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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107607/epidemiology-update-for-hepatitis-c-virus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-in-end-stage-renal-disease-in-france-r%C3%A3-seau-epid%C3%A3-miologique-et-information-en-n%C3%A3-phrologie-registry
#2
Corinne Isnard Bagnis, Cécile Couchoud, Marc Bowens, Ayman Sarraj, Gilbert Deray, Jérôme Tourret, Patrice Cacoub, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Risk for HCV/HBV infection is increased in ESRD patients. We generate updated epidemiological data. METHODS: Based on the National French registry for ESRD, we extracted data for patients who started dialysis or preemptive transplantation between January, 2005 and December, 2013. A positive serum HBs Ag and/or a positive HCV RNA defined HBV and HCV infections, respectively. RESULTS: 72,948 patients were included among which 62...
January 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107583/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-chronic-kidney-disease-advances-limitations-and-unchartered-territories
#3
Manuel Mendizabal, K Rajender Reddy
Over the past few years, treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have evolved dramatically. The current approved interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been shown to be safe and effective with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90% in most patients. Unique issues yet remain such as the challenges in patients with impaired renal function or decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection compared with the general population...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107566/recent-advances-in-understanding-clonal-haematopoiesis-in-aplastic-anaemia
#4
REVIEW
Natasha Stanley, Timothy S Olson, Daria V Babushok
Acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure disorder inextricably linked to clonal haematopoiesis. The majority of AA patients have somatic mutations and/or structural chromosomal abnormalities detected as early as at diagnosis. In contrast to other conditions linked to clonal haematopoiesis, the clonal signature of AA reflects its immune pathophysiology. The most common alterations are clonal expansions of cells lacking glycophosphotidylinositol-anchored proteins, loss of human leucocyte antigen alleles, and mutations in BCOR/BCORL1, ASXL1 and DNMT3A...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107546/bone-marrow-stroma-protects-myeloma-cells-from-cytotoxic-damage-via-induction-of-the-oncoprotein-muc1
#5
Michal Bar-Natan, Dina Stroopinsky, Katarina Luptakova, Maxwell D Coll, Arie Apel, Hasan Rajabi, Athalia R Pyzer, Kristen Palmer, Michaela R Reagan, Myrna R Nahas, Rebecca Karp Leaf, Salvia Jain, Jon Arnason, Irene M Ghobrial, Kenneth C Anderson, Donald Kufe, Jacalyn Rosenblatt, David Avigan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a lethal haematological malignancy that arises in the context of a tumour microenvironment that promotes resistance to apoptosis and immune escape. In the present study, we demonstrate that co-culture of MM cells with stromal cells results in increased resistance to cytotoxic and biological agents as manifested by decreased rates of cell death following exposure to alkylating agents and the proteosome inhibitor, bortezomib. To identify the mechanism of increased resistance, we examined the effect of the co-culture of MM cells with stroma cells, on expression of the MUC1 oncogene, known to confer tumour cells with resistance to apoptosis and necrosis...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107533/improvement-of-therapeutic-efficacy-of-oral-immunotherapy-in-combination-with-regulatory-t-cell-inducer-kakkonto-in-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#6
Yuka Nagata, Takeshi Yamamoto, Michie Hayashi, Shusaku Hayashi, Makoto Kadowaki
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been considered a promising approach for food allergies (FAs). However, the current OIT strategy is limited in terms of the long-term efficacy and safety. We have previously demonstrated that kakkonto, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, suppresses the occurrence of allergic symptoms in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced FA, which is attributed to the induction of the Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we established an OIT model using the FA mice with already established allergic symptoms and determined whether kakkonto could improve the efficacy of OIT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107457/novel-analysis-of-immune-cells-from-nasal-microbiopsy-demonstrates-reliable-reproducible-data-for-immune-populations-and-superior-cytokine-detection-compared-to-nasal-wash
#7
Simon P Jochems, Katherine Piddock, Jamie Rylance, Hugh Adler, Beatriz F Carniel, Andrea Collins, Jenna F Gritzfeld, Carole Hancock, Helen Hill, Jesus Reiné, Alexandra Seddon, Carla Solórzano, Syba Sunny, Ashleigh Trimble, Angela D Wright, Seher Zaidi, Stephen B Gordon, Daniela M Ferreira
The morbidity and mortality related to respiratory tract diseases is enormous, with hundreds of millions of individuals afflicted and four million people dying each year. Understanding the immunological processes in the mucosa that govern outcome following pathogenic encounter could lead to novel therapies. There is a need to study responses at mucosal surfaces in humans for two reasons: (i) Immunological findings in mice, or other animals, often fail to translate to humans. (ii) Compartmentalization of the immune system dictates a need to study sites where pathogens reside...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106541/cell-membrane-and-intracellular-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-9-tlr9-in-colorectal-cancer-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Shadab Shahriari, Somayeh Rezaeifard, Hamid Reza Moghimi, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh, Zahra Faghih
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a DNA receptor of innate immune system which plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Recent evidence reveals over-expression and functionality of TLR9 in a wide variety of cancer cells and its contribution to tumor cell proliferation and survival. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed the aberrant cell surface expression of TLR9 in cancer using cell-lines model. METHODS: Three breast cancer cell-lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and SKBR3) and five colorectal adenocarcinoma cell-lines (HT29, HT29/219, SW480, SW48 and SW1116) in addition to one primary foreskin isolated fibroblast cell were analyzed for cell surface and intracellular expression of TLR9 by flow cytometry method...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#10
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106152/cancer-immunotherapy-immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-associated-endocrinopathies
#11
REVIEW
David J Byun, Jedd D Wolchok, Lynne M Rosenberg, Monica Girotra
Advances in cancer therapy in the past few years include the development of medications that modulate immune checkpoint proteins. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) are two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on activated T cells against which therapeutic blocking antibodies have reached routine clinical use. Immune checkpoint blockade can induce inflammatory adverse effects, termed immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), which resemble autoimmune disease...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106067/multiple-sclerosis-in-2016-immune-directed-therapies-in-ms-efficacy-and-limitations
#12
Bernhard Hemmer, Mark Mühlau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105709/the-impact-of-co-existing-immune-mediated-on-phenotype-and-outcomes-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#13
G Conway, G Velonias, E Andrews, J J Garber, V Yajnik, A N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases lead to progressive bowel damage and need for surgery. While the increase in prevalence of other immune-mediated diseases in IBD is well recognised, the impact of this on the natural history of IBD is unknown. AIM: To determine the impact of concomitant immune-mediate disease on phenotypes and outcomes in IBD. METHODS: Patients with IBD enrolled in a prospective registry were queried about the presence of other immune-mediated diseases, defined as those where immune dysregulation plays a role in pathogenesis...
