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Peanut oil vaccinations

Kate Palphramand, Richard Delahay, Andrew Robertson, Sonya Gowtage, Gareth A Williams, Robbie A McDonald, Mark Chambers, Stephen P Carter
The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in the UK and Ireland is compromised by transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to cattle from the European badger (Meles meles), which acts as a wildlife reservoir. Vaccination of badgers could potentially contribute to TB control but the only licensed vaccine is injectable BadgerBCG which requires the live-capture of badgers. Current research is aimed at developing an oral TB vaccine (where vaccine is contained within bait) that is intended to be more cost-effective to deploy over large areas...
July 6, 2017: Vaccine
Sonya Gowtage, Gareth A Williams, Ray Henderson, Paul Aylett, Duncan MacMorran, Si Palmer, Andy Robertson, Sandrine Lesellier, Stephen P Carter, Mark A Chambers
The oral vaccination of wild badgers (Meles meles) with live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the tools being considered for the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in the UK. The design of a product for oral vaccination requires that numerous, and often competing, conditions are met. These include the need for a highly palatable, but physically stable bait that will meet regulatory requirements, and one which is also compatible with the vaccine formulation; in this case live BCG...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
Gaurav Krishna, Birendra K Singh, Eun-Ki Kim, Vivek K Morya, Pramod W Ramteke
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses...
February 2015: Plant Biotechnology Journal
J I Colón, G Encarnación, M R Ortiz Santini, M T Rodríguez Malavé, E A Santiago Delpín, A M Marchand
A polyantigenic immunomodulator (PAI), previously known as polyantigenic vaccine, which consists of a mixture of antigens of inactivated bacteria with antigens of influenza virus in a peanut-oil-arlacel-A-aluminium monoesterate emulsion, increased tumor resistance and induced tumor regression in tumor bearing mice. This report presents clinical and laboratory data that demonstrate the effect of PAI in long term prolongation of disease free state in HIV positive patients. A total of 40 patients, 35 males and 5 females, with a mean age of 41...
March 1997: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
S Z Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR...
November 1995: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
P J Willson, A Rossi-Campos, A A Potter
These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus)...
October 1995: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
H D Stone
Acceptable oil-emulsion vaccines were sought to replace mineral oil-emulsion vaccines that, by regulations, require a 42-day minimum holding period for poultry between injection and slaughter for consumption. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared using animal or vegetable oils in a ratio of 4 parts oil to 1 part Newcastle disease or avian influenza aqueous antigen. Beeswax particles suspended in the oil at the 5% or 10% level (wt:vol) served as the oil-phase surfactant. Hemagglutination-inhibition titers induced by mineral-oil vaccines were not significantly different from those induced by the most efficacious formulations prepared from animal and vegetable oils...
April 1993: Avian Diseases
S Rosendal, D S Carpenter, W R Mitchell, M R Wilson
A strain of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from a pig with pleuropneumonia from a herd where this condition was frequent. A formalin inactivated culture of this isolate was used as antigen in two vaccine preparations: A and B. Vaccine A had peanut oil + arlacel 80 + tween 80 as adjuvant and vaccine B had aluminum hydroxide gel as adjuvant. Twenty pigs were vaccinated twice with vaccine A and 19 with vaccine B. Twenty additional pigs were not vaccinated. All pigs were transferred to the herd. Eleven pigs in the nonvaccinated group developed pneumonia and seven of these died within eight days after exposure...
February 1981: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
M Brugh, H D Stone, H W Lupton
Chickens inoculated with inactivated-virus Newcastle disease vaccines containing different emulsion adjuvants were challenge exposed with viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Adjuvant activity was evident in all of 9 vaccines containing mineral oil emulsion (OE), but was not evident in 2 vaccines which contained a metabolizable lipid emulsion (LE) adjuvant consisting of peanut oil, glycerol, and lecithin. Serologic responses of chickens inoculated with OE vaccines were 10- to 100-fold higher than those of chickens inoculated with LE vaccines...
January 1983: American Journal of Veterinary Research
J A Reynolds, D G Harrington, C L Crabbs, C J Peters, N R Di Luzio
Studies were conducted in mice, hamsters, sheep, and two species of nonhuman primates which demonstrate the adjuvant activity of a new metabolizable lipid emulsion with marginally immunogenic doses of Formalin-inactivated viral vaccines. The lipid base consists of highly refined peanut oil emulsified in aqueous vaccines with glycerol and lecithin. Hamsters and mice inoculated with lipid emulsion plus western or Venezuelan equine encephalitis vaccine were significantly more resistant than vaccinated controls to lethal homologous virus challenge...
June 1980: Infection and Immunity
A S Youmans, G P Youmans
Several emulsified and two nonemulsified incomplete adjuvants were examined for their adjuvant activity by use of mycobacterial ribosomal fractions as a substrate. A good adjuvant is defined as one which produces a high immunological response with the ribosomal fraction in mice to infection with virulent tubercle bacilli. Freund's incomplete adjuvant, consisting of Aquaphor and heavy mineral oil, and Arlacel A plus hexadecane were the best adjuvants tested. Aquaphor plus light mineral oil and Arlacel A plus 7-n-hexyloctadecane were not quite as effective...
October 1967: Journal of Bacteriology
B E Straw, N J MacLachlan, W T Corbett, P B Carter, H M Schey
Tissue damage caused by six different adjuvants incorporated in a Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae vaccine was compared in swine. The adjuvants compared were four mineral oil compounds, one peanut oil compound and aluminum hydroxide. Inoculations were given in the neck, quadriceps and semitendinosus muscles. The mineral oil adjuvants were highly irritant and caused extensive areas of granulomatous inflammation that were present at eight weeks after injection. The aluminum hydroxide produced smaller lesions that also persisted for eight weeks...
April 1985: Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. Revue Canadienne de Médecine Comparée
J W Smith, W B Fletcher, M Peters, M Westwood, F J Perkins
A comparison was made of the antibody response and subjective reactions to zonally-purified influenza vaccine in aqueous suspension and in peanut oil adjuvant 65-4. Both preparations contained 700 CCA units of A/Aichi/2/68, and 300 CCA units of B/Mass/1/71. Subjective reactions were recorded by asking the volunteers to complete a record daily for 5 days. Pain at the injection site was recorded by 64 per cent of the recipients of the oil adjuvant vaccine compared with 35 per cent of the aqueous recipients, but local redness was more frequent after aqueous vaccine...
April 1975: Journal of Hygiene
F Audibert, L Chedid
Though highly efficient, Freund's adjuvant has serious limitations because it contains mineral oil and isomannide monooleate emulsifier (arlacel A). The present study describes the conditions under which a stable water in oil emulsion can be produced by using metabolizable peanut oil with arlacel. When mycobacteria are added, a potent emulsified oil adjuvant is obtained which increases the immune response to BSA and to influenza vaccine.
April 7, 1975: Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de L'Académie des Sciences. Série D: Sciences Naturelles
E Yarkoni, H J Rapp
The influence of mineral oil, squalane, squalene, or peanut oil on the antitumor activity of emulsified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell walls or emulsified trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate was studied in mice, each with an established transplant of a syngeneic fibrosarcoma. Each animal received an intratumoral injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell walls (0.6 mg/mouse) or trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (0.1 mg/mouse) emulsified in 1 to 10% oil. Emulsions of squalene or squalane but not peanut oil were effective substitutes for mineral oil as carriers of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell walls in the treatment of the tumor...
May 1979: Cancer Research
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