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Pneumonia in utero

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814408/intrinsic-maturational-neonatal-immune-deficiencies-and-susceptibility-to-group-b-streptococcus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Michelle L Korir, Shannon D Manning, H Dele Davies
Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#2
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292980/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-is-blocked-by-type-specific-immunity-in-an-infant-mouse-model
#3
Tonia Zangari, Yang Wang, Jeffrey N Weiser
Epidemiological studies on Streptococcus pneumoniae show that rates of carriage are highest in early childhood and that the major benefit of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a reduction in the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonization through decreased transmission within a population. In this study, we sought to understand how anti-S. pneumoniae immunity affects nasal shedding of bacteria, the limiting step in experimental pneumococcal transmission. Using an infant mouse model, we examined the role of immunity (passed from mother to pup) on shedding and within-litter transmission of S...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161461/infectious-disease-exposures-and-outbreaks-at-a-south-african-neonatal-unit-with-review-of-neonatal-outbreak-epidemiology-in-africa
#4
A Dramowski, M Aucamp, A Bekker, S Mehtar
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment. METHODS: Neonatal outbreaks attended by the paediatric infectious diseases and infection prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (May 1, 2008 to April 30, 2016) are described, pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source, and outbreak control measures...
April 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005039/-intrauterine-pneumocystis-infection
#5
E R Samitova, T N Ermak, I E Koltunov, A N Kislyakov, N V Karazhas, T N Rybalkina, M Yu Kornienko
Pneumocystosis is well known as an opportunistic infection that is presently most frequently registered in patients with HIV infection and in those with other immunodeficiency states. Earlier, after the Second World War, Pneumocystis pneumonia was most commonly detected in debilitated and premature children; nosocomial outbreaks of pneumocystosis were studied in detail in the 1960s and 1970s. The pathogen is transmitted through the air, but a number of references indicate that it can be transmitted through the placenta...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325071/a-systematic-review-of-children-s-environmental-health-in-brazil
#6
REVIEW
Carmen I R Froes Asmus, Volney M Camara, Philip J Landrigan, Luz Claudio
In the region of the Americas, approximately 100,000 children under the age of 5 years die each year due to environmental hazards. Brazil, due to its large size and wide range of environmental challenges, presents numerous hazards to children's health. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature that describes children's exposures to environmental pollutants in Brazil and their effects on Brazilian children's health. A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed without language restrictions and time of publication (years)...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068499/fetal-distress-and-in-utero-pneumonia-in-perinatal-dolphins-during-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico-unusual-mortality-event
#7
Kathleen M Colegrove, Stephanie Venn-Watson, Jenny Litz, Michael J Kinsel, Karen A Terio, Erin Fougeres, Ruth Ewing, D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Stephen Raverty, Jeremiah Saliki, Spencer Fire, Gina Rappucci, Sabrina Bowen-Stevens, Lauren Noble, Alex Costidis, Michelle Barbieri, Cara Field, Suzanne Smith, Ruth H Carmichael, Connie Chevis, Wendy Hatchett, Delphine Shannon, Mandy Tumlin, Gretchen Lovewell, Wayne McFee, Teresa K Rowles
An unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus of all size classes stranding along coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, USA, started in early 2010 and continued into 2014. During this northern Gulf of Mexico UME, a distinct cluster of perinatal dolphins (total body length <115 cm) stranded in Mississippi and Alabama during 2011. The proportion of annual dolphin strandings that were perinates between 2009 and 2013 were compared to baseline strandings (2000-2005)...
April 12, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681042/deep-sequencing-based-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-after-staphylococcus-aureus-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection
#8
L Xiu, Y B Fu, Y Deng, X J Shi, Z Y Bian, A Ruhan, X Wang
The goal of this study was to characterize the transcriptome of primary bovine mammalian epithelial cells (pBMECs) and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to Staphylococcus aureus (strain S108), Escherichia coli (strain E23), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (strain K96) infection. Using Solexa sequencing, approximately 4.9 million total sequence tags were obtained from each of the three infected libraries and the control library. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the S108-infected pBMECs showed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly involved in metabolic processes...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25987539/maternally-acquired-igg-immunity-in-neonates-born-to-renal-transplanted-women
#9
Patrícia Oliveira Viana, Erika Ono, Maria Isabel Saraiva Dinelli, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos Santos, Nelson Sass, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
Neonates born to renal transplanted women are exposed in utero to immunosuppressors and to antenatal conditions that may predispose the neonate to a high risk of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. These factors might interfere with the transfer of maternal IgG immunity. Total IgG levels and specific antibodies to measles, varicella, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 4,6B,9V,14,18C,19F and 23F) were evaluated on maternal and cord blood samples of 23 sets of renal transplanted women and their newborns and 32 sets of healthy women-newborns at term...
June 17, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25754313/-spanish-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-tuberculosis-in-pregnant-women-and-neonates-i-epidemiology-and-diagnosis-congenital-tuberculosis
#10
F Baquero-Artigao, M J Mellado Peña, T Del Rosal Rabes, A Noguera Julián, A Goncé Mellgren, M de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M L Navarro Gómez
Tuberculosis (TB) screening in pregnancy using tuberculin skin test (TST) is recommended in case of symptoms of TB disease, close contact with a patient with infectious TB, or high risk of developing active disease. The new interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) tests are recommended in BCG-vaccinated pregnant women with positive TST and no known risk factors for TB, and in those immunocompromised, with clinical suspicion of TB but negative TST. TB diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms, the increased frequency of extrapulmonary disease, the delay in radiological examinations, and the high rate of tuberculin anergy...
October 2015: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25444821/maternal-immunization-with-pneumococcal-9-valent-conjugate-vaccine-and-early-infant-otitis-media
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kathleen A Daly, G Scott Giebink, Bruce R Lindgren, JoAnn Knox, Betty Jo Haggerty, James Nordin, Sarah Goetz, Patricia Ferrieri
A randomized trial of an investigational 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-9) or placebo given to pregnant women during the last trimester to prevent early infant otitis media (OM) was conducted. All infants received Prevnar(®) at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Clinic and adverse event records were reviewed to identify OM. Variables significantly related to acute OM by age 6 months (p<0.05) were: vaccine group (9 valent or placebo), sibling history of tympanostomy tubes, upper respiratory infection, and number of clinic visits by 6 months...
December 5, 2014: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25390763/coinfection-and-vertical-transmission-of-brucella-and-morbillivirus-in-a-neonatal-sperm-whale-physeter-macrocephalus-in-hawaii-usa
#12
Kristi L West, Gregg Levine, Jessica Jacob, Brenda Jensen, Susan Sanchez, Kathleen Colegrove, David Rotstein
The viral genus Morbillivirus and the bacterial genus Brucella have emerged as important groups of pathogens that are known to affect cetacean health on a global scale, but neither pathogen has previously been reported from endangered sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). A female neonate sperm whale stranded alive and died near Laie on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, US, in May of 2011. Congestion of the cerebrum and enlarged lymph nodes were noted on the gross necropsy. Microscopic findings included lymphoid depletion, chronic meningitis, and pneumonia, suggesting an in utero infection...
January 2015: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25306604/-variants-of-pathomorphological-changes-in-the-thymus-of-in-utero-infected-extremely-low-birth-weight-neonatal-infants
#13
L V Kulida, L P Peretiatko, S B Nazarov
OBJECTIVE: To analyze pathomorphological changes in the thymus of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonatal infants who have developed in the presence of in utero infection. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A study group included 105 ELBW neonates who had developed in the presence of in utero infection. The main causes of their death were the following conditions: generalized viral and bacterial infection of mixed genesis (n = 56 (53.3%)), congenital pneumonia (n = 27 (25...
May 2014: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25031933/pregnancy-in-a-patient-with-cancer-and-heart-failure-challenges-and-complexities
#14
Anecita P Fadol, Tara Lech, Courtney Bickford, Syed Wamique Yusuf
A 24-year-old African American female (L.R.) with a history of smoking and gestational diabetes was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma. She received multiple chemotherapies, including six cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine), followed by radiation therapy to left inguinal areas for a total of 30.6 Gy in 17 fractions; she obtained complete remission. Two years later, L.R. had disease relapse in the mediastinum and received two cycles of ESHAP (etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, cisplatin) followed by etoposide and ifosfamide...
March 2012: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24847698/perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-beginning-before-gestation-enhances-allergen-sensitization-but-not-pulmonary-inflammation-in-adult-mice
#15
E O'Brien, I L Bergin, D C Dolinoy, Z Zaslona, R J A Little, Y Tao, M Peters-Golden, P Mancuso
Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxide resin, is a high-production-volume chemical implicated in asthma pathogenesis when exposure occurs to the developing fetus. However, few studies have directly examined the effect of in utero and early-life BPA exposure on the pathogenesis of asthma in adulthood. This study examines the influence of perinatal BPA exposure through maternal diet on allergen sensitization and pulmonary inflammation in adult offspring. Two weeks before mating, BALB/c dams were randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 50 ng, 50 μg or 50 mg BPA/kg of rodent chow...
April 2014: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23158015/neonatal-outcome-of-preterm-infants-born-to-mothers-with-abnormal-genital-tract-colonisation-and-chorioamnionitis-a-cohort-study
#16
Joanna P Seliga-Siwecka, Maria K Kornacka
PURPOSE: We hypothesised that abnormal genital tract colonisation leading to an in utero inflammation/infection process, contributes to the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), intra ