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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783157/vaccines-and-the-association-with-relapses-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#1
Maureen A Mealy, Lawrence J Cook, Florence Pache, Diego L Velez, Nadja Borisow, Daniel Becker, Jorge A Jimenez Arango, Friedemann Paul, Michael Levy
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if vaccines cause non-specific immune activation in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and no consensus on the use of vaccines exists for this population. We investigated the temporal association of vaccinations with relapses in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective analysis of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder for whom immunization history and clinical records from disease onset were available...
May 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782928/a-mathematical-approach-to-effects-of-ctls-on-cancer-virotherapy-in-the-second-injection-of-virus
#2
A Ashyani, O RabieiMotlagh, H M Mohammadinezhad
This paper proposes a planar delay differential equation for cancer virotherapy. The model simulates the situation in which an oncolytic virus is injected for the second time, and the immune system suppresses the viral infection with a time delay. Our purpose is to provide theoretical conditions so that the therapy can be continued successfully. With the help of the characteristic equation, we examine the singularities and their local stability. Hopf bifurcation is also investigated around the endemic singularity...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782924/emerging-biomarkers-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
George Cyriac, Leena Gandhi
Immune checkpoint inhibition with anti-PD-1 therapy has been notably successful in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and changed standard practice in multiple settings. However, despite some durable benefits seen, the majority of unselected patients with NSCLC fail to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. Patient selection is crucial and will become even more important in the development of combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors. PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as the most commonly used clinical biomarker of response and overall tumor mutational burden (TMB) is being explored as a clinical biomarker...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#4
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782308/activation-of-herpes-simplex-infection-after-tattoo
#5
Antigona Begolli Gerqari, Mybera Ferizi, Merita Kotori, Aferdita Daka, Syzana Hapciu, Ilir Begolli, Mirije Begolli, Idriz Gerqari
Tattooing is a procedure where ink is applied to an area of the skin, mostly intraepidermally (1). This procedure is carried out mainly for aesthetic purposes. Lately, it has been used as a corrective medical procedure following amputation of mammilla. The procedure is aggressive (2), and the fact that skin is punctured many times with the same needle which cannot be fully sterilized may cause infection of the treated area with bacterial, fungal, or viral agents that may lead to health consequences manifesting in the form of verrucae vulgaris, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes simplex...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782188/an-evaluation-of-nivolumab-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Kevin Zarrabi, Shenhong Wu
The treatment paradigm for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has undergone a revolution with the rapid market approval of multiple agents over a three-year period. The immunogenicity of RCC provided the biological rationale to assess the clinical efficacy of nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor. Nivolumab is approved for second-line treatment after failure of angiogenesis targeted therapy and in combination therapy with ipilimumab for previously untreated intermediate or poor-risk advanced renal cell carcinoma...
May 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782069/efficacy-and-safety-of-nivolumab-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-preexisting-interstitial-lung-disease
#7
Osamu Kanai, Young Hak Kim, Yoshiki Demura, Makiko Kanai, Tsuyoshi Ito, Kohei Fujita, Hironori Yoshida, Masaya Akai, Tadashi Mio, Toyohiro Hirai
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing lung cancer is high in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), as few treatment options are available. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in clinical practice; however, in patients with preexisting ILD, the risk of ICI-related pneumonitis is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy and lung toxicity of nivolumab in patients with NSCLC and ILD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 216 NSCLC patients who had received nivolumab therapy...
May 21, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781885/improved-cognitive-performance-and-reduced-monocyte-activation-in-virally-suppressed-chronic-hiv-following-dual-ccr2-and-ccr5-antagonism
#8
Michelle L D'Antoni, Robert H Paul, Brooks I Mitchell, Lindsay Kohorn, Laurent Fischer, Eric Lefebvre, Star Seyedkazemi, Beau K Nakamoto, Maegen Walker, Kalpana J Kallianpur, Debra Ogata-Arakaki, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Cecilia Shikuma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in neuropsychological (NP) performance and in plasma and cell surface markers of peripheral monocyte activation/migration following treatment with cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) and type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected individuals. SETTING: Single-arm, 24-week, open-label clinical trial. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) >1 year with plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/ml and below-normal cognitive performance [defined as age, gender and education-adjusted NP performance (NPZ) <-0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781883/cytomegalovirus-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-and-cmv-igg-levels-are-associated-with-neurocognitive-impairment-in-people-living-with-hiv
#9
Susanne Dam Nielsen, Vibe Ballegaard, Karin Kaereby Pedersen, Maria Pedersen, Peter Brændstrup, Nikolai Kirkby, Anette Stryhn Buus, Lars P Ryder, Jan Gerstoft
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms leading to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) on stable antiretroviral therapy (cART) remain unknown. We investigated the association between CMV immunity, HIV-specific variables and NCI in PLWHIV on stable cART and with low comorbidity. METHODS: 52 PLWHIV on stable cART and 31 HIV-uninfected controls matched on age, gender, education and comorbidity were tested with a neurocognitive test-battery and CMV-immunoglobulin G (CMV-IgG) levels were measured...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781826/understanding-microbiome-effect-on-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-lung-cancer-placing-the-puzzle-pieces-together
