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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922177/before-attachment-theory-separation-research-at-the-tavistock-clinic-1948-1956
#1
Bican Polat
This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct-observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922153/-radioiodine-therapy-for-benign-thyroid-diseases-version-5-german-guideline
#2
Markus Dietlein, Frank Grünwald, Matthias Schmidt, Peter Schneider, Frederik A Verburg, Markus Luster
The version 5 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders is an update of the version 4, which was published by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, DGN) in co-ordination with the German Society of Endocrinology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, DGE, Sektion Schilddrüse) and the German Society of General- and Visceral-Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, DGAV) in 2007. This guideline was harmonized with the recommendations of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)...
December 6, 2016: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922132/wideband-helicity-dependent-spoof-surface-plasmon-polaritons-coupling-metasurface-based-on-dispersion-design
#3
Guoxiang Dong, Hongyu Shi, Yuchen He, Anxue Zhang, Xiaoyong Wei, Yongyong Zhuang, Bai Du, Song Xia, Zhuo Xu
The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have many potential application due to their local field enhancement and sub-wavelength characteristics. Recently, the gradient metasurface is introduced to couple the spoof SPPs in microwave frequency band. One of the most important issue which should be solved is the narrowband of spoof SPPs coupling on the gradient metasurface. Here, the metasurface is proposed to achieve the wideband helicity dependent directional spoof SPPs coupling for circular polarized light. Our research show that the coupling frequency of spoof SPPs on the gradient metasurface is determined by the dispersion of the metasurface, so the coupling frequency can be controlled by dispersion design...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921385/-practical-electrospinning-of-biopolymers-in-ionic-liquids
#4
Julia L Shamshina, Oleksandra Zavgorodnya, Jonathan R Bonner, Gabriela Gurau, Thomas Di Nardo, Robin D Rogers
To address the need to scale up technologies for electrospinning of biopolymers from ionic liquids to practical volumes, a setup for the multi-needle electrospinning of chitin using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2 mim]-[OAc], was designed, built, and demonstrated. Materials with controllable and high surface area were prepared at the nanoscale using ionic-liquid solutions of high-molecular-weight chitin extracted with the same ionic liquid directly from shrimp shells.
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921168/the-2016-diagnostic-criteria-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#5
Takahiro Nakazawa, Kenji Notohara, Susumu Tazuma, Atsushi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Isayama, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Toshiyuki Mori, Hajime Takikawa
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by an inflammatory and fibrotic process centered on the epithelium, leading to diffuse biliary stenosis and increased wall thickness throughout the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary trees. A nationwide survey in Japan revealed several differences in the clinical aspects of PSC between Japan and Western countries. PSC was recently designated an intractable hepatobiliary disease in Japan...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920961/taking-full-responsibility-the-ethics-of-supervision-in-behavior-analytic-practice
#6
Tyra P Sellers, Shahla Alai-Rosales, Rebecca P F MacDonald
The supervision of professionals in the field of behavior analysis is multifaceted. The BACB® Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysis provides guidance for effective supervisory practices, as supervision impacts both the supervisee and the consumers. The purpose of this article is (1) to discuss rationales and consequences relative to supervision issues, (2) to provide directions for professional development in each of the seven identified supervisory areas within the code, and (3) to set the occasion for critical discourse relative to supervision...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920960/towards-a-competency-based-ethical-and-socially-valid-approach-to-the-supervision-of-applied-behavior-analytic-trainees
#7
Laura B Turner, Aaron J Fischer, James K Luiselli
Competency-based supervision of trainees has recently come to the forefront of behavior analytic practice; however, there are minimal data to support the effectiveness of various supervision practices on trainee outcomes. Accordingly, this paper is intended to spark further discussion and research activity regarding the supervision of those seeking to become Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA). We present a practice model and considerations for supervising applied behavior analytic trainees consistent with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Supervisor Training Curriculum Outline (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2012b), the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2014), and extant literature from behavior analysis and related fields...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920568/reduced-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-is-an-early-indicator-of-trauma-induced-acute-systemic-inflammatory-response
