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citric acid cycle

Daqiang Pan, Caroline Lindau, Simon Lagies, Nils Wiedemann, Bernd Kammerer
Introduction: Subcellular compartmentalization enables eukaryotic cells to carry out different reactions at the same time, resulting in different metabolite pools in the subcellular compartments. Thus, mutations affecting the mitochondrial energy metabolism could cause different metabolic alterations in mitochondria compared to the cytoplasm. Given that the metabolite pool in the cytosol is larger than that of other subcellular compartments, metabolic profiling of total cells could miss these compartment-specific metabolic alterations...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Masanori Tokunaga, Kenjiro Kami, Soji Ozawa, Junya Oguma, Akihito Kazuno, Hayato Miyachi, Yoshiaki Ohashi, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Masanori Terashima
Reports of the metabolomic characteristics of esophageal cancer are limited. In the present study, we thus conducted metabolome analysis of paired tumor tissues (Ts) and non-tumor esophageal tissues (NTs) using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). The Ts and surrounding NTs were surgically excised pair-wise from 35 patients with esophageal cancer. Following tissue homogenization and metabolite extraction, a total of 110 compounds were absolutely quantified by CE-TOFMS. We compared the concentrations of the metabolites between Ts and NTs, between pT1 or pT2 (pT1-2) and pT3 or pT4 (pT3-4) stage, and between node-negative (pN-) and node-positive (pN+) samples...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Abhishek Jain, Wei Ning Chen
Nickel (Ni(II)) toxicity is addressed by many different bacteria, but bacterial responses to nickel stress are still unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of Ni(II) toxicity on cell proliferation of α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Next, we showed the mechanism that allows C. crescentus to survive in Ni(II) stress condition. Our results revealed that the growth of C. crescentus is severely affected when the bacterium was exposed to different Ni(II) concentrations, 0.003 mM slightly affected the growth, 0...
April 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chie Nakashima, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Yi Luo, Sayako Matsushima, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Tomonori Sasahira, Takamitsu Sasaki, Yasuhiko Kitadai, Tadaaki Kirita, Hiroki Kuniyasu
Malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is a multifunctional protein involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, NADPH production, glutamine metabolism, and lipogenesis. It is overexpressed in various cancers. We examined the expression of ME1 in 119 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) via immunohistochemistry. ME1 expression was moderate to strong expression in 57 (48%) OSCCs and correlated with pT, pN, clinical stage, and histological grade. In 37 cases with prognostic evaluation, moderate to strong ME1 expression indicated a worse prognosis than did weak ME1 expression...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Science
Gregor Wasser, Samira H João-Souza, Adrian Lussi, Thiago S Carvalho
The present study sought to test oral-care products available on the Swiss market, such as toothpastes and gels, with respect to the protection of enamel against erosive tooth wear. A total of 56 enamel specimens were divided into 7 groups (n = 8): F-TP = Migros Budget Anti-Caries Toothpaste (Negative Control); F+Sn3500-TP = Elmex Erosion Protection Toothpaste (Positive Control); F-TP + F+Oligopep-Gel = Migros Budget Anti-Caries Toothpaste + Emofluor Protect Gel Professional; F+Sn3120-Gel = Emofluor Gel Intensive Care; F+Oligopep-TP = Candida Protect Professional Toothpaste; F+Sn1260-TP = Emoform-F Protect Toothpaste; and F+Sn3440-TP = Sensodyne Repair & Protect Toothpaste...
March 28, 2018: Swiss Dental Journal
Bin Yu, Xin Zhang, Wenjun Sun, Xun Xi, Nan Zhao, Zichun Huang, Zhuojun Ying, Li Liu, Dong Liu, Huanqing Niu, Jinglan Wu, Wei Zhuang, Chenjie Zhu, Yong Chen, Hanjie Ying
The efficiency of current methods for industrial production of citric acid is limited. To achieve continuous citric acid production with enhanced yield and reduced cost, immobilized fermentation was employed in an Aspergillus niger 831 repeated fed-batch fermentation system. We developed a new type of material (PAF201), which was used as a carrier for the novel adsorption immobilization system. Hydrophobicity, pore size and concentration of carriers were researched in A. niger immobilization. The efficiency of the A...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Xin Zhao, Xiaofei Ma, Pengwu Zheng
A simple route is presented to fabricate carboxylic-functional carbon-coated polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (oPAN@C) through preoxidation and hydrothermal carbonization. PAN fibers were firstly preoxidized to form aromatic ladder structure with the resistance to hydrothermal condition, in which more carboxyl groups were introduced on the fiber surface at the present of chitosan and citric acid. The oPAN@C composites exhibit a high adsorption capacity towards methylene blue (MB) and lead ion (Pb2+ ). The adsorption data matched the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model well with the maximum adsorption capacity (153...
