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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161089/protein-folding-and-the-challenges-of-maintaining-endoplasmic-reticulum-proteostasis-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Freddy Romero, Ross Summer
Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are "professional" secretory cells that synthesize and secrete massive quantities of proteins to produce pulmonary surfactant and maintain airway immune defenses. To facilitate this high level of protein synthesis, AEII cells are equipped with an elaborate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure and possess an abundance of the machinery needed to fold, assemble, and secrete proteins. However, conditions that suddenly increase the quantity of new proteins entering the ER or that impede the capacity of the ER to fold proteins can cause misfolded or unfolded proteins to accumulate in the ER lumen, also called ER stress...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#2
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160807/entamoeba-histolytica-under-oxidative-stress-what-countermeasure-mechanisms-are-in-place
#3
REVIEW
Erika Pineda, Doranda Perdomo
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis; it affects 50 million people worldwide and causes approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasite that is primarily found in the colon; however, for unknown reasons, it can become invasive, breaching the gut barrier and migrating toward the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. During the invasive process, it must maintain intracellular hypoxia within the oxygenated human tissues and cellular homeostasis during the host immune defense attack when it is confronted with nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species...
November 21, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160038/endoplasmic-reticulum-in-health-and-disease-the-12th-international-calreticulin-workshop-delphi-greece
#4
REVIEW
Aristidis S Charonis, Marek Michalak, Jody Groenendyk, Luis B Agellon
Starting from 1994, every 2 years, an international workshop is organized focused on calreticulin and other endoplasmic reticulum chaperones. In 2017, the workshop took place at Delphi Greece. Participants from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia presented their recent data and discussed them extensively with their colleagues. Presentations dealt with structural aspects of calreticulin and calnexin, the role of Ca(2+) in cellular signalling and in autophagy, the endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, the role of calreticulin in immune responses...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157602/induction-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-does-not-require-activation-of-the-hepatic-x-box-binding-protein-1-in-mice
#5
Shantel Olivares, Anne S Henkel
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a key regulator of the metabolic response to fasting, is highly induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) is one of several ER stress proteins that has been shown to directly activate the FGF21 promoter. We aimed to determine whether hepatic Xbp1 is required for induction of hepatic FGF21 in vivo. METHODS: Mice bearing a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Xbp1 (Xbp1(LKO)) were subjected to fasting, pharmacologic ER stress, or a ketogenic diet, all potent stimuli of Fgf21 expression...
December 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157080/secretory-autophagy-holds-the-key-to-lysozyme-secretion-during-bacterial-infection-of-the-intestine
#6
Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Daniel J Klionsky
In 2013, Dr. Lora Hooper and colleagues described the induction of antibacterial macroautophagy/autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells as a cytoprotective host defense mechanism against invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Canonical autophagy functions in a primarily degradative capacity to safeguard cells and ensure survival during stress conditions, including pathogen infection. In contrast, secretory autophagy has emerged as an alternative nondegradative mechanism for cellular trafficking and unconventional protein secretion...
November 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156559/tocotrienols-a-family-of-molecules-with-specific-biological-activities
#7
REVIEW
Raffaella Comitato, Roberto Ambra, Fabio Virgili
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering foetal re-absorption in deficient rodents or the development of encephalomalacia in chickens. In humans, Vitamin E activity is generally considered to be solely related to the antioxidant properties of the tocolic chemical structure...