#8
Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Jochen Bender, Thorsten Brenner, Stefan Hofer, Karsten Schmidt
PURPOSE: Early diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome is fundamentally important for an effective and a goal-directed therapy. Various inflammation biomarkers have been used in clinical and experimental practice. However, a definitive diagnostic tool for an early detection of systemic inflammation remains to be identified. Acetylcholine (Ach) has been shown to play an important role in the inflammatory response. Serum cholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase [BChE]) is the major Ach hydrolyzing enzyme in blood...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920378/the-eco-evolutionary-impacts-of-domestication-and-agricultural-practices-on-wild-species
#9
REVIEW
Martin M Turcotte, Hitoshi Araki, Daniel S Karp, Katja Poveda, Susan R Whitehead
Agriculture is a dominant evolutionary force that drives the evolution of both domesticated and wild species. However, the various mechanisms of agriculture-induced evolution and their socio-ecological consequences are not often synthetically discussed. Here, we explore how agricultural practices and evolutionary changes in domesticated species cause evolution in wild species. We do so by examining three processes by which agriculture drives evolution. First, differences in the traits of domesticated species, compared with their wild ancestors, alter the selective environment and create opportunities for wild species to specialize...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920351/effects-of-pediatric-anticipatory-guidance-on-mothers-of-young-children
#10
Hui-Chin Hsu, Shih-Yu Lee, Chin-Man Lai, Wan-Ling Tsai, Hsiao-Tung Chiu
Provision of anticipatory guidance to parents during well-child visits is a defining component of pediatric primary care. Using nationally representative data from the 2000 U.S. National Survey of Early Childhood Health, this study addressed the questions of whether, how, and what mothers of children below age 3 with different ethnic/racial background could benefit from anticipatory guidance. Structural equation modeling results showed that across ethnic/racial groups, guidance was directly associated with decreased maternal stress and directly and indirectly associated with effective parenting practices in child development, discipline, and safety...
December 5, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920217/navigating-challenges-in-the-application-of-superresolution-microscopy
#11
REVIEW
Talley J Lambert, Jennifer C Waters
In 2014, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists who have made groundbreaking contributions to the field of superresolution (SR) microscopy (SRM). The first commercial SR microscope came to market a decade earlier, and many other commercial options have followed. As commercialization has lowered the barrier to using SRM and the awarding of the Nobel Prize has drawn attention to these methods, biologists have begun adopting SRM to address a wide range of questions in many types of specimens...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920162/-hey-everybody-don-t-get-pregnant-zika-who-and-an-ethical-framework-for-advising
#12
Katie Byron, Dana Howard
WHO recently issued new guidance on the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. The updated guidance states that '[c]ountry health programmes should ensure that… [i]n order to prevent adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes, men and women of reproductive age, living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, be correctly informed and oriented to consider delaying pregnancy'. While the media has reported this advice as WHO telling couples in Zika-affected regions to avoid pregnancy, WHO states that they are not doing that...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920096/structural-pathways-supporting-swift-acquisition-of-new-visuomotor-skills
#13
Ari E Kahn, Marcelo G Mattar, Jean M Vettel, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett
Human skill learning requires fine-scale coordination of distributed networks of brain regions linked by white matter tracts to allow for effective information transmission. Yet how individual differences in these anatomical pathways may impact individual differences in learning remains far from understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in structural organization of networks supporting task performance predict individual differences in the rate at which humans learn a visuomotor skill...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920085/quality-of-prescribing-of-antipsychotic-medication-for-people-with-intellectual-disability-under-the-care-of-uk-mental-health-services-a-cross-sectional-audit-of-clinical-practice
#14
Carol Paton, Sumera Bhatti, Kiran Purandare, Ashok Roy, Tre Barnes
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and quality of antipsychotic prescribing for people with intellectual disability (ID). DESIGN: A clinical audit of prescribing practice in the context of a quality improvement programme. Practice standards for audit were derived from relevant, evidence-based guidelines, including NICE. Data were mainly collected from the clinical records, but to determine the clinical rationale for using antipsychotic medication in individual cases, prescribers could also be directly questioned...