March 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Leena Latonen, Ebrahim Afyounian, Antti Jylhä, Janika Nättinen, Ulla Aapola, Matti Annala, Kati K Kivinummi, Teuvo T L Tammela, Roger W Beuerman, Hannu Uusitalo, Matti Nykter, Tapio Visakorpi
To understand functional consequences of genetic and transcriptional aberrations in prostate cancer, the proteomic changes during disease formation and progression need to be revealed. Here we report high-throughput mass spectrometry on clinical tissue samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), untreated primary prostate cancer (PC) and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Each sample group shows a distinct protein profile. By integrative analysis we show that, especially in CRPC, gene copy number, DNA methylation, and RNA expression levels do not reliably predict proteomic changes...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
V Kroezen, F S Schenkel, F Miglior, C F Baes, E J Squires
High-yielding dairy cattle are susceptible to ketosis, a metabolic disease that negatively affects the health, fertility, and milk production of the cow. Interest in breeding for more robust dairy cattle with improved resistance to disease is global; however, genetic evaluations for ketosis would benefit from the additional information provided by genetic markers. Candidate genes that are proposed to have a biological role in the pathogenesis of ketosis were investigated in silico and a custom panel of 998 putative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was developed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Feng Peng, Yingzi Liu, Chenjie He, Yi Kong, Qianying Ouyang, Xiaonv Xie, Tong Liu, Zhaoqian Liu, Jingbo Peng
Lung cancer is the common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for lung cancer. Platinum sensitivity is a major possibility for effective cancer treatment. In this study, several potential biomarkers were identified for evaluating and predicting the response to platinum-based chemotherapy. LC-MS-based metabolomics was performed on plasma samples from 43 lung cancer patients with different chemotherapy efficacy. By combing multivariate statistical analysis, pathway analysis with correlation analysis, 8 potential biomarkers were significantly associated with platinum chemotherapy response...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Bret Cooper, Nazrul Islam, Yunfeng Xu, Hunter S Beard, Wesley M Garrett, Ganyu Gu, Xiangwu Nou
Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial, food-borne pathogen of humans, can contaminate raw fruits and vegetables. While physical and chemical methods are available to control S. aureus, scientists are searching for inhibitory phytochemicals from plants. One promising compound from pomegranate is punicalagin, a natural antibiotic. To get a broader understanding of the inhibitory effect of punicalagin on S. aureus growth, we used high-throughput mass spectrometry and quantitative isobaric labeling to investigate the proteome of S...
March 12, 2018: Proteomics
Wangie Yu, Yunyun Chen, Julien Dubrulle, Fabio Stossi, Vasanta Putluri, Arun Sreekumar, Nagireddy Putluri, Dodge Baluya, Stephen Y Lai, Vlad C Sandulache
Cisplatin is commonly utilized in the treatment of solid tumors. Its mechanism of action is complex and multiple mechanisms of resistance have been described. We sought to determine the impact of cisplatin-generated oxidative stress on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) proliferation, survival and metabolic activity in order to identify a potential metabolic signature associated with cisplatin response. DNA-bound cisplatin represents a small fraction of total intra-cellular cisplatin but generates a robust oxidative stress response...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Linfeng Ke, Yajun Chen, Pengming Liu, Shan Liu, Dandan Wu, Yihui Yuan, Yan Wu, Meiying Gao
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) can biosynthesize magnetosomes, which have great potential for applications. A new MTB strain, Magnetospirillum sp. ME-1, was isolated and cultivated from freshwater sediments of East Lake (Wuhan, China) using the limiting dilution method. ME-1 had a chain of 17 ± 4 magnetosomes in the form of cubooctahedral crystals with a shape factor of 0.89. ME-1 was closest to Magnetospirillum sp. XM-1 according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Compared with XM-1, ME-1 possessed additional copy of mamPA and a larger mamO in magnetosome-specific genes...
