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citric acid cycle

Yajie Liu, Zhixin Tai, Tengfei Zhou, Vitor Sencadas, Jian Zhang, Lei Zhang, Konstantin Konstantinov, Zaiping Guo, Hua Kun Liu
The concept of an all-integrated design with multifunctionalization is widely employed in optoelectronic devices, sensors, resonator systems, and microfluidic devices, resulting in benefits for many ongoing research projects. Here, maintaining structural/electrode stability against large volume change by means of an all-integrated design is realized for silicon anodes. An all-integrated silicon anode is achieved via multicomponent interlinking among carbon@void@silica@silicon (CVSS) nanospheres and cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose and citric acid polymer binder (c-CMC-CA)...
October 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
Bob B Buchanan, Reidun Sirevåg, Georg Fuchs, Ruslan N Ivanovsky, Yasuo Igarashi, Masaharu Ishii, F Robert Tabita, Ivan A Berg
For the first decade following its description in 1954, the Calvin-Benson cycle was considered the sole pathway of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. In the early 1960s, experiments with fermentative bacteria uncovered reactions that challenged this concept. Ferredoxin was found to donate electrons directly for the reductive fixation of CO2 into alpha-keto acids via reactions considered irreversible. Thus, pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate could be synthesized from CO2, reduced ferredoxin and acetyl-CoA or succinyl-CoA, respectively...
October 10, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Yuting Shen, Xiwei Tian, Wei Zhao, Haifeng Hang, Ju Chu
Different concentrations of oxygen-enriched air were utilized for sodium gluconate (SG) fermentation by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation time shortened from 20 to 15.5 h due to the increase of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and the formation of more dispersed mycelia when inlet oxygen concentration ascended from 21 to 32%. According to metabolic flux analysis, during the growth phase, extracellular glucose for SG synthesis accounted for 79.0 and 85.3% with air and oxygen-enriched air (25%), respectively, whereas the proportions were 89...
October 4, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Shu-Jie Shen, Su-Fang Shui, Bing-Kun Xiao, Jian-Yun Yang, Rong-Qing Huang
To further explore the regulatory effect of Jinlingzi San on in vivo inflammatory mechanism during inflammatory treatment, this study adopted 1H-NMR and LC-MS technology to analyze differences in in vivo metabolites of carrageen-induce rat foot swelling model. Besides, biomarkers related to inflammation models of Jinlingzi San in SD rats were discovered to speculate the regulatory mechanism of Jinlingzi San in resisting carrageen-induce inflammation. Through the analysis of detection spectrum, we found 18 biomarkers of metabolites(citrate, pyruvate, malic acid, succinate, glutamate, lysine, tartrate, 2-oxobutyric acid, glycine, guanosine, 9-cis-retinoic acid, triphosphate, inosine 5'-diphosphate, inosine diphosphate, tripolyphosphate, inorganic triphosphate, glycerophosphocholine, 21-deoxycortisol)...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Radana Karlíková, Kateřina Mičová, Lukáš Najdekr, Alžběta Gardlo, Tomáš Adam, Petra Majerová, David Friedecký, Andrej Kováč
BACKGROUND: Tauopathies represent heterogeneous groups of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterised by abnormal deposition of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent tauopathy, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. In this study we investigated changes in metabolic pathways associated with tau-induced neurodegeneration. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and brain tissue were collected from a transgenic rat model for tauopathies and from age-matched control animals...
September 21, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Mette Cathrine Ørngreen, John Vissing
Metabolic myopathies are disorders affecting utilization of carbohydrates or fat in the skeletal muscle. Adult patients with metabolic myopathies typically present with exercise-induced pain, contractures or stiffness, fatigue, and myoglobinuria. Symptoms are related to energy failure. Purpose of review In this review, the current treatment options, including exercise therapy, dietary treatment, pharmacological supplementation, gene transcription, and enzyme replacement therapy, are described. Recent findings Recognition of the metabolic block in the metabolic myopathies has started the development of new therapeutic options...