December 5, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919864/taxonomy-for-the-rehabilitation-of-knee-conditions-trak-a-digital-intervention-to-support-the-self-care-components-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rehabilitation-protocol-of-a-feasibility-study
#15
Emma Dunphy, Fiona L Hamilton, Kate Button
BACKGROUND: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common, especially in the active population. In defining the problem of ACL rehabilitation, this study draws from the knowledge that improved self-care, strength, and fitness are associated with better outcomes. Traditional rehabilitation involves regular physiotherapy, but it is not clear what the optimal way for delivering rehabilitation is, and it varies widely across the world. Evidence for treatments are discussed in the literature, however standard length of rehabilitation and frequency of appointments are unknown...
December 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919751/less-head-motion-during-mri-under-task-than-resting-state-conditions
#16
Willem Huijbers, Koene R A Van Dijk, Meta M Boenniger, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Monique M B Breteler
Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919386/donor-s-support-tool-enabling-informed-secondary-use-of-patient-s-biomaterial-and-personal-data
#17
Haridimos Kondylakis, Lefteris Koumakis, Stephanie Hänold, Iheanyi Nwankwo, Nikolaus Forgó, Kostas Marias, Manolis Tsiknakis, Norbert Graf
PURPOSE: Biomedical research is being catalyzed by the vast amount of data rapidly collected through the application of information technologies (IT). Despite IT advances, the methods for involving patients and citizens in biomedical research remain static, paper-based and organized around national boundaries and anachronistic legal frameworks. The purpose of this paper is to study the current practices for obtaining consent for biobanking and the legal requirements for reusing the available biomaterial and data in EU and finally to present a novel tool to this direction enabling the secondary use of data and biomaterial...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919058/lifting-and-exertion-injuries-decrease-after-implementation-of-an-integrated-hospital-wide-safe-patient-handling-and-mobilisation-programme
#18
Jack T Dennerlein, Elizabeth Tucker O'Day, Deborah F Mulloy, Jackie Somerville, Anne M Stoddard, Christopher Kenwood, Erin Teeple, Leslie I Boden, Glorian Sorensen, Dean Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: With increasing emphasis on early and frequent mobilisation of patients in acute care, safe patient handling and mobilisation practices need to be integrated into these quality initiatives. We completed a programme evaluation of a safe patient handling and mobilisation programme within the context of a hospital-wide patient care improvement initiative that utilised a systems approach and integrated safe patient equipment and practices into patient care plans. METHODS: Baseline and 12-month follow-up surveys of 1832 direct patient care workers assessed work practices and self-reported pain while an integrated employee payroll and injury database provided recordable injury rates collected concurrently at 2 hospitals: the study hospital with the programme and a comparison hospital...
October 25, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918725/prevention-and-monitoring-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-adult-cancers-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline
#19
Saro H Armenian, Christina Lacchetti, Ana Barac, Joseph Carver, Louis S Constine, Neelima Denduluri, Susan Dent, Pamela S Douglas, Jean-Bernard Durand, Michael Ewer, Carol Fabian, Melissa Hudson, Mariell Jessup, Lee W Jones, Bonnie Ky, Erica L Mayer, Javid Moslehi, Kevin Oeffinger, Katharine Ray, Kathryn Ruddy, Daniel Lenihan
Purpose Cardiac dysfunction is a serious adverse effect of certain cancer-directed therapies that can interfere with the efficacy of treatment, decrease quality of life, or impact the actual survival of the patient with cancer. The purpose of this effort was to develop recommendations for prevention and monitoring of cardiac dysfunction in survivors of adult-onset cancers. Methods Recommendations were developed by an expert panel with multidisciplinary representation using a systematic review (1996 to 2016) of meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, observational studies, and clinical experience...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#20
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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