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Frances Marcus Lewis, Kristin A Griffith, Amy Walker, Robin M Lally, Elizabeth T Loggers, Ellen H Zahlis, Mary Ellen Shands, Zainab Alzawad, Hebah Al Mulla, Nai-Ching Chi
PURPOSE: The purposes of the study were to (1) test the short-term impact of a telephone-delivered cancer parenting education program, the Enhancing Connections-Telephone (EC-T) Program, on maternal anxiety, depressed mood, parenting competencies, and child behavioral-emotional adjustment and (2) compare those outcomes with outcomes achieved from an in-person delivery of the same program (EC). METHODS: Thirty-two mothers comprised the sample for the within-group design and 77 mothers for the between-group design...
October 21, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Chyng Sun, Matthew B Ezzell, Olivia Kendall
Based on in-depth interviews with 16 heterosexual men, this study focuses on participants' meaning-making surrounding a common and controversial sexual act in pornography: ejaculation on a woman's face (EOWF). We analyze the ways that male consumers decoded EOWF and the ways that EOWF, as a sexual script, was included in the men's accounts of their sexual desires and practices. The majority of the men decoded EOWF through the preferred (encoded) meaning as an act of male dominance and sexual aggression and that they wanted to engage in it despite their general belief that women would not be interested in it...
October 21, 2016: Violence Against Women
Bram Thijssen, Tjeerd M H Dijkstra, Tom Heskes, Lodewyk F A Wessels
BACKGROUND: Computational models in biology are characterized by a large degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty can be analyzed with Bayesian statistics, however, the sampling algorithms that are frequently used for calculating Bayesian statistical estimates are computationally demanding, and each algorithm has unique advantages and disadvantages. It is typically unclear, before starting an analysis, which algorithm will perform well on a given computational model. RESULTS: We present BCM, a toolkit for the Bayesian analysis of Computational Models using samplers...
October 21, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
Sergi Sayols, Denise Scherzinger, Holger Klein
BACKGROUND: PCR clonal artefacts originating from NGS library preparation can affect both genomic as well as RNA-Seq applications when protocols are pushed to their limits. In RNA-Seq however the artifactual reads are not easy to tell apart from normal read duplication due to natural over-sequencing of highly expressed genes. Especially when working with little input material or single cells assessing the fraction of duplicate reads is an important quality control step for NGS data sets...
October 21, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
G Guidi, N Maffei, B Meduri, E D'Angelo, G M Mistretta, P Ceroni, A Ciarmatori, A Bernabei, S Maggi, M Cardinali, V E Morabito, F Rosica, S Malara, A Savini, G Orlandi, C D'Ugo, F Bunkheila, M Bono, S Lappi, C Blasi, F Lohr, T Costi
PURPOSE: To predict patients who would benefit from adaptive radiotherapy (ART) and re-planning intervention based on machine learning from anatomical and dosimetric variations in a retrospective dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 90 patients (pts) treated for head-neck cancer (H&N) formed a multicenter data-set. 41 H&N pts (45.6%) were considered for learning; 49 pts (54.4%) were used to test the tool. A homemade machine-learning classifier was developed to analyze volume and dose variations of parotid glands (PG)...
October 17, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Yan Wang, Jian-Shu Hu, Huang-Quan Lin, Tsz-Ming Ip, David Chi-Cheong Wan
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, molecular docking is primarily employed to screen pure compounds; the top-ranking chemicals are subsequently selected for experimental validation. Unlike synthetic chemicals, most natural products are commercially unavailable. The isolation and purification of each natural product is extremely time-consuming, which has restricted the screening of lead compounds from natural products. PURPOSE: We developed a protocol, Herbalog, to facilitate the identification of bioactive phytochemicals through molecular docking...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar Minhas, Amina Asif, Muhammad Arif
: Feature selection and ranking is of great importance in the analysis of biomedical data. In addition to reducing the number of features used in classification or other machine learning tasks, it allows us to extract meaningful biological and medical information from a machine learning model. Most existing approaches in this domain do not directly model the fact that the relative importance of features can be different in different regions of the feature space. In this work, we present a context aware feature ranking algorithm called CAFÉ-Map...
October 11, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Guillaume Van der Rest, Human Rezaei, Frédéric Halgand
Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the plasticity of the ovine prion protein (PrP) monomer, wild type (A136, R154, Q171), mutants and deletions of ARQ were studied by traveling wave ion mobility experiments coupled to mass spectrometry...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Courtney M Peterson, John W Apolzan, Courtney Wright, Corby K Martin
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sandeep Gangadharan, Gunjan Tiyyagura, Marcie Gawel, Barbara M Walsh, Linda L Brown, Megan Lavoie, Khoon-Yen Tay, Marc A Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore pediatric emergency department (PED) and general emergency department (GED) providers' perceptions on caring for critically ill infants and children. METHODS: This study utilized qualitative methods to examine the perceptions of emergency department providers caring for critically ill infants and children. Teams of providers participated in 4 in situ simulation cases followed by facilitated debriefings. Debriefings were recorded and professionally transcribed...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Michael J Armson, Hervé Abdi, Brian Levine
Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years...