September 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Molly A Silvers, Stanislaw Deja, Naveen Singh, Robert A Egnatchik, Jessica Sudderth, Xiuquan Luo, Muhammad S Beg, Shawn C Burgess, Ralph J DeBerardinis, David A Boothman, Matthew E Merritt
Many cancer treatments, such as those for managing recalcitrant tumors like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, cause off-target toxicities in normal, healthy tissue, highlighting the need for more tumor-selective chemotherapies. β-Lapachone is bioactivated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). This enzyme exhibits elevated expression in most solid cancers and therefore is a potential cancer-specific target. β-Lapachone's therapeutic efficacy partially stems from the drug's induction of a futile NQO1-mediated redox cycle that causes high levels of superoxide, then peroxide formation, which damages DNA and causes hyperactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), resulting in extensive NAD+/ATP depletion...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Edward J Guccione, John J Kendall, Andrew Hitchcock, Nitanshu Garg, Michael A White, Francis Mulholland, Robert K Poole, David J Kelly
Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, is a microaerophile that has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Here, oxygen-dependent changes in C. jejuni physiology were studied at constant growth rate using carbon (serine)-limited continuous chemostat cultures. We show that a perceived aerobiosis scale can be calibrated by the acetate excretion flux, which becomes zero when metabolism is fully aerobic (100% aerobiosis)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Mahdi Mutahar, Guy Carpenter, David Bartlett, Matthew German, Rebecca Moazzez
Erosive wear undermines the structural properties of enamel resulting in irreversible enamel loss. A thin protein layer formed from natural saliva on tooth surfaces, acquired enamel pellicle (AEP), protects against erosive wear. The exact components in saliva responsible for such protection are not yet known. We prepared three solutions containing different components: proteins and ions [natural saliva (NS)], minerals with no proteins [artificial saliva (AS)] and neither proteins nor ions [deionised water (DW)]...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chong Wang, Jie Wang, Xiao Wang, Yan Xia, Chen Chen, Zhenguo Shen, Yahua Chen
Proteomic studies were performed to identify proteins involved in the response of Oenothera glazioviana seedlings under Cu stress. Exposure of 28-d-old seedlings to 50 μM CuSO4 for 3 d led to inhibition of shoot and root growth as well as a considerable increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in the roots. Cu absorbed by O. glazioviana accumulated more easily in the root than in the shoot. Label-free proteomic analysis indicated 58 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) of the total 3,149 proteins in the roots of O...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
M L Peng, J Han, L L Li, H T Ma
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major component of Garcinia cambogia extracts, has been shown to suppress BW gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse serum metabolites, and principal component analysis and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis models were generated to analyse serum metabolite changes in broiler chickens after the administration of (-)-HCA at 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg diets for 28 days...
September 7, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Franciny Querobim Ionta, Catarina Ribeiro Barros de Alencar, Poliana Pacifico Val, Ana Paula Boteon, Maisa Camillo Jordão, Heitor Marques Honório, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Daniela Rios
Objective: The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Material and Methods: Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Marta Martin-Lorenzo, Paula J Martinez, Montserrat Baldan-Martin, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Jose Carlos Prado, Julian Segura, Fernando de la Cuesta, Maria G Barderas, Fernando Vivanco, Luis Miguel Ruilope, Gloria Alvarez-Llamas
Resistant hypertension (RH) affects 9% to 12% of hypertensive adults. Prolonged exposure to suboptimal blood pressure control results in end-organ damage and cardiovascular risk. Spironolactone is the most effective drug for treatment, but not all patients respond and side effects are not negligible. Little is known on the mechanisms responsible for RH. We aimed to identify metabolic alterations in urine. In addition, a potential capacity of metabolites to predict response to spironolactone was investigated...
