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citric acid cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529330/dietary-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-induce-gene-expression-of-energy-metabolism-related-pathways-in-adipose-tissue-of-abdominally-obese-subjects
#1
J C Matualatupauw, M Bohl, S Gregersen, K Hermansen, L A Afman
BACKGROUND: Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) have been shown to reduce total body fat. Previously, we showed that MC-SFAs prevent body fat accumulation, despite weight gain. Here, we aim to explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MC-SFAs on body fat gain. METHODS: The DairyHealth study examined the long-term effects of milk protein and milk fat with a low or high content of MC-SFA. In this 12 week, randomized, double-blind, diet intervention study, participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (high MC-SFA or low MC-SFA) daily in a 2 by 2 factorial design...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527661/modulation-of-adipocyte-function-by-the-tgf-%C3%AE-family
#2
Yuhang Qiao, Shozo Tomonaga, Masashi Suenaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are known to regulate the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to an adipocyte lineage and the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. However, the roles of TGF-β family members in mature adipocytes are not known. The present study explored the modulation of cell function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the TGF-β family members TGF-β1, activin A, activin B, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, and BMP7. These TGF-β family members modulated the expression of some adipokines; activin A upregulated leptin expression, and activin B downregulated the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1...
May 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512002/cell-surface-g-protein-coupled-receptors-for-tumor-associated-metabolites-a-direct-link-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Bojana Ristic, Yangzom D Bhutia, Vadivel Ganapathy
Mitochondria are the sites of pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, ketogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. Attenuation of mitochondrial function is one of the most significant changes that occurs in tumor cells, directly linked to oncogenesis, angiogenesis, Warburg effect, and epigenetics. In particular, three mitochondrial enzymes are inactivated in cancer: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase-2 (HMGCS2). These enzymes are subject to regulation via acetylation/deacetylation...
May 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508835/beneficial-influence-of-ellagic-acid-on-biochemical-indexes-associated-with-experimentally-induced-colon-carcinogenesis
#4
Umesalma Syed, Sudhandiran Ganapasam
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the key biochemical indexes associated with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis and the modulatory efficacy of a dietary polyphenol, ellagic acid (EA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were chosen to study objective, and were divided into 4 groups; Group 1-control rats; Group 2-rats received EA (60 mg/kg body weight/day, orally); rats in Group 3-induced with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously for 15 weeks; DMH-induced Group 4 rats were initiated with EA treatment...
January 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500516/nd-yag-laser-irradiation-associated-with-fluoridated-gels-containing-photo-absorbers-in-the-prevention-of-enamel-erosion
#5
Pereira Lgs, S H Joao-Souza, Sjc Bezerra, A B Borges, Acc Aranha, T Scaramucci
This study evaluated the combined effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation and fluoridated gels containing photo absorbers against enamel erosion. Enamel specimens from bovine teeth were polished, eroded (10 min, with 1% citric acid, pH = 2.6), and randomly allocated into the experimental groups (n = 8), according to the different surface treatments: fluoridated gels (F: 9047 ppm F and F + Sn: 9047 ppm F and 3000 ppm Sn), with or without photo absorbers (E: erythrosine and MB: methylene blue), and associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation (in contact; 0...
May 12, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495375/methylene-blue-stimulates-substrate-level-phosphorylation-catalysed-by-succinyl-coa-ligase-in-the-citric-acid-cycle
#6
T Komlódi, L Tretter
Methylene blue (MB), a potential neuroprotective agent, is efficient in various neurodegenerative disease models. Beneficial effects of MB have been attributed to improvements in mitochondrial functions. Substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) results in the production of ATP independent from the ATP synthase (ATP-ase). In energetically compromised mitochondria, ATP produced by SLP can prevent the reversal of the adenine nucleotide translocase and thus the hydrolysis of glycolytic ATP. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MB on mitochondrial SLP catalysed by succinyl-CoA ligase...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492753/effect-of-erosion-abrasion-challenge-on-the-dentin-tubule-occlusion-using-different-desensitizing-agents
#7
Gabriela D Canali, Rodrigo N Rached, Rui F Mazur, Evelise M Souza
The aim of the study was to evaluate dentinal tubule occlusion, measuring the dentin permeability (Lp) and using different desensitizing agents before and after abrasive/erosive challenge. Dentin discs from 42 healthy human third molars were obtained. Minimum Lp was measured after a smear layer simulation using #600 SiC paper and maximum Lp after an immersion in 0.5 M EDTA. The specimens were treated with different desensitizers: two varnishes (Clinpro XT Varnish-CV, Fluor Protector-FP), a paste (Desensibilize Nano P-NP) and a gel (Oxa Gel-OG)...