October 17, 2016: Memory
Courtney J Burnett, Dennis P West, Alfred W Rademaker, Roopal V Kundu
BACKGROUND: To assess baseline knowledge and awareness of cardiometabolic comorbidities in subjects with psoriasis. To determine the impact of a verbal scripted educational intervention. METHODS: Fifty-six adults with a clinical diagnosis of moderate to severe psoriasis completed a 12-item questionnaire about psoriasis comorbidity awareness and knowledge at 2 time points: pre-intervention (PR-I) and post-intervention (PO-I). The PR-I questionnaire collected information on history of psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
T Beament, S J Mercer
'Speaking up' or the ability to effectively challenge erroneous decisions is essential to preventing harm. This mixed-methods study in two parts explores the concept of 'barriers to challenging seniors' for anaesthetic trainees, and proposes a conceptual framework. Using a fully immersive simulation scenario with unanticipated airway difficulty, we investigated how junior anaesthetists (one to two years of training) challenged a scripted error. We also conducted focus groups with senior trainees (three to seven years of training) and undertook a 'thematic network analysis' of responses...
November 2016: Anaesthesia
Stephen Barnett, Joan Henderson, Adam Hodgkins, Christopher Harrison, Abhijeet Ghosh, Bridget Dijkmans-Hadley, Helena Britt, Andrew Bonney
BACKGROUND: Electronic medical data (EMD) from electronic health records of general practice computer systems have enormous research potential, yet many variables are unreliable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare selected data variables from general practice EMD with a reliable, representative national dataset (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH)) in order to validate their use for primary care research. METHOD: EMD variables were compared with encounter data from the nationally representative BEACH program using χ (2) tests and robust 95% confidence intervals to test their validity (measure what they reportedly measure)...
October 12, 2016: HIM Journal
Luigi Pagliaro, Agostino Colli
The clinician - the doctor who treats sick people - should be able to establish a good human relationship with his or her patients and their family; should be able to reach a diagnosis even in patients with rare diseases, or atypical presentations - or should refer the patient to a senior colleague; and should be able to recommend the best treatment (or no treatment at all). And he - or she - should be able to draw these abilities from the "deliberate practice" according to Ericsson, i.e. from the combination of experience with reflection - not, or with much lesser strength, from the medical literature as suggested by Evidence-Based Medicine...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Uku Vainik, Kenn Konstabel, Evelin Lätt, Jarek Mäestu, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe
Subjective energy intake (sEI) is often misreported, providing unreliable estimates of energy consumed. Therefore, relating sEI data to health outcomes is difficult. Recently, Börnhorst et al. compared various methods to correct sEI-based energy intake estimates. They criticised approaches that categorise participants as under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters based on the sEI:total energy expenditure (TEE) ratio, and thereafter use these categories as statistical covariates or exclusion criteria...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Andrew J Hogan
The Asilomar conference on genetic engineering in 1975 has long been pointed to by scientists as a model for internal regulation and public engagement. In 2015, the organizers of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC looked to Asilomar as they sought to address the implications of the new CRISPR gene editing technique. Like at Asilomar, the conveners chose to limit the discussion to a narrow set of potential CRISPR applications, involving inheritable human genome editing. The adoption by scientists in 2015 of an Asilomar-like script for discussing genetic engineering offers historians the opportunity to analyze the adjustments that have been made since 1975, and to identify the blind spots that remain in public engagement...
October 5, 2016: Endeavour
Michael Levine, John Flores, Seth A Seabury, Stephen Sanko, Marc Eckstein
BACKGROUND: The public commonly calls 911 for unintentional ingestions, rather than calling the local poison center. By utilizing a series of scripted questions, 911 dispatchers in Los Angeles determine if an ingestion meets "omega-1" classification. Under such circumstances, the regional poison center is contacted prior to dispatch of paramedics. If the poison center advises that the patient can remain at home, EMS is not dispatched and the patient is followed at home by the poison center...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
John H R Burns, Theodore Alexandrov, Katya Ovchinnikova, Ruth D Gates, Misaki Takabayashi
Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA) lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Daniel Umbricht, Marta Del Valle Rubido, Eric Hollander, James T McCracken, Frederick Shic, Lawrence Scahill, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Lisa Squassante, Christophe Grundschober, Heidemarie Kletzl, Paulo Fontoura
The core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) include impaired social communication, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. No effective pharmacotherapy for these core deficits exists. Within the domain of social communication, the vasopressin system is implicated in social cognition and social signaling deficits of ASD, and represents a potential therapeutic target. We assessed the effects of a single 20 mg intravenous dose of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (V1a) antagonist, RG7713, on exploratory biomarkers (eye-tracking), behavioral and clinical measures of social cognition and communication (affective speech recognition [ASR], reading the mind in the eyes [RMET], olfactory identification, scripted interaction), and safety and tolerability in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of 19 high-functioning adult male subjects with DSM-IV Autistic Disorder (age 18-45 years; full scale IQ>70; ABC-Irritability subscale ⩽13)...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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