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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944949/the-research-progress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Gang Li, Yue Yang, Hua-Jiang Dong, Ling Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adults throughout the world. It is urgent to ameliorate TBI damage and reduce the disability and case-fatality rate. Stem cell therapy is another medical revolution after drug and surgical medication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of cells with significant self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and be favorable for the treatment of various diseases and injuries, it could be envisioned that MSCs transplantation may be a promising treatment for TBI...
July 16, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943274/gene-therapy-induced-antigen-specific-tregs-inhibit-neuro-inflammation-and-reverse-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Geoffrey D Keeler, Sandeep Kumar, Brett Palaschak, Emily L Silverberg, David M Markusic, Noah T Jones, Brad E Hoffman
The devastating neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS) could substantially benefit from an adeno-associated virus (AAV) immunotherapy designed to restore a robust and durable antigen-specific tolerance. However, developing a sufficiently potent and lasting immune-regulatory therapy that can intervene in ongoing disease is a major challenge and has thus been elusive. We addressed this problem by developing a highly effective and robust tolerance-inducing in vivo gene therapy. Using a pre-clinical animal model, we designed a liver-targeting gene transfer vector that expresses full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in hepatocytes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942850/characterization-and-complete-genome-sequences-of-l-rhamnosus-dsm-14870-and-l-gasseri-dsm-14869-contained-in-the-ecovag-%C3%A2-probiotic-vaginal-capsules
#3
Harold Marcotte, Kasper Krogh Andersen, Yin Lin, Fanglei Zuo, Zhu Zeng, Per Göran Larsson, Erik Brandsborg, Gunnar Brønstad, Lennart Hammarström
Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSM 14870 and Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 14869 were previously isolated from the vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) of healthy women and selected for the development of the vaginal EcoVag(®) probiotic capsules. EcoVag(®) was subsequently shown to provide long-term cure and reduce relapse of bacterial vaginosis (BV) as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy. To identify genes potentially involved in probiotic activity, we performed genome sequencing and characterization of the two strains. The complete genome analysis of both strains revealed the presence of genes encoding functions related to adhesion, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, antimicrobial activity, and CRISPR adaptive immunity but absence of antibiotic resistance genes...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942432/the-application-and-mechanism-of-pd-pathway-blockade-for-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Xing Wang, Shan Huang, Ya Zhang, Lin Zhu, Xiaoliang Wu
Research in cancer therapeutics has achieved major progress in the understanding of the tumour-immunity cycle, which controls the delicate balance between the immune system and tumour. Identification of cancer cell T-cell inhibitory signals, including PD-L1, has generated novel insight into how to reinvigorate the patients' immune cells to respond to a variety of tumour types. PD-1 and PD-L1 (PD) inhibitory pathway blockade appears to a highly promising therapy and could accomplish durable anti-tumour responses with a reasonable toxicity profile...
September 23, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#5
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
September 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941979/proteolytic-degradation-and-inflammation-play-critical-roles-in-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy
#6
Sandeep Kumar, Hiroyuki Nakashizuka, Alex Jones, Alyssia Lambert, Xuchen Zhao, Megan Shen, Mackenzie Parker, Shixian Wang, Zachary Berriochoa, Amrita Fnu, Stephanie VanBeuge, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Mark Tso, Jon Rainier, Yingbin Fu
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a common subtype of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Asian populations while choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the typical subtype in Western populations. The etiology of PCV is unknown. By comparing the phenotype of a PCV mouse model expressing protease HTRA1 in retinal pigment epithelium with transgenic mice expressing the inactive HTRA1(S328A), we showed that HTRA1 mediated degradation of elastin in choroidal vessels is critical for the development of PCV, which exhibited destructive extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular smooth muscle cell loss...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941928/sequential-actions-of-immune-effector-cells-induced-by-viral-activation-of-dendritic-cells-to-eliminate-murine-neuroblastoma
#7
Naonori Kawakubo, Sakura Tanaka, Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Tatsuro Tajiri, Yoshikazu Yonemitsu, Tomoaki Taguchi
PURPOSE: In preclinical trails, we reported the antitumor effect of dendritic cells activated with Sendai virus (rSeV/DC) combined with γ-irradiation against neuroblastoma. However, what kind of effector cells for the combined therapy were used to show the antitumor effect was unclear. In this study, we performed radiation and rSeV/DC therapy in vivo and examined the effector cells involved. METHODS: Dendritic cells were cultured from bone marrow cells, activated with SeV and administered intratumorally at 10(6) weekly for 3weeks...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941847/role-of-essential-trace-elements-in-tuberculosis-infection-a-review-article
