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citric acid cycle

Wa Than Lin, Yuichi Kitasako, Syozi Nakashima, Junji Tagami
This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of cut and uncut enamel surfaces to an erosive challenge and to examine the resultant characteristics/morphological changes. Ten extracted human incisors were used for preparation of enamel samples, and samples were immersed in citric acid. After 3 (total 3 min) and 6 cycles (total 6 min) of erosive challenges, surface loss (SL) and morphological changes were measured using scanning microscopy and FIB-TEM. Ca release (CA) and surface hardness (SH) were measured using a calcium-sensitive electrode and hardness tester respectively...
October 22, 2016: Dental Materials Journal
Whitney D Hollinshead, Sarah Rodriguez, Hector Garcia Martin, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Kenneth L Sale, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Yinjie J Tang
BACKGROUND: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. RESULTS: Overexpression of edd and eda in E...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Janus Adler Hyldebrandt, Nicolaj Brejnholt Støttrup, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen, Johan Heiberg, Rune Isak Dupont Birkler, Mogens Johannsen, Michael Rahbek Schmidt, Hanne Berg Ravn
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure induce specific metabolic changes in the neonatal myocardium that are closely correlated to outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic responses to noninfarct heart failure and inotropic treatments in the newborn heart, which so far are undetermined. DESIGN: A total of 28 newborn pigs were instrumented with a microdialysis catheter in the right ventricle, and intercellular citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolite concentrations were determined at 20-minute intervals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Yaqing Li, Ruixia Huang, Xiaoli Li, Xiaoran Li, Dandan Yu, Mingzhi Zhang, Jianguo Wen, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Claes G Trope, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Beatriz B Lustosa, Bertha Polegato, Marcos Minicucci, Bruna Rafacho, Priscila P Santos, Ana Angélica Fernandes, Katashi Okoshi, Diego Batista, Pamela Modesto, Andrea Gonçalves, Elenize J Pereira, Vanessa Pires, Sergio Paiva, Leonardo Zornoff, Paula S Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Considering the high morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), the study of compounds with potential benefits for cardiac remodeling is reasonable. Green tea (GT) (Cammellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world. The potential action mechanisms of GT include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the effects of GT on cardiac remodeling following coronary occlusion in rats...
October 2, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
B C Medeiros, A T Fathi, C D DiNardo, D A Pollyea, S M Chan, R Swords
Alterations to genes involved in cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. Recurring mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes are detected in approximately 20% of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 5% of adults with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). IDH proteins are homodimeric enzymes involved in diverse cellular processes, including adaptation to hypoxia, histone demethylation, and DNA modification. The IDH2 protein is localized in the mitochondria and is a critical component of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, also called the 'citric acid' or Krebs) cycle...
October 10, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
T Baumann, J Kozik, A Lussi, T S Carvalho
During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW)...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Azul Zorzoli, James P Grayczyk, Francis Alonzo
To thrive in diverse environments, bacteria must shift their metabolic output in response to nutrient bioavailability. In many bacterial species, such changes in metabolic flux depend upon lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of enzyme complexes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, glycine catabolism, and branched chain fatty acid biosynthesis. The requirement of lipoic acid for metabolic enzyme activity necessitates that bacteria synthesize the cofactor and/or scavenge it from environmental sources...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Min-Ji Heo, Hwi-Min Jung, Jaeyong Um, Sang-Woo Lee, Min-Kyu Oh
Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 was successfully demonstrated in Esherichia coli to effectively produce n-butanol in a defined medium under micro-aerobic condition. The butanol synthetic pathway genes including those encoding oxygen-tolerant alcohol dehydrogenase were overexpressed in metabolically engineered E. coli, resulting in 0.82 g/L butanol production. To increase butanol production, carbon flux from acetyl-CoA to citric acid cycle should be redirected to acetoacetyl-CoA. For this purpose, the 5'-untranslated region sequence of gltA encoding citrate synthase was designed using an expression prediction program, UTR designer, and modified using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method to reduce its expression level...
October 4, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Marc D de Smet, Jean Marie Stassen, Thijs C M Meenink, Tom Janssens, Valérie Vanheukelom, Gerrit J L Naus, Maarten J Beelen, Bart Jonckx
PURPOSE: Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are a major cause of vision loss in people aged 50 years and older. Current therapeutic options limit the consequences of RVO but do not eliminate the cause. Cannulation of the involved vessel and removal of the clot may provide a more permanent solution with a less demanding follow-up. However, cannulation of smaller retinal veins remains challenging. This paper explores the use of ocriplasmin (recombinant plasmin without its kringles) to clear RVO, using a robotic micromanipulator...