March 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482902/substrates-and-oxygen-dependent-citric-acid-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-insights-through-transcriptome-and-fluxome-analyses
#8
Wael Sabra, Rajesh Reddy Bommareddy, Garima Maheshwari, Seraphim Papanikolaou, An-Ping Zeng
BACKGROUND: Unlike the well-studied backer yeast where catabolite repression represents a burden for mixed substrate fermentation, Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, is recognized for its potential to produce single cell oils and citric acid from different feedstocks. These versatilities of Y. lipolytica with regards to substrate utilization make it an attractive host for biorefinery application. However, to develop a commercial process for the production of citric acid by Y. lipolytica, it is necessary to better understand the primary metabolism and its regulation, especially for growth on mixed substrate...
May 8, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469248/pii-protein-derived-fret-sensors-for-quantification-and-live-cell-imaging-of-2-oxoglutarate
#9
Jan Lüddecke, Liliana Francois, Philipp Spät, Björn Watzer, Tomasz Chilczuk, Gernot Poschet, Rüdiger Hell, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Karl Forchhammer
The citric acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG, a.k.a. alpha-ketoglutarate) links the carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathways and can provide information on the metabolic status of cells. In recent years, it has become exceedingly clear that 2-OG also acts as a master regulator of diverse biologic processes in all domains of life. Consequently, there is a great demand for time-resolved data on 2-OG fluctuations that can't be adequately addressed using established methods like mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analysis...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469016/developmental-roles-of-tyrosine-metabolism-enzymes-in-the-blood-sucking-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#10
Marcos Sterkel, Pedro L Oliveira
The phenylalanine/tyrosine degradation pathway is frequently described as a catabolic pathway that funnels aromatic amino acids into citric acid cycle intermediates. Previously, we demonstrated that the accumulation of tyrosine generated during the hydrolysis of blood meal proteins in Rhodnius prolixus is potentially toxic, a harmful outcome that is prevented by the action of the first two enzymes in the tyrosine degradation pathway. In this work, we further evaluated the relevance of all other enzymes involved in phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism in the physiology of this insect...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462819/human-esc-ipsc-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-achieve-zone-specific-hepatic-properties-by-modulation-of-wnt-signaling
#11
Seiji Mitani, Kazuo Takayama, Yasuhito Nagamoto, Kazuo Imagawa, Fuminori Sakurai, Masashi Tachibana, Ryo Sumazaki, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
The function of hepatocytes largely depends on their position in the liver lobule. Although the method of differentiating hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells has been largely improved over the past decade, there remains no technique for generating hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) with zone-specific hepatic properties. In this study, we searched for the factors that promote acquisition of zone-specific properties of HLCs. Here, we identified that WNT7B and WNT8B secreted from hepatocytes and cholangiocytes play important roles in achieving perivenous zone-specific characteristics, such as the enhancement of glutamine secretion, citric acid cycle, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 metabolism, and CYP1A2 induction capacities...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452034/deciphering-biodegradable-chelant-enhanced-phytoremediation-through-microbes-and-nitrogen-transformation-in-contaminated-soils
#12
Linchuan Fang, Mengke Wang, Lin Cai, Long Cang
Biodegradable chelant-enhanced phytoremediation offers an alternative treatment technique for metal contaminated soils, but most studies to date have addressed on phytoextraction efficiency rather than comprehensive understanding of the interactions among plant, soil microbes, and biodegradable chelants. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of biodegradable chelants, including nitrilotriacetate, S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and citric acid on soil microbes, nitrogen transformation, and metal removal from contaminated soils...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443281/myc-and-ampk-save-energy-or-die
#13
REVIEW
Heidi M Haikala, Johanna M Anttila, Juha Klefström
MYC sustains non-stop proliferation by altering metabolic machinery to support growth of cell mass. As part of the metabolic transformation MYC promotes lipid, nucleotide and protein synthesis by hijacking citric acid cycle to serve biosynthetic processes, which simultaneously exhausts ATP production. This leads to the activation of cellular energy sensing protein, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Cells with normal growth control can stop cell proliferation machinery to replenish ATP reservoirs whereas MYC prevents such break by blocking the cell cycle exit...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423712/model-based-unsupervised-learning-informs-metformin-induced-cell-migration-inhibition-through-an-ampk-independent-mechanism-in-breast-cancer
#14
Arjun P Athreya, Krishna R Kalari, Junmei Cairns, Alan J Gaglio, Quin F Wills, Nifang Niu, Richard Weinshilboum, Ravishankar K Iyer, Liewei Wang