September 5, 2017: Hypertension
Melanie B Gillingham, Stephen B Heitner, Julie Martin, Sarah Rose, Amy Goldstein, Areeg Hassan El-Gharbawy, Stephanie Deward, Michael R Lasarev, Jim Pollaro, James P DeLany, Luke J Burchill, Bret Goodpaster, James Shoemaker, Dietrich Matern, Cary O Harding, Jerry Vockley
BACKGROUND: Observational reports suggest that supplementation that increases citric acid cycle intermediates via anaplerosis may have therapeutic advantages over traditional medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAODs) but controlled trials have not been reported. The goal of our study was to compare the effects of triheptanoin (C7), an anaplerotic seven-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, to trioctanoin (C8), an eight-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, in patients with LC-FAODs...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Ishtiaque Quasem, Alexandra N Achille, Brittany A Caddick, Travis A Carter, Camille Daniels, Jennifer A Delaney, Vedad Delic, Kimberly A Denton, Martina C Duran, Marianne K Fatica, Christopher M Ference, Julie P Galkiewicz, Ana M Garcia, Jacqueline D Hendrick, Steven A Horton, Mey S Kun, Phoebe W Koch, Tien Min Lee, Christie R McCabe, Sean McHale, Lauren D McDaniel, Damian M Menning, Kristy J Menning, Hamed Mirzaei-Souderjani, Salina Mostajabian, David A Nicholson, Courtney K Nugent, Nicholas P Osman, Desiree I Pappas, Andrea M Rocha, Karyna Rosario, Haydn Rubelmann, Julie A Schwartz, Kent W Seeley, Christopher M Staley, Elizabeth M Wallace, Terianne M Wong, Brian L Zielinski, Thomas E Hanson, Kathleen M Scott
The genome sequence of the obligate chemolithoautotroph Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus paradoxically predicts a complete oxidative citric acid cycle (CAC). This prediction was tested by multiple approaches including whole cell carbon assimilation to verify obligate autotrophy, phylogenetic analysis of CAC enzyme sequences and enzyme assays. Hydrogenovibrio crunogenus did not assimilate any of the organic compounds provided (acetate, succinate, glucose, yeast extract, tryptone). Enzyme activities confirmed that its CAC is mostly uncoupled from the NADH pool...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Andrea Hegedus, Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Mariam B Khan, Julianna Dias Zeidler, Andrea T Da Poian, Tatiana El-Bacha, Eduard A Struys, Hendrik Huthoff
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is an important metabolic resource for proliferating tissues by acting as a proteinogenic amino acid, a nitrogen donor for biosynthetic reactions and as a substrate for the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects activated CD4(+) T cells that are known to require glutamine for proliferation and for carrying out effector functions. As a virus, HIV-1 is furthermore entirely dependent on host metabolism to support its replication...
October 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sahoko Ichihara, Yuka Suzuki, Jie Chang, Kentaro Kuzuya, Chisa Inoue, Yuki Kitamura, Shinji Oikawa
Inflammation enhanced by accumulation of reactive oxygen species plays an essential role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Using the 2D-oxyblot analysis and 2D-difference image gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we compared the levels of ROS-induced carbonyl modification of myocardial proteins in the whole left ventricles between 6-week-old hamsters with dilated (TO-2) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Bio14.6) and control hamsters (F1B). Then, 2D electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry detected 18 proteins with increased carbonyl level in cardiomyopathy hamsters compared with control hamster...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Camilla Vieira da Silva, Jessica Laporta Nazello, Patricia Moreira de Freitas
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether increasing the frequency of its use can enhance the protective effect of AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution against dental erosion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty human enamel samples were obtained from sound human third molars, and after the formation of incipient erosive lesions (1% citric acid, pH 4.0, for 3 min), they were divided into five treatment groups (n = 12): G1 - deionised water (negative control); G2 - NaF solution (positive control) once a day; G3 - NaF solution (positive control) twice a day; G4 - AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution once a day; G5 - AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution twice a day...
2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Man Gao, Kaixiang Zou, Yuanfu Deng, Zhenxia Zhao, Yingwei Li, Guohua Chen
A nanocomposite of ultrafine anatase nanoparticles (<5 nm) embedded N-doped carbon (TiO2-NPs/NC) with a relatively low specific surface area was successfully synthesized by in situ pyrolysis of a new and cheap single source precursor of (H2en)3[Ti4(O2)4(Hcit)2(cit)2]·12H2O (en = ethylenediamine and H4cit = citric acid) under 550 °C and an inert atmosphere. The precursor in crystalline state was isolated from an aqueous solution containing of titanium butoxide, citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylenediamine and was characterized...
August 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shanshan Liu, Hongyuan Zhao, Ming Tan, Youzuo Hu, Xiaohui Shu, Meiling Zhang, Bing Chen, Xingquan Liu
The Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ (LiNi0.495Mn1.495Er0.01O₄) sample was successfully prepared by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with erbium oxide as an erbium source for the first time. Compared with the undoped sample, the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ sample maintained the basic spinel structure, suggesting that the substitution of Er(3+) ions for partial nickel and manganese ions did not change the intrinsic structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄. Moreover, the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ sample showed better size distribution and regular octahedral morphology...
July 27, 2017: Materials
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