November 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155499/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-cell-death-in-podocytes
#8
REVIEW
Yu-Chi Cheng, Chien-An Chen, Hung-Chun Chen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs in a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms, and there has been great interest in managing this pathway for the treatment of clinical diseases. Increased ER stress can block integrin-β1 glycosylation, decrease integrin-β1 protein expression and enhance cell death in podocytes. Autophagy is closely interconnected with ER stress to counteract the possible injurious effects related to the impairment of protein folding and is one of the intracellular protein degradation systems...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154934/cephalostatin-1-analogues-activate-apoptosis-via-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-signaling-pathway
#9
Lubna H Tahtamouni, Mansour M Nawasreh, Zainab A Al-Mazaydeh, Rema A Al-Khateeb, Reem N Abdellatif, Randa M Bawadi, James R Bamburg, Salem R Yasin
The current study was conducted to compare the cytotoxicity of two stereospecific cephalostatin 1 analogues (CAs) against several human normal cell types and cancer cell lines and to determine their cytotoxic mechanism. Both CA analogues induced apoptosis and were cytotoxic with 50% growth inhibition (GI50) at ~1µM or less in six human cancer cell lines but neither analogue at 10µM killed more than 14% of any of three types of normal human cells suggesting their cytotoxicity is cancer-specific. CA treatment inhibited clonogenic tumor growth and activated caspase 3 and 9 but not caspase 8...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154819/a%C3%AE-1-42-induces-cell-damage-via-rage-dependent-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-bend-3-cells
#10
Wenjing Chen, Yuanjin Chan, Wenbin Wan, Yaming Li, Chunyan Zhang
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown has been determined to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms of BBB disruption in AD remain unclear. Our previous study suggested that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) functioned as a signal transduction receptor in Aβ1-42-induced damage in endothelial cells. In our present study, we revealed that RAGE-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is essential for Aβ-induced endothelial cell damage...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153511/how-are-proteins-reduced-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#11
REVIEW
Lars Ellgaard, Carolyn S Sevier, Neil J Bulleid
The reversal of thiol oxidation in proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for protein folding, degradation, chaperone function, and the ER stress response. Our understanding of this process is generally poor but progress has been made. Enzymes performing the initial reduction of client proteins, as well as the ultimate electron donor in the pathway, have been identified. Most recently, a role for the cytosol in ER protein reduction has been revealed. Nevertheless, how reducing equivalents are transferred from the cytosol to the ER lumen remains an open question...
November 15, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152653/elaidic-acid-induces-cell-apoptosis-through-induction-of-ros-accumulation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-sh%C3%A2-sy5y-cells
#12
Wei-Wei Ma, Lei Zhao, Lin-Hong Yuan, Huan-Ling Yu, Hui Wang, Xin-Yuan Gong, Feng Wei, Rong Xiao
Elaidic acid, which is a major trans fatty acid, has been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms underlying its neurotoxic effects remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying elaidic acid‑induced neuronal damage in vitro. The SH‑SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line was used as a model in the present study. Following treatment of cells with various concentrations of elaidic acid or with vehicle for 24 h, cell viability was measured using the MTT assay...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152224/recent-insights-into-perk-dependent-signaling-from-the-stressed-endoplasmic-reticulum
#13
REVIEW
Alexander McQuiston, J Alan Diehl
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved stress response to intra- and extracellular conditions that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein-folding capacity. The UPR is engaged by a variety of disease conditions, including most cancers as well as both metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Three transmembrane transducers-PERK, IRE1, and ATF6-are responsible for activating downstream signaling pathways that mediate the UPR and subsequent stress response pathways. PERK, an ER resident transmembrane protein kinase, initiates both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152155/chibby-1-a-new-component-of-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#14
REVIEW
Manuela Mancini, Simona Soverini, Gabriele Gugliotta, Maria Alessandra Santucci, Gianantonio Rosti, Michele Cavo, Giovanni Martinelli, Fausto Castagnetti
Chibby 1 (CBY1) is a small and evolutionarily conserved protein, which act as β-catenin antagonist. CBY1 is encoded by C22orf2 (22q13.1) Its antagonistic function on β-catenin involves the direct interaction with: The C-terminal activation domain of β-catenin, which hinders β-catenin binding with Tcf/Lef transcription factors hence repressing β-catenin transcriptional activation. 14-3-3 scaffolding proteins (σ or ξ), which drive CBY1 nuclear export into a stable tripartite complex with β-catenin. The relative proximity of C22orf2 gene encoding for CBY1 to the BCR breakpoint on chromosome 22q11, whose translocation and rearrangement with the c-ABL is the causative event of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), suggested that gene haploinsufficiency may play a role in the disease pathogenesis and progression...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151236/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-alleviates-secondary-injury-in-the-spinal-cord-via-up-regulation-of-cibz-gene
#15
Zongmeng Zhang, Jie Chen, Fanghui Chen, Daolun Yu, Rui Li, Chenglong Lv, Haosen Wang, Honglin Li, Jun Li, Yafei Cai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally divided into primary and secondary injuries, and apoptosis is an important event of the secondary injury. As an endogenous bile acid and recognized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) administration has been reported to have a potentially therapeutic effect on neurodegenerative diseases, but its real mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated whether TUDCA could alleviate traumatic damage of the spinal cord and improve locomotion function in a mouse model of SCI...
November 18, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151169/parkinson-s-disease-experimental-models-and-reality
#16
REVIEW
Peizhou Jiang, Dennis W Dickson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive movement disorder of adults and the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathologic diagnosis of PD requires moderate-to-marked neuronal loss in the ventrolateral substantia nigra pars compacta and α-synuclein (αS) Lewy body pathology. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration correlates with the Parkinsonian motor features, but involvement of other peripheral and central nervous system regions leads to a wide range of non-motor features...
November 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150640/early-endosome-motility-mediates-%C3%AE-amylase-production-and-cell-differentiation-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#17
Yusuke Togo, Yujiro Higuchi, Yoshinori Katakura, Kaoru Takegawa
Recent research in filamentous fungi has revealed that the motility of an endocytic organelle early endosome (EE) has a versatile role in many physiological functions. Here, to further examine the motility of EEs in the industrially important fungus Aspergillus oryzae, we visualized these organelles via the Rab5 homolog AoRab5 and identified AoHok1, a putative linker protein between an EE and a motor protein. The Aohok1 disruptant showed retarded mycelial growth and no EE motility, in addition to an apical accumulation of EEs and peroxisomes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150444/toll-like-receptor-4-induced-ryanodine-receptor-2-oxidation-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca2-leakage-promote-cardiac-contractile-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#18
Jie Yang, Rui Zhang, Xin Jiang, Jingzhang Lv, Ying Li, Hongyu Ye, Wenjuan Liu, Gang Wang, Cuicui Zhang, Na Zheng, Ming Dong, Yan Wang, Peiya Chen, Kumar Santosh, Yong Jiang, Jie Liu
Studies suggest the potential role of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak in cardiac contractile dysfunction in sepsis. However, direct supporting evidence is lacking, and the mechanisms underlying this SR leak are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling and contraction in LPS-treated rat cardiomyocytes and a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis produced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). LPS decreased the systolic Ca2+ transient and myocyte contraction, as well as SR Ca2+ content...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150287/anastasis-and-the-er-stress-response-solving-the-paradox-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-cancer
#19
Rafael Vincent M Manalo
In recent years, studies have suggested a novel pathway for cell survival, which faces scientific skepticism and interest in its concept of cell 'resurrection' - that is, the anastasis of cells at late-stage apoptosis. While biomarkers have been discovered, many of these are related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response - acting also to promote cell survival in the presence of perturbation. The promises of anastasis, if accepted, will greatly impact translational medicine especially in the treatment of cancer, since apoptosis is generally irreversible in the late stages, and chemotherapy is performed to maximize tumor death and minimize off-target effects...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149522/melatonin-improves-the-meiotic-maturation-of-porcine-oocytes-by-reducing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-during-in-vitro-maturation
#20
Hyo-Jin Park, Jae-Young Park, Jin-Woo Kim, Seul-Gi Yang, Jae-Min Jung, Min-Ji Kim, Man-Jong Kang, Young Ho Cho, Gabbine Wee, Hee-Young Yang, Bong-Seok Song, Sun-Uk Kim, Deog-Bon Koo
Under endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress conditions, the unfolded protein response (UPR) generates a defense mechanism in mammalian cells. The regulation of UPR signaling is important in oocyte maturation, embryo development, and female reproduction of pigs. Recent studies have shown that melatonin plays an important role as an anti-oxidant to improve pig oocyte maturation. However, there is no report on the role of melatonin in the regulation of UPR signaling and ER-stress during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
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