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Tiffaney Renfro, Erin Johnson, Danielle N Lambert, Gina Wingood, Ralph J DiClemente
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention...
February 17, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Christina M Correnti, Suephy C Chen, Benjamin K Stoff
BACKGROUND: Video-based patient education about long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment has not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To compare video-based versus verbal education in patient knowledge gained and satisfaction. METHODS: English-speaking adults (≥18 years) were recruited from March-August 2013 from medical dermatology clinics. Study provider clinics were the unit of randomization. Verbal subjects heard a script based on the standard discussions of two top systemic corticosteroid prescribers at Emory...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Becky Earhart, Meaghan C Danby, Sonja P Brubacher, Martine B Powell, Stefanie Sharman
This study examined children's responses to two alternate prompts used to transition to the substantive phase of an interview. Children ( N = 401) experienced four scripted events and were later interviewed. After rapport building, half of the children were asked, "Tell me what you're here to talk to me about today," whereas the other half were asked, "Tell me why you're here to talk to me today." Children's responses were coded as informative (e.g., nouns) or uninformative (e.g., "don't know")...
January 1, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Kallia O Wright
In this essay, the author reflects on how biomedical and gendered perceptions of reproductive health can impact an illness experience. Using a narrative lens, she relays the frustration of attempting to have her excessive menstrual pain legitimated and treated when loved ones and medical professionals trivialized it and refused to let her take on the sick role. She recounts incidents that demonstrate the embedded and limiting persistence of gendered perceptions of pain. In the end, she argues that only through strong patient self-advocacy and knowledge can one rewrite the social scripts assigned to how women cope with menstrual pain...
February 21, 2018: Health Communication
Jonathan Garcia, Amaya G Perez-Brumer, Robinson Cabello, Jesse L Clark
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to affect men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru at disproportionately high rates. The ineffectiveness of traditional prevention strategies may be due to the disconnect between health promotion messages and community-level understandings of sexual cultures. We conducted 15 workshops with MSM and TW to develop a community-based sexual health intervention. Intervention development consisted of focus groups and scenic improvisation to identify sexual scripts for an HIV prevention telenovela, or Spanish soap opera...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Malachi Willis, Kristen N Jozkowski, Wen-Juo Lo, Stephanie A Sanders
Women who have sex with women (WSW) are more likely to report experiencing an orgasm during partnered sex, compared to women who have sex with men (WSM). We investigated whether this difference can be partially accounted for by phallocentric imperatives-gendered sexual scripts that prioritize men's sexual experience. For example, these imperatives emphasize vaginal-penile intercourse (i.e., the coital imperative) and men's physical pleasure (i.e., the male orgasm imperative). We reasoned that a larger variety of sexual behaviors indicates less adherence to the coital imperative and that more self-oriented orgasm goals for women indicate less adherence to the male orgasm imperative...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Naim Mahroum, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Kassem Sharif, Vincenza Gianfredi, Daniele Nucci, Roberto Rosselli, Francesco Brigo, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Abdulla Watad
BACKGROUND: Technological advancements, such as patient-centered smartphone applications, have enabled to support self-management of the disease. Further, the accessibility to health information through the Internet has grown tremendously. This article aimed to investigate how big data can be useful to assess the impact of a celebrity's rheumatic disease on the public opinion. METHODS: Variable tools and statistical/computational approaches have been used, including massive data mining of Google Trends, Wikipedia, Twitter, and big data analytics...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Olga Ehrlich, Rachel K Walker
BACKGROUND: Qualitative pain research for hospice patients with cancer and their caregivers involves recruiting and retaining participants with multiple vulnerabilities and ethical and logistical challenges. These have been reported for studies of individuals or dyads. However, there are no reports of the related challenges and outcomes where the sampled population was a hospice triad. OBJECTIVES: Qualitative research about pain management for home hospice patients with cancer contributes rich descriptive data and such studies are critical to improving cancer pain outcomes...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Alexandra S Dylman, Mariko Kikutani
Research on Japanese reading has generally indicated that processing of the logographic script Kanji primarily involves whole-word lexical processing and follows a semantics-to-phonology route, while the two phonological scripts Hiragana and Katakana (collectively called Kana) are processed via a sub-lexical route, and more in a phonology-to-semantics manner. Therefore, switching between the two scripts often involves switching between two reading processes, which results in a delayed response for the second script (a script switch cost)...
2018: Reading and Writing
Shih-Chuan Chou, Craig Rothenberg, Alicia Agnoli, Ilse Wiechers, Jason Lott, Jennifer Voorhees, Steven L Bernstein, Arjun K Venkatesh
BACKGROUND: Patients newly insured through coverage expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) may have difficulty obtaining timely primary care follow-up appointments after emergency department (ED) discharge. We evaluated the association between availability of timely follow-up appointment with practice access improvements, including patient-centered medical home (PCMH) designations or extended-hours appointments. METHODS: We performed a secret-shopper audit of primary care practices in greater New Haven, Connecticut...