#8
REVIEW
Aliyeh Sargazi, Roghayeh Afsar Gharebagh, Alireza Sargazi, Halimeh Aali, Hamid Owaysee Oskoee, Zahra Sepehri
Malnutrition is one of the risk factors in tuberculosis (TB) infection. Mineral levels perturbation is seen in patients with TB. Moreover there are some strategies to starve pathogens of essential metals. Here we decided to conclude association between some essential elements and TB. Copper, calcium and iron are essential for hosts' immune system although calcium and iron are necessary for Mycobacterium tuberculosis vitality. Changing these elements alongside with anti-TB therapy is suggested for better treatment outcomes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941564/cancer-therapy-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-establishing-a-role-for-ophthalmology
#9
REVIEW
Mary Elizabeth Davis, Jasmine H Francis
OBJECTIVE: To discuss interprofessional collaboration between the primary oncology clinicians and specialists in the management of immune-related ocular toxicities. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed articles, case reports and systematic reviews. CONCLUSION: Accurate ophthalmologic assessment is critical for the prevention and treatment of ocular toxicities associated with immunotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Oncology nurses play a key role in early identification and management of ocular symptoms from immunotherapy; early referral to ophthalmic specialists can enhance recovery and preserve sight...
September 20, 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941538/sedation-analgesia-and-neuromuscular-blockade-in-pediatric-critical-care-overview-and-current-landscape
#10
REVIEW
Athena F Zuppa, Martha A Q Curley
Sedation is a mainstay of therapy for critically ill children. Although necessary in the care of the critically ill child, sedative drugs are associated with adverse effects, such as disruption of circadian rhythm, altered sleep, delirium, potential neurotoxicity, and immunosuppression. Optimal approaches to the sedation of the critically ill child should include identification of sedation targets and sedation interruptions, allowing for a more individualized approach to sedation. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between critical illness and sedation pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the impact of sedation on immune function, and the genetic implications on drug disposition and response...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941537/immunoparalysis-in-pediatric-critical-care
#11
REVIEW
Mark W Hall, Kristin C Greathouse, Rajan K Thakkar, Eric A Sribnick, Jennifer A Muszynski
Although many forms of critical illness are initiated by a proinflammatory stimulus, a compensatory anti-inflammatory response can occur with systemic inflammation. Immunoparalysis, an important form of acquired immunodeficiency, affects the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Immunoparalysis has been associated with increased risks for nosocomial infection and death in a variety of pediatric critical illnesses. Evidence suggests that immunoparalysis is reversible with immunostimulants. Highly standardized, prospective immune monitoring regimens are needed to better understand the immunologic effects of critical care treatment regimens and to enrich clinical trials with subjects most likely to benefit from immunostimulatory therapies...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941536/rationale-for-adjunctive-therapies-for-pediatric-sepsis-induced-multiple-organ-failure
#12
REVIEW
Bradley S Podd, Dennis W Simon, Santiago Lopez, Andrew Nowalk, Rajesh Aneja, Joseph A Carcillo
Adjunctive therapies have been proposed for use in at least 5 inflammation pathobiology phenotypes in pediatric sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. This article discusses host-pathogen interaction prototypes to facilitate understanding of the rationale for personalized therapy in these phenotypes. The article discusses the literature on adjunctive antiinflammatory and immune modulation therapies that, in addition to traditional organ support and infection source control, might be part of a personalized precision medicine approach to the reversal of each of these inflammatory pathobiology phenotypes...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941454/components-of-the-hepatocellular-carcinoma-microenvironment-and-their-role-in-tumor-progression
#13
REVIEW
M V Novikova, N V Khromova, P B Kopnin
This review summarizes recently published data on the mechanisms of tumor cell interaction with the tumor microenvironment. Tumor stroma influences the processes of hepatocarcinogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment includes both cellular and noncellular components. Main cellular components of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stroma are tumor-associated fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, immune cells, and endothelial cells that produce extracellular components of tumor microenvironment such as extracellular matrix, various proteins, proteolytic enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941322/stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-mediates-cardiac-allograft-tolerance-induced-by-human-endometrial-regenerative-cell-based-therapy
#14
Xu Lan, Grace Wang, Xiaoxi Xu, Shanzheng Lu, Xiang Li, Baoren Zhang, Ganggang Shi, Yiming Zhao, Caigan Du, Hao Wang
Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) are mesenchymal-like stromal cells, and their therapeutic potential has been tested in the prevention of renal ischemic reperfusion injury, acute liver injury, ulcerative colitis, and immunosuppression. However, their potential in the induction of transplant tolerance has not been investigated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of ERCs in inducing cardiac allograft tolerance and the function of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the ERC-mediated immunoregulation...