January 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105616/-interpretation-of-the-updates-of-nccn-2017-version-1-0-guideline-for-colorectal-cancer
#14
Gong Chen
The NCCN has recently released its 2017 version 1.0 guideline for colorectal cancer. There are several updates from this new version guideline which are believed to change the current clinical practice. Update one, low-dose aspirin is recommended for patients with colorectal cancer after colectomy for secondary chemoprevention. Update two, biological agents are removed from the neoadjuvant treatment regimen for resectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This update is based on lack of evidence to support benefits of biological agents including bevacizumab and cetuximab in the neoadjuvant setting...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105610/antithyroid-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-state-of-the-art-on-diagnosis-and-management
#15
Nuno Vicente, Luís Cardoso, Luísa Barros, Francisco Carrilho
Agranulocytosis is a rare but serious complication of antithyroid drug therapy, and an up-to-date understanding of this topic is important. Both direct toxicity and immune-mediated responses have been described as possible mechanisms. Some major susceptibility loci have recently been identified, which may lead the diagnosis of agranulocytosis into a genomic era. Onset is acute and patients present with symptoms and signs of infection together with high fever. Clinical suspicion is pivotal and should prompt blood sampling...
January 19, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105370/interstitial-nephritis-in-melanoma-patients-secondary-to-pd-1-checkpoint-inhibitor
#16
Julia Escandon, Stephanie Peacock, Asaad Trabolsi, David B Thomas, Ayman Layka, Jose Lutzky
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become the first line therapy in melanoma treatment and their use is extending to other malignancies. However, we are still learning about immune side effects produced by these drugs and their severity especially in patients with history of inflammatory diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two cases of metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab and pembrolizumab (anti PD-1). Both patients developed acute interstitial nephritis during immune checkpoint therapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105368/clinical-and-immunologic-correlates-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-medullary-carcinoma
#17
Kathryn E Beckermann, Pradeep C Jolly, Ju Y Kim, Jennifer Bordeaux, Igor Puzanov, W Kimryn Rathmell, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare kidney tumor that occurs in adolescent and young adults, typically in association with sickle cell trait. RMC exhibits rapid disease progression, frequent metastases at diagnosis, and dismal clinical outcomes. Currently available therapies, including cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, multi-tyrosine kinase, and mTOR inhibitor strategies demonstrate either transient responses or minimal activity. Therefore, further molecular characterization and additional treatment strategies are urgently needed in this aggressive disease...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105364/disseminated-penicillium-marneffei-infection-recurrence-in-a-non-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-patient-a-case-report
#18
Zhixue Zhang, Fangxu Tao, Yining Li, Yudong Xiao, Zhishu Zhang, Jun Liu
Penicillium marneffei is a rare deep tissue fungal infection causing an endemic in Southeast Asia. This infection causes penicilliosis disease and is more common in patients who are immunocompromised. To date, no cases of P. marneffei infection relapse following treatment have been reported. A 36-year-old patient attended our hospital as a result of intermittent fever, cough, shortness of breath and multiple soft lesions located on the face, arms, neck and trunk. The medical radiological examination of the lung revealed multiple patchy exudative shadows, thick-walled hollow inner part of the visible lesions, bilateral pleural and pericardial effusion...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105258/efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-australian-real-world-experience
#19
Grace C Lovett, Tin Nguyen, David M Iser, Jacinta A Holmes, Robert Chen, Barbara Demediuk, Gideon Shaw, Sally J Bell, Paul V Desmond, Alexander J Thompson
AIM: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes of tenofovir therapy in patients in a real world Australian tertiary care setting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes among treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients receiving a minimum 3 mo tenofovir therapy through St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. We included patients receiving tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)] monotherapy, as well as patients treated with TDF in combination with a second antiviral agent...
January 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105236/ouabain-induced-alterations-in-abcb1-of-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-and-thymocytes-of-rats-and-mice
#20
Daniel Boff Lima, Raphael Carmo Valente, Marcia Alves Marques Capella
Ouabain is a glycoside with immunomodulating properties, and recent studies have suggested its use in adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. Ouabain is known to modulate the immune system in vitro, and previous studies have revealed that ouabain can modulate the expression and activity of ABCB1, a protein associated with multidrug resistance present in immune system. Therefore, the present study investigated alterations in the expression and activity of ABCB1 in the thymi, peripheral blood monocytes and lymph nodes of Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated acutely or chronically with ouabain...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
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