March 4, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Gianpiero Vigani, Youry Pii, Silvia Celletti, Mauro Maver, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
Within the last years, extensive information has been accumulated on the reciprocal influence between S and Fe nutrition at both physiological and molecular level in several plant species, but the mechanisms regulating S and Fe sensing and signaling are not fully understood. Fe and S interact for the building of Fe-S clusters, and mitochondria is one of the cellular compartments where Fe-S cluster assembly takes place. Therefore, it would be expected that mitochondria might play a central role in the regulation of Fe and S interaction...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ana Paula C A Beltrame, Dakota Suchyta, Islam Abd Alraheam, Anas Mohammed, Mark Schoenfisch, Ricardo Walter, Izabel C S Almeida, Liliete C Souza, Patricia A Miguez
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antierosive effect of phosphorylated chitosan in dentin. Bovine dentin specimens were randomly distributed into the following groups: (1) no treatment (NoTx/negative control), (2) phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS), (3) AmF/NaF/SnCl2 (positive control), (4) 0.5% chitosan solution (Chi), (5) 0.5% neutral phosphorylated (NP)-Chi, and (6) 0.5% alkaline phosphorylated (AP)-Chi. The specimens were submitted to de-remineralization treatment cycles for 5 days: 0.5% citric acid (2 min), remineralizing solution (30 min), and surface treatment according to assigned groups (2 min, 6×/day)...
March 6, 2018: Caries Research
Jarno E J Wolters, Simone G J van Breda, Jonas Grossmann, Claudia Fortes, Florian Caiment, Jos C S Kleinjans
We performed a multiple 'omics study by integrating data on epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic perturbations associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human hepatocytes caused by the liver toxicant valproic acid (VPA), to deeper understand downstream events following epigenetic alterations in the mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, we investigated persistence of cross-omics changes after terminating drug treatment. Upon transient methylation changes of mitochondrial genes during VPA-treatment, increasing complexities of gene-interaction networks across time were demonstrated, which normalized during washout...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Hongxia Shi, Anping Zhang, Xiukui Zhang, Hemiao Yin, Siqi Wang, Yawen Tang, Yiming Zhou, Ping Wu
The practical application of Sn-M (M = Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu) alloys, a promising anodic category for lithium-ion batteries, is hindered primarily by their huge volume change upon cycling. Immobilization of Sn-M alloys within carbon matrices has proven to be effective to improve their cycling stability, but the traditional pyrolysis of separate Sn, M, and C precursors often leads to uneven distribution of the three components in Sn-M-C ternary anodes. Herein, we report a facile and general aerogel-derived pyrolysis route to realize homogeneous embedding of uniformly-sized Sn-M alloy nanocrystals, within a nanoporous carbon matrix, using cyano-bridged hetero-metallic (Sn-M) aerogels hybridized with carbon sources as precursors...
February 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Joana S Sousa, Edoardo D'Imprima, Janet Vonck
Mitochondria are the power stations of the eukaryotic cell, using the energy released by the oxidation of glucose and other sugars to produce ATP. Electrons are transferred from NADH, produced in the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, to oxygen by a series of large protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which create a transmembrane electrochemical gradient by pumping protons across the membrane. The flow of protons back into the matrix via a proton channel in the ATP synthase leads to conformational changes in the nucleotide binding pockets and the formation of ATP...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
He Lin, Zhongying Liu, Zifeng Pi, Lihui Men, Weijia Chen, Zhiqiang Liu
Estrogens are biologically active steroid hormones mainly released from the ovary by ovarian secretion of estrogen into the circulating blood to regulate or function at the distal target. Estrogens play an important role in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system, especially for post-menopausal women. Panax ginseng Mayer has been reported to relieve women's menopausal symptoms and affect estrogen activities. However, the mechanism of its estrogen regulation has not yet been clearly investigated...
February 19, 2018: Food & Function
Yabing Liu, Lejia Hu, Tengfei Ma, Jun Yang, Jianping Ding
Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. In the α 2 βγ heterotetramer of NAD-IDH, the γ subunit plays the regulatory role and the β subunit the structural role. Previous biochemical data have shown that mammalian NAD-IDHs can be inhibited by NADH; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this work, we show that the αβ, αγ and α 2 βγ enzymes of human NAD-IDH can be inhibited by NADH, and further determine the crystal structure of the αγ heterodimer bound with an Mg 2+ and an NADH at the active site and an NADH at the allosteric site, which resembles that of the inactive α Mg γ heterodimer...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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