encountered during industrial applications. The present study aimed to investigate the response of L. plantarum P-8 to glucose-limited conditions in a long-term experiment. Genotypic and proteomic changes in L. plantarum P-8 were monitored over 3 years in glucose-limited and glucose-normal media using whole-genome resequencing and tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomic analysis...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Yoskaly Lazo-Fernandez, Paul A Welling, Susan M Wall
Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is a citric acid cycle intermediate and a glutamine catabolism product. It is also the natural ligand of OXGR1, a Gq-protein coupled receptor expressed on the apical membrane of intercalated cells. In the CCD, Cl-/HCO3- exchange increases upon αKG binding to the OXGR1. To determine the signaling pathway(s) by which αKG stimulates Cl- absorption, we examined αKG-stimulated Cl- absorption in isolated perfused mouse CCDs. αKG increased electroneutral Cl- absorption in CCDs from wild type mice, but had no effect on Cl- absorption in pendrin KO mice...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Fumika Shigiyama, Naoki Kumashiro, Yasuhiko Furukawa, Takashi Funayama, Kageumi Takeno, Noritaka Wakui, Takashi Ikehara, Hidenari Nagai, Hikari Taka, Tsutomu Fujimura, Hiroshi Uchino, Yoshifumi Tamura, Hirotaka Watada, Tetsuo Nemoto, Nobuyuki Shiraga, Yasukiyo Sumino, Takahisa Hirose
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) plays a crucial role in type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. The major underlying pathogenesis is hepatic insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to characterize patients with NAFLD with paradoxically normal hepatic insulin sensitivity relative to patients with NAFLD with hepatic insulin resistance. We recruited 26 patients with NAFLD and divided them into three groups ranked by the level of hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS; high-HIS, mid-HIS, low-HIS), as assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies using stable isotope...
September 2017: Hepatology communications
William J Roesler, Kristine Dreaver-Charles
Successful learning of biochemistry requires students to engage with the material. In the past this often involved students writing out pathways by hand, and more recently directing students to online resources such as videos, songs, and animated slide presentations. However, even these latter resources do not really provide students an opportunity to engage with the material in an active fashion. As part of an online introductory metabolism course that was developed at our university, we created a series of twelve online interactive activities using Adobe Captivate 9...
February 1, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Xiaozheng Du, Bo Yuan, Jinhai Wang, Xinghua Zhang, Liang Tian, Tingzhuo Zhang, Xinglan Li, Fengfan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore heat-reinforcing needling for the metabolite profiling changes in serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rabbits with liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) technique, and to investigate its mechanisms. METHODS: Forty clean purple blue rabbits were randomized into a normal group, a model group, a reinforcing-reducing needling (RRN) group, a twirling-reinforcing needling (TRN) group, and a heat-reinforcing needling (HRN) group, 8 cases in each group...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Nicolo Costantino Brembilla
Fumaric acid has an important role in the citric acid cycle. Its esters were first used by a German chemist to treat his own psoriasis, hypothesizing that the disease may be related to disturbances in this very cycle. Meanwhile, the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory efficacy are much better understood. A monosubstance derived from the mix of esters used originally is now being authorized for treating multiple sclerosis, and in 2017 dimethylfumaric acid ester became a globally available option to treat psoriasis...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Bhundit Innawong, Chatchalai Siasakul, Christopher Okafor
The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jody L Gookin, Kyle G Mathews, John Cullen, Gabriela Seiler
Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Volker Strauss, Kris Marsh, Matthew D Kowal, Maher El-Kady, Richard B Kaner
A facile method to convert biomolecule-based carbon nanodots (CNDs) into high-surface-area 3D-graphene networks with excellent electrochemical properties is presented. Initially, CNDs are synthesized by microwave-assisted thermolysis of citric acid and urea according to previously published protocols. Next, the CNDs are annealed up to 400 °C in a tube furnace in an oxygen-free environment. Finally, films of the thermolyzed CNDs are converted into open porous 3D turbostratic graphene (3D-ts-graphene) networks by irradiation with an infrared laser...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Greg Springsteen, Jayasudhan Reddy Yerabolu, Julia Nelson, Chandler Joel Rhea, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy
The development of metabolic approaches towards understanding the origins of life, which have focused mainly on the citric acid (TCA) cycle, have languished-primarily due to a lack of experimentally demonstrable and sustainable cycle(s) of reactions. We show here the existence of a protometabolic analog of the TCA involving two linked cycles, which convert glyoxylate into CO2 and produce aspartic acid in the presence of ammonia. The reactions proceed from either pyruvate, oxaloacetate or malonate in the presence of glyoxylate as the carbon source and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under neutral aqueous conditions and at mild temperatures...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Taís Fonseca Mantilla, Cecilia Pedroso Turssi, Thayanne Monteiro Ramos-Oliveira, Camila Vieira da Silva, Luis Cláudio Suzuki, Patricia Moreira de Freitas
Erosion incidence is increasing and its control is still a challenge in clinical practice. This study evaluated 4% TiF4-gel effects on eroded human dentin subjected to in situ erosive/abrasive episodes. Seventy-two previously eroded dentin slabs (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2.3, 20 min) were allocated to 6 groups (n=12) according to the treatment to be performed during the in situ phase and number of erosive/abrasive cycles, as follows: 4% TiF4-gel applied once (TiF41), twice (TiF42) or three times (TiF43) followed by 1, 2 and 3 erosive/abrasive cycles, respectively...
May 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
Shamir Cassim, Valérie-Ann Raymond, Pascal Lapierre, Marc Bilodeau
The liver plays a key role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and hepatocytes are largely responsible for this. The use of isolated primary hepatocytes has become an essential tool for the study of nutrient physiology, xenobiotic metabolism and several liver pathologies. Since hepatocytes are removed from their normal environment, the isolation procedure and in vitro culture of primary hepatocytes is partially known to induce undesired metabolic changes. We aimed to perform a thorough metabolic profiling of primary cells before, during and after isolation using state-of-the-art techniques...
2017: PloS One
Rebecca A Chong, Rachel Lockridge Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In metazoans, the mitochondrial genome is a small, circular molecule averaging 16.5 kb in length. Despite evolutionarily conserved gene content, metazoan mitochondrial genomes show a diversity of gene orders most commonly explained by the duplication-random loss (DRL) model. In the DRL model, (1) a sequence of genes is duplicated in tandem, (2) one paralog sustains a loss-of-function mutation, resulting in selection to retain the other copy, and (3) the non-functional paralog is eventually deleted from the genome...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
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