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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908232/iron-sulfur-clusters-in-mitochondrial-metabolism-multifaceted-roles-of-a-simple-cofactor
#1
REVIEW
Johnny Stiban, Minyoung So, Laurie S Kaguni
Iron-sulfur metabolism is essential for cellular function and is a key process in mitochondria. In this review, we focus on the structure and assembly of mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters and their roles in various metabolic processes that occur in mitochondria. Iron-sulfur clusters are crucial in mitochondrial respiration, in which they are required for the assembly, stability, and function of respiratory complexes I, II, and III. They also serve important functions in the citric acid cycle, DNA metabolism, and apoptosis...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886402/analysis-of-paracoccidioides-lutzii-mitochondria-a-proteomic-approach
#2
L Casaletti, P S Lima, L N Lima, C L Borges, S N Báo, A M Bailão, C M A Bailão
The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signaling center that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms...
November 25, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885626/anaplerosis-for-glutamate-synthesis-in-the-neonate-and-in-adulthood
#3
Eva Brekke, Tora Sund Morken, Anne B Walls, Helle Waagepetersen, Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald
A central task of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle in brain is to provide precursors for biosynthesis of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamine. Three of these amino acids are the partners in the intricate interaction between astrocytes and neurons and form the so-called glutamine-glutamate (GABA) cycle. The ketoacids α-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate are removed from the cycle for this process. When something is removed from the TCA cycle it must be replaced to permit the continued function of this essential pathway, a process termed anaplerosis...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881386/ppar%C3%AE-augments-heart-function-and-cardiac-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-early-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#4
Stephen Wade Standage, Brock G Bennion, Taft Olpin Knowles, Dolena R Ledee, Michael A Portman, John K McGuire, W Conrad Liles, Aaron K Olson
Children with sepsis and multisystem organ failure have downregulated leukocyte gene expression of PPARα, a nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor that regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. Mouse models of sepsis have likewise demonstrated that the absence of PPARα is associated with decreased survival and organ injury, specifically of the heart. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of early sepsis, we found that heart function increases in wild type (WT) mice over the first 24 hours of sepsis, but that mice lacking PPARα (Ppara(-/-)) cannot sustain the elevated heart function necessary to compensate for sepsis pathophysiology...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874251/simultaneous-analysis-of-ten-low-molecular-mass-organic-acids-in-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-photorespiration-pathway-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-at-different-growth-stages
#5
Mengwei Ye, Lijing Zhang, Panpan Xu, Runtao Zhang, Jilin Xu, Xiaokai Wu, Juanjuan Chen, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
A method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of organic acids in microalgae. o-Benzylhydroxylamine was used to derivatize the analytes, and stable isotope-labeled compounds were used as internal standards for precise quantification. The proposed method was evaluated in terms of linearity, recovery, matrix effect, sensitivity, and precision. Linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients of >0.99 were obtained over the concentration range of 0...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870850/a-biophysical-systems-approach-to-identifying-the-pathways-of-acute-and-chronic-doxorubicin-mitochondrial-cardiotoxicity
#6
Bernardo L de Oliveira, Steven Niederer
The clinical use of the anthracycline doxorubicin is limited by its cardiotoxicity which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Redox cycling, mitochondrial DNA damage and electron transport chain inhibition have been identified as potential mechanisms of toxicity. However, the relative roles of each of these proposed mechanisms are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to identify which of these pathways independently or in combination are responsible for doxorubicin toxicity. A state of the art mathematical model of the mitochondria including the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and ROS production and scavenging systems was extended by incorporating a novel representation for mitochondrial DNA damage and repair...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855668/identification-and-characterization-of-two-new-5-keto-4-deoxy-d-glucarate-dehydratases-decarboxylases
#7
André Pick, Barbara Beer, Risa Hemmi, Rena Momma, Jochen Schmid, Kenji Miyamoto, Volker Sieber
BACKGROUND: Hexuronic acids such as D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid can be utilized via different pathways within the metabolism of microorganisms. One representative, the oxidative pathway, generates α-keto-glutarate as the direct link entering towards the citric acid cycle. The penultimate enzyme, keto-deoxy glucarate dehydratase/decarboxylase, catalyses the dehydration and decarboxylation of keto-deoxy glucarate to α-keto-glutarate semialdehyde. This enzymatic reaction can be tracked continuously by applying a pH-shift assay...
November 17, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851770/direct-stimulation-of-islet-insulin-secretion-by-glycolytic-and-mitochondrial-metabolites-in-kcl-depolarized-islets
#8
Javier Pizarro-Delgado, Jude T Deeney, Barbara E Corkey, Jorge Tamarit-Rodriguez
We have previously demonstrated that islet depolarization with 70 mM KCl opens Cx36 hemichannels and allows diffusion of small metabolites and cofactors through the β-cell plasma membrane. We have investigated in this islet "permeabilized" model whether glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates stimulate insulin secretion and how it correlates with ATP production (islet content plus extracellular nucleotide accumulation). Glycolytic intermediates (10 mM) stimulated insulin secretion and ATP production similarly...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825399/fluctuations-in-metabolite-content-in-the-liver-of-magnesium-deficient-rats
#9
Mei Shigematsu, Ryosuke Nakagawa, Shozo Tomonaga, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
Mg deficiency induces various metabolic disturbances including glucose metabolism in the liver. However, no comprehensive information is currently available on the metabolic pathways affected by Mg deficiency. The present study examined metabolite content in the liver of Mg-deficient rats using a metabolomic analysis. In this study, 4-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet or a Mg-deficient diet for 8 weeks. The metabolomic analysis identified 105 metabolites in the liver, and significant differences were observed in the hepatic contents for thirty-three metabolites between the two groups...
November 9, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821058/multi-omics-analysis-reveals-molecular-mechanisms-of-shoot-adaption-to-salt-stress-in-tibetan-wild-barley
#10
Qiufang Shen, Liangbo Fu, Fei Dai, Lixi Jiang, Guoping Zhang, Dezhi Wu
BACKGROUND: Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum L.) has been confirmed to contain elite accessions in tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. However, molecular mechanisms underlying genotypic difference of salt tolerance in wild barley are unknown. RESULTS: In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions (XZ26 and XZ169), differing greatly in salt tolerance, were used to determine changes of ionomic, metabolomic and proteomic profiles in the shoots exposed to salt stress at seedling stage...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819678/tet2-binds-the-androgen-receptor-and-loss-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer
#11
M L Nickerson, S Das, K M Im, S Turan, S I Berndt, H Li, H Lou, S A Brodie, J N Billaud, T Zhang, A J Bouk, D Butcher, Z Wang, L Sun, K Misner, W Tan, A Esnakula, D Esposito, W Y Huang, R N Hoover, M A Tucker, J R Keller, J Boland, K Brown, S K Anderson, L E Moore, W B Isaacs, S J Chanock, M Yeager, M Dean, T Andresson
Genetic alterations associated with prostate cancer (PCa) may be identified by sequencing metastatic tumour genomes to identify molecular markers at this lethal stage of disease. Previously, we characterized somatic alterations in metastatic tumours in the methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2), which is altered in 5-15% of myeloid, kidney, colon and PCas. Genome-wide association studies previously identified non-coding risk variants associated with PCa and melanoma. We perform fine-mapping of PCa risk across TET2 using genotypes from the PEGASUS case-control cohort and identify six new risk variants in introns 1 and 2...
November 7, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816507/nad-salvage-pathway-in-cancer-metabolism-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Barry E Kennedy, Tanveer Sharif, Emma Martell, Cathleen Dai, Youra Kim, Patrick W K Lee, Shashi A Gujar
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential coenzyme for various physiological processes including energy metabolism, DNA repair, cell growth, and cell death. Many of these pathways are typically dysregulated in cancer cells, making NAD(+) an intriguing target for cancer therapeutics. NAD(+) is mainly synthesized by the NAD(+) salvage pathway in cancer cells, and not surprisingly, the pharmacological targeting of the NAD(+) salvage pathway causes cancer cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo...