We demonstrate that model-based unsupervised learning can uniquely discriminate single-cell subpopulations by their gene expression distributions, which in turn allow us to identify specific genes for focused functional studies. This method was applied to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells treated with the antidiabetic drug metformin, which is being repurposed for treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Unsupervised learning identified a cluster of metformin-treated cells characterized by a significant suppression of 230 genes (p-value < 2E-16)...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416775/volatile-organic-compounds-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-tissue-originating-from-patient-derived-xenografts
#15
Renata Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Woźniak, Yemarshet Gebreyohannes, Bartosz Dykcik, Patrick Schöffski, Michal Markuszewski
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, localized mainly in the stomach or small intestine. The metabolomic signature of GIST signature associated with various mutations in KIT gene remains undiscovered and unexplored. The main aim of this pilot study was to determine and compare metabolomic profiles in GIST xenograft models with different genetic background. Metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry followed by both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was applied to select metabolites which differentiate the GIST models studied...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411229/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-myocardial-substrate-preference-emphasizes-the-need-for-a-synchronized-fluxomic-metabolomic-research-design
#16
Mukundan Ragavan, Alexander Kirpich, Xiaorong Fu, Shawn C Burgess, Lauren M McIntyre, Matthew E Merritt
The heart oxidizes fatty acids, carbohydrates and ketone bodies inside the citric acid cycle (CAC) to generate the reducing equivalents needed for ATP production. Competition between these substrates makes it difficult to estimate the extent of pyruvate oxidation. Previously, hyperpolarized pyruvate detected propionate mediated activation of carbohydrate oxidation, even in the presence of acetate. In this report, the optimal concentration of propionate for activation of glucose oxidation is measured in mouse hearts perfused in Langendorff mode...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403831/the-role-of-tre6p-and-snrk1-in-maize-early-kernel-development-and-events-leading-to-stress-induced-kernel-abortion
#17
Samuel W Bledsoe, Clémence Henry, Cara A Griffiths, Matthew J Paul, Regina Feil, John E Lunn, Mark Stitt, L Mark Lagrimini
BACKGROUND: Drought stress during flowering is a major contributor to yield loss in maize. Genetic and biotechnological improvement in yield sustainability requires an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning yield loss. Sucrose starvation has been proposed as the cause for kernel abortion; however, potential targets for genetic improvement have not been identified. Field and greenhouse drought studies with maize are expensive and it can be difficult to reproduce results; therefore, an in vitro kernel culture method is presented as a proxy for drought stress occurring at the time of flowering in maize (3 days after pollination)...
April 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380015/in-vitro-evaluation-of-modified-surface-microhardness-measurement-focus-variation-3d-microscopy-and-contact-stylus-profilometry-to-assess-enamel-surface-loss-after-erosive-abrasive-challenges
#18
Milán Gyurkovics, Tommy Baumann, Thiago Saads Carvalho, Cristiane Meira Assunção, Adrian Lussi
The aim of the study was to compare surface loss values after erosion-abrasion cycles obtained with modified surface microhardness measurement (mSMH), focus variation 3D microscopy (FVM) and contact stylus profilometry (CSP). We cut human molars into buccal and lingual halves, embedded them in resin and ground 200 μm of enamel away. The resulting surfaces were polished. To maintain a reference area, we applied Block-Out resin to partly cover the enamel surface. The samples were incubated in artificial saliva (37°C; 1 h), then rinsed in deionized water (10 s) and dried with oil-free air (5 s)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366720/brain-energy-metabolism-spurns-fatty-acids-as-fuel-due-to-their-inherent-mitotoxicity-and-potential-capacity-to-unleash-neurodegeneration
#19
REVIEW
Peter Schönfeld, Georg Reiser
The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is long-known...
March 30, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356562/proteomic-analysis-reveals-a-role-of-melatonin-in-promoting-cucumber-seed-germination-under-high-salinity-by-regulating-energy-production
#20
Na Zhang, Hai-Jun Zhang, Qian-Qian Sun, Yun-Yun Cao, Xingsheng Li, Bing Zhao, Ping Wu, Yang-Dong Guo
Seed germination is a critical and complex process in the plant life cycle. Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination under salt stress, the involvement of melatonin in the regulation of proteomic changes remains poorly understood. In this study, a total of 157 proteins were significantly influenced (ratio ≥ 2 or ≤ -2) by melatonin during seed germination under salt stress using a label-free quantitative technique. Our GO analysis revealed that several pathways were obviously regulated by melatonin, including ribosome biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and storage protein degradation...
March 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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