September 23, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941311/endocrinopathies-with-use-of-cancer-immunotherapies
#15
Natalie M Villa, Abtin Farahmand, Lin Du, Michael W Yeh, Stephanie Smooke-Praw, Antoni Ribas, Bartosz Chmielowski, Grace Cherry, Angela M Leung
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory therapies, including CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors, provide a directed attack against cancer cells by preventing T cell deactivation. However, these drugs also prevent the down-regulation of auto-reactive T cells, resulting in immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Reports show a varied incidence of endocrine IRAEs, ranging from 0-63%. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and clinical characteristics of endocrine IRAEs in patients taking cancer immunomodulatory therapies...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941291/dysregulation-of-circulating-tfr-tfh-ratio-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#16
Jiajia Zheng, Tiancheng Wang, Li Zhang, Liyan Cui
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells are critical for the development and maintenance of germinal center (GC) and humoral immune responses. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the dysregulation of either Tfh cells or Tfr cells contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We aim to investigate the roles of circulating Tfh cells and circulating Tfr cells in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). 34 PBC patients and 27 health individuals were enrolled in this study...
September 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941161/from-clinical-observations-and-molecular-dissection-to-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Hans D Ochs, Daniel Petroni
The field of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) is rapidly expanding with more than 300 genetically defined disorders that have been clinically described and molecularly analyzed. The molecular dissection of these entities has led to the discovery of new immunologic pathways and to novel and effective disease-specific therapies. This review provides a summary of these primary immune defects categorized by clinical phenotype and molecular similarity as defined by the International Union of Immunologic Societies (IUIS) Expert Committee for PID...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940572/systemic-photodynamic-therapy-in-folliculitis-decalvans
#18
N J Collier, D Allan, F Diaz Pesantes, L Sheridan, E Allan
Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is classified as a primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia, and is estimated to account for approximately 10% of all cases of primary cicatricial alopecia. The role of dysfunctional immune activity and the presence of bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, appear pivotal. We describe a 26-year-old man with a 4-year history of FD that was recalcitrant to numerous systemic and topical therapies, whose disease was virtually cleared during a follow-up of 25 months following a course of treatment with systemic photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ultraviolet light (100-140 J/cm(2) ) with porfimer sodium 1 mg/kg as monotherapy...
September 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940544/chronic-granulomatous-dermatitis-induced-by-talimogene-laherparepvec-therapy-of-melanoma-metastases
#19
Ashlyn S Everett, Peter G Pavlidakey, Carlo M Contreras, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Ju Y Kim, Svetlana B McKee, Howard L Kaufman, Robert M Conry
Talimogene laherparepvec is the first oncolytic viral immunotherapy approved by the FDA, for advanced melanoma consisting of genetically modified herpes simplex type 1 virus which selectively replicates causing tumor lysis, expressing GM-CSF and activating dendritic cells. Intratumoral injection of TVEC produces objective response in 41% of stage IIB-IV M1a melanoma. However, clinical response assessments can be problematic due to immune-related inflammation at established tumor sites. Herein, we report 5 cases of granulomatous dermatitis developing at sites of TVEC injection associated with pathologic complete response in 4 of 5 patients...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940439/detection-of-abcb5-tumour-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-melanoma-patients-and-implications-for-immunotherapy
#20
Sylvia Borchers, Christoph Masslo, Christina Ann Müller, Anika Tahedl, Jennifer Volkind, Yvonne Nowak, Viktor Umansky, Jasmina Esterlechner, Markus Hermann Frank, Christoph Ganss, Mark Andreas Kluth, Jochen Utikal
ABCB5 has been identified as a tumour initiating cell marker and is expressed in various malignancies, including melanoma. Moreover, treatment with anti-ABCB5 monoclonal antibodies has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in xenotransplantation models. Therefore, ABCB5 represents a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. However, cellular immune responses against ABCB5 in humans have not been described so far. Here, we investigated whether ABCB5-reactive T cells are present in human melanoma patients and tested the applicability of ABCB5-derived peptides for experimental induction of human T cell responses...
September 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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