November 2, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814246/serum-metabolomic-profiles-in-neonatal-mice-following-oral-brominated-flame-retardant-exposures-to-hexabromocyclododecane-hbcd-alpha-gamma-and-commercial-mixture
#13
David T Szabo, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan Sumner, Linda S Birnbaum
BACKGROUND: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant added to building insulation foams, electronics, and textiles. HBCD is a commercial-mixture (CM-HBCD) composed of 3 main stereoisomers: α-HBCD (10%); β-HBCD (10%); γ-HBCD (80%). A shift from the dominant stereoisomer γ-HBCD to α-HBCD is detected in humans and wildlife. OBJECTIVES: Considering CM-HBCD has been implicated in neurodevelopment and endocrine disruption, with expected metabolism perturbations, metabolomics was performed on mice serum obtained during a window-of-developmental neurotoxicity to draw correlations between early-life exposures, developmental outcomes, and predict health risks...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793704/influence-of-bioadhesive-polymers-on-the-protective-effect-of-fluoride-against-erosion
#14
Daniele Mara da Silva Ávila, Rayssa Ferreira Zanatta, Tais Scaramucci, Idalina Vieira Aoki, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Alessandra Bühler Borges
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated if the incorporation of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 980, Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and Aristoflex AVC in a fluoridated solution (NaF-900ppm) would increase the solution's protective effect against enamel erosion. METHODS: Enamel specimens were submitted to a 5-day de-remineralization cycling model, consisting of 2min immersions in 0.3% citric acid (6x/day), 1min treatments with the polymers (associated or not with fluoride), and 60min storage in artificial saliva...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773896/a-comparative-study-of-the-susceptibility-of-cut-and-uncut-enamel-to-erosive-demineralization
#15
Wa Than Lin, Yuichi Kitasako, Syozi Nakashima, Junji Tagami
This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of cut and uncut enamel surfaces to an erosive challenge and to examine the resultant characteristics/morphological changes. Ten extracted human incisors were used for preparation of enamel samples, and samples were immersed in citric acid. After 3 (total 3 min) and 6 cycles (total 6 min) of erosive challenges, surface loss (SL) and morphological changes were measured using scanning microscopy and FIB-TEM. Ca release (CA) and surface hardness (SH) were measured using a calcium-sensitive electrode and hardness tester respectively...
October 22, 2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766116/examining-escherichia-coli-glycolytic-pathways-catabolite-repression-and-metabolite-channeling-using-%C3%AE-pfk-mutants
#16
Whitney D Hollinshead, Sarah Rodriguez, Hector Garcia Martin, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Kenneth L Sale, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Yinjie J Tang
BACKGROUND: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. RESULTS: Overexpression of edd and eda in E...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742689/role-of-microrna-in-metabolic-shift-during-heart-failure
#17
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741040/citric-acid-cycle-metabolites-predict-the-severity-of-myocardial-stunning-and-mortality-in-newborn-pigs
#18
Janus Adler Hyldebrandt, Nicolaj Brejnholt Støttrup, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen, Johan Heiberg, Rune Isak Dupont Birkler, Mogens Johannsen, Michael Rahbek Schmidt, Hanne Berg Ravn
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure induce specific metabolic changes in the neonatal myocardium that are closely correlated to outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic responses to noninfarct heart failure and inotropic treatments in the newborn heart, which so far are undetermined. DESIGN: A total of 28 newborn pigs were instrumented with a microdialysis catheter in the right ventricle, and intercellular citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolite concentrations were determined at 20-minute intervals...
December 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725912/decreased-expression-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-a1-predicts-an-unfavorable-prognosis-in-ovarian-carcinoma
#19
Yaqing Li, Ruixia Huang, Xiaoli Li, Xiaoran Li, Dandan Yu, Mingzhi Zhang, Jianguo Wen, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Claes G Trope, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723532/green-tea-cammellia-sinensis-attenuates-ventricular-remodeling-after-experimental-myocardial-infarction
#20
Beatriz B Lustosa, Bertha Polegato, Marcos Minicucci, Bruna Rafacho, Priscila P Santos, Ana Angélica Fernandes, Katashi Okoshi, Diego Batista, Pamela Modesto, Andrea Gonçalves, Elenize J Pereira, Vanessa Pires, Sergio Paiva, Leonardo Zornoff, Paula S Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Considering the high morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), the study of compounds with potential benefits for cardiac remodeling is reasonable. Green tea (GT) (Cammellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world. The potential action mechanisms of GT include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the effects of GT on cardiac remodeling following coronary occlusion in rats...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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