February 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emeka Dumbili, Clare Williams
Background: Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Methods: Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of gender through DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Derek T Ahneman, Jesús G Estrada, Shishi Lin, Spencer D Dreher, Abigail G Doyle
Machine learning methods are becoming integral to scientific inquiry in numerous disciplines. Here we demonstrate that machine learning can be used to predict the performance of a synthetic reaction in multidimensional chemical space using data obtained via high-throughput experimentation. We created scripts to compute and extract atomic, molecular, and vibrational descriptors for the components of a palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling of aryl halides with 4-methylaniline in the presence of various potentially inhibitory additives...
February 15, 2018: Science
Ivan A Titaley, O Maduka Ogba, Leah Chibwe, Eunha Hoh, Paul H-Y Cheong, Staci L Massey Simonich
Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python™ script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC × GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ricardo N Dos Santos, Allan J R Ferrari, Hugo C R de Jesus, Fábio C Gozzo, Faruck Morcos, Leandro Martínez, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Elucidation of protein native states from amino acid sequences is a primary computational challenge. Modern computational and experimental methodologies, such as molecular coevolution and chemical cross-linking mass-spectrometry allowed protein structural characterization to previously intangible systems. Despite several independent successful examples, data from these distinct methodologies have not been systematically studied in conjunction. One challenge of structural inference using coevolution is that it is limited to sequence fragments within a conserved and unique domain for which sufficient sequence datasets are available...
February 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
Iris Manor-Binyamini, Avihu Shoshana
This article examines how Bedouin mothers in Israel describe, perceive, and interpret their experiences raising a child with autism. Data were collected using semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 18 Bedouin mothers of children with autism, aged 6-16, living in recognized and unrecognized settlements in the Negev. Analysis of the study findings shows how the subaltern status of Bedouin women, which includes their husbands' constant threats of divorce or taking a second wife, makes it difficult for them to be mobile and interact in the public sphere without the presence of a man and creates an experience unique to these mothers, which we call "Exclusion within Exclusion"...
February 10, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Yvette Keemink, Eugene J F M Custers, Savannah van Dijk, Olle Ten Cate
Objectives: To assess illness script richness and maturity in preclinical students after they attended a specifically structured instructional format, i.e., a case based clinical reasoning (CBCR) course. Methods: In a within-subject experimental design, medical students who had finished the CBCR course participated in an illness script experiment. In the first session, richness and maturity of students' illness scripts for diseases discussed during the CBCR course were compared to illness script richness and maturity for similar diseases not included in the course...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
Jacob C Mandell, Jeremy R Wortman, Tatiana C Rocha, Les R Folio, Katherine P Andriole, Bharti Khurana
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of processing computed tomography (CT) images with a custom window blending algorithm that combines soft-tissue, bone, and lung window settings into a single image; to compare the time for interpretation of chest CT for thoracic trauma with window blending and conventional window settings; and to assess diagnostic performance of both techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adobe Photoshop was scripted to process axial DICOM images from retrospective contrast-enhanced chest CTs performed for trauma with a window-blending algorithm...
February 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
Daniel Brüne, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro, Pablo Mier
OBJECTIVE: Amino acid composition is a sequence feature that has been extensively used to characterize proteomes of many species and protein families. Yet the analysis of amino acid composition of protein domains and the linkers connecting them has received less attention. Here, we perform both a comprehensive full-proteome amino acid composition analysis and a similar analysis focusing on domains and linkers, to uncover domain- or linker-specific differential amino acid usage patterns...
February 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Joshua Garoon
This paper analyzes the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the social worlds of people living with HIV and ART (PLHA) in rural northern Zambia. Studies have demonstrated high rates of ART adherence over a range of sites in southern Africa. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research conducted in Zambia's Mukungule chiefdom between 2006 and 2008, this study investigates expectations of this exemplary adherence, and experiences of treatment failure. Motivated by the life and AIDS-related death of a Mukungule resident, Grace, it moves beyond asking "what made initial cohorts of African PLHA exceptionally adherent?" to raise the pressing question of "what happens next?" Previous scholarship addressing this question has analyzed how PLHA navigate the competing moral and political economies of local kinship and social networks and global HIV/AIDS initiatives...
February 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Naomi Polinsky, Jasmin Perez, Mora Grehl, Koleen McCrink
Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a children's museum. Some parents were instructed to emphasize formal shape terms, others to emphasize spatial goals, and some were not provided scripts. Children were presented with a series of spatial reasoning tasks before and after this parental interaction, and the amount and type of spatial language during the training session was coded for parents and children...
September 2017: Mind, Brain and Education: the Official Journal of the International Mind, Brain, and Education Society
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