#10
Umang Swami, Yousef Zakharia, Jun Zhang
Over the past couple of years, human microbiome has received increasing attention as a regulator and predictor of response to the therapies of various diseases. It is speculated that manipulating gut microbiome can modify response to cancer immunotherapies as well. Through this review, we have critically analyzed our current understanding of gut microbiome as a modulator of immunotherapies in lung cancer, explained conflicting data, evaluated current gaps and extrapolated our present knowledge to generate directions for future investigations...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#11
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781548/multi-omics-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-biomarkers-from-genome-to-the-immunome
#12
Cole Clifford, Natasha Vitkin, Sarah Nersesian, Gillian Reid-Schachter, Julie-Ann Francis, Madhuri Koti
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a lethal gynaecological disease that imposes significant burden on health care and patient quality of life. High-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary (HGSC) is the most prevalent histological type of EOC. A vast majority of HGSC cases are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, limiting the opportunity for clinical intervention and resulting in a 10-year survival rate of <20%. Recent innovations in high-throughput molecular analysis of patient-derived specimens may address these clinical challenges by providing an enhanced understanding of the molecular aetiology of ovarian cancer, in addition to offering several opportunities for rational biomarker and targeted therapy discovery...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781374/april-and-staci-could-be-predictors-of-severe-multiorgan-dysfunction-syndrome-in-sepsis
#13
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
May 21, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780944/central-retinal-artery-occlusion-secondary-to-barlow-s-disease
#14
Carl S Wilkins, Katherine McCabe, Avnish Deobhakta, James Chelnis
Purpose: To report a rare case of isolated, unilateral CRAO in a young patient with mitral valve prolapse secondary to Barlow's disease. Observations: A 29-year-old woman with history of premature ventricular contractions and cardiac ablation presented to the emergency room after sudden onset painless visual loss in her left eye (OS). Her vision was 20/20 in her right eye and hand motion in the left. Fundus exam demonstrated a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) OS...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780831/impact-exerted-by-nutritional-risk-screening-on-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#15
Rui Wang, Hongfei Cai, Yang Li, Caiwen Chen, Youbin Cui
Objective: Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional support, and the other patients not supported nutritionally were selected as the control group...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780755/ovarian-teratoma-associated-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-difficult-diagnosis-with-a-favorable-prognosis
#16
Ananya Datta Mitra, Alaa Afify
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described auto-immune and paraneoplastic encephalitis with prominent neuropsychiatric manifestations affecting young adults with ovarian teratoma. The availability of a novel assay to measure these antibodies might suggest an etiology for this potentially life-threatening disease, which if early recognized can be treated promptly with surgery with chances of a good clinical outcome. Reported prognostic indicators for a good outcome depend on the presence of a tumor, prompt treatment and no admission to an intensive care unit...
April 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780635/liquid-biopsy-for-lung-cancer-early-detection
#17
REVIEW
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Alessia Liguori, Alessandro D'Aveni, Niki Karachaliou, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Maria Grazia Daffinà, Chiara Lazzari, Giuseppe Altavilla, Rafael Rosell
Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780391/concepts-collide-genomic-immune-and-microbial-influences-on-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-response-to-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Miles C Andrews, Alexandre Reuben, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Jennifer A Wargo
Cancer research has seen unprecedented advances over the past several years, with tremendous insights gained into mechanisms of response and resistance to cancer therapy. Central to this has been our understanding of crosstalk between the tumor and the microenvironment, with the recognition that complex interactions exist between tumor cells, stromal cells, overall host immunity, and the environment surrounding the host. This is perhaps best exemplified in cancer immunotherapy, where numerous studies across cancer types have illuminated our understanding of the genomic and immune factors that shape responses to therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780381/interferon-gamma-at-the-crossroads-of-tumor-immune-surveillance-or-evasion
#19
REVIEW
Flávia Castro, Ana Patrícia Cardoso, Raquel Madeira Gonçalves, Karine Serre, Maria José Oliveira
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic molecule with associated antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and antitumor mechanisms. This effector cytokine, often considered as a major effector of immunity, has been used in the treatment of several diseases, despite its adverse effects. Although broad evidence implicating IFN-γ in tumor immune surveillance, IFN-γ-based therapies undergoing clinical trials have been of limited success. In fact, recent reports suggested that it may also play a protumorigenic role, namely, through IFN-γ signaling insensitivity, downregulation of major histocompatibility complexes, and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and of checkpoint inhibitors, as programmed cell-death ligand 1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780375/effect-of-artinm-on-human-blood-cells-during-infection-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#20
Luciana P Ruas, Livia M Genaro, Amauri S Justo-Junior, Lilian O Coser, Lívia F de Castro, Plinio Trabasso, Ronei L Mamoni, Maria-Cristina Roque-Barreira, Maria-Heloisa S L Blotta
Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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