September 28, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Hua Dai, Yin-Yin Xia, Ting-Li Han Ting-Li Han, Philip N Baker Philip N Baker, Xu Tang, Rui-Yuan Zhang, Hang DU, Tong-Jian Cai, Shu-Qun Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on cerebral cortex and serum metabolics of mice and explore the mechanism of arsenic neurotoxicity. METHODS: Twelve 3-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into exposure group and control group and exposed to sodium arsenite (50 mg/L) via drinking water and deionized water for 12 weeks, respectively. After the exposure, arsenic level in the cerebrum was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Claire Colas, Peter Man-Un Ung, Avner Schlessinger
The human Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are important targets for drug development. Structure-based drug discovery for SLC transporters requires the description of their structure, dynamics, and mechanism of interaction with small molecule ligands and ions. The recent determination of atomic structures of human SLC transporters and their homologs, combined with improved computational power and prediction methods have led to an increased applicability of structure-based drug design methods for human SLC members...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Francesca M Simonte, Andreas Dötsch, Lisete Galego, Cecilia Arraiano, Johannes Gescher
Propionate is an abundant carboxylic acid in nature. Microorganisms metabolize propionate aerobically via the 2-methylcitrate pathway. This pathway depends on a series of three reactions in the citric acid cycle that leads to the conversion of succinate to oxaloacetate. Interestingly, the γ-proteobacterium Escherichia coli can use propionate as a carbon and electron source under oxic but not under anoxic conditions. RT-PCR and transcriptomic analysis revealed a posttranscriptional regulation of the prpBCDE-gene cluster encoding the necessary enzymes for propionate metabolism...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Vojtech Melenovsky, Jiri Petrak, Tomas Mracek, Jan Benes, Barry A Borlaug, Hana Nuskova, Tomas Pluhacek, Jaroslav Spatenka, Jana Kovalcikova, Zdenek Drahota, Josef Kautzner, Jan Pirk, Josef Houstek
AIMS: Iron replacement improves clinical status in iron-deficient patients with heart failure (HF), but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Iron is essential not only for erythropoiesis, but also for cellular bioenergetics. The impact of myocardial iron deficiency (MID) on mitochondrial function, measured directly in the failing human heart, is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left ventricular samples were obtained from 91 consecutive HF patients undergoing transplantation and 38 HF-free organ donors (controls)...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Marcia Cristina Dias de Moraes, Anderson Zanardi Freitas, Ana Cecilia Correa Aranha
This study aimed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess the progression of erosive lesions after irradiation with Nd:YAG laser and application of topical fluoride. One-hundred and twenty dentin samples (4 × 4 × 2 mm) obtained from bovine incisors were used. Samples were protected with acid-resistant nail varnish, with exception of a central circular area 2 mm in diameter. All samples were submitted to erosive cycles with citric acid solution 0.05 M (citric acid monohydrate-C6H8O7·H2O); M = 210...
September 17, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Leigh Boardman, Jesper G Sørensen, Vladimír Koštál, Petr Šimek, John S Terblanche
Insect cold tolerance depends on their ability to withstand or repair perturbations in cellular homeostasis caused by low temperature stress. Decreased oxygen availability (hypoxia) can interact with low temperature tolerance, often improving insect survival. One mechanism proposed for such responses is that whole-animal cold tolerance is set by a transition to anaerobic metabolism. Here, we provide a test of this hypothesis in an insect model system (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) by experimental manipulation of oxygen availability while measuring metabolic rate, critical thermal minimum (CTmin), supercooling point and changes in 43 metabolites in moth larvae at three key timepoints (before, during and after chill coma)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yan Xu, Yunguo Liu, Shaobo Liu, Xiaofei Tan, Guangming Zeng, Wei Zeng, Yang Ding, Weicheng Cao, Bohong Zheng
In this work, a novel potential adsorbent, citric acid (CA)-modified biochar, named as CAWB, was obtained from water hyacinth biomass by slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment at 300 °C. The CA modification focused on enhancing the contaminants adsorption capacity of biochar pyrolyzed at relatively low temperature. Over 90 % of the total methylene blue (MB) could be removed at the first 60 min by CAWB, and the maximum MB adsorption capacity could reach to 395 mg g(-1). The physicochemical properties of CAWB was examined by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and BET analysis...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arnald Alonso, Antonio Julià, Maria Vinaixa, Eugeni Domènech, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Juan D Cañete, Carlos Ferrándiz, Jesús Tornero, Javier P Gisbert, Pilar Nos, Ana Gutiérrez Casbas, Lluís Puig, Isidoro González-Álvaro, José A Pinto-Tasende, Ricardo Blanco, Miguel A Rodríguez, Antoni Beltran, Xavier Correig, Sara Marsal
BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are a group of complex and prevalent diseases where disease diagnostic and activity monitoring is highly challenging. The determination of the metabolite profiles of biological samples is becoming a powerful approach to identify new biomarkers of clinical utility. In order to identify new metabolite biomarkers of diagnosis and disease activity, we have performed the first large-scale profiling of the urine metabolome of the six most prevalent IMIDs: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis...
2016: BMC Medicine
Chi-Ya Kao, Zhisong He, Kathrin Henes, John M Asara, Christian Webhofer, Michaela D Filiou, Philipp Khaitovich, Carsten T Wotjak, Christoph W Turck
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder. Several studies have attempted to characterize molecular alterations associated with PTSD, but most findings were limited to the investigation of specific cellular markers in the periphery or defined brain regions. In the current study, we aimed to unravel affected molecular pathways/mechanisms in the fear circuitry associated with PTSD. We interrogated a foot shock-induced PTSD mouse model by integrating proteomics and metabolomics profiling data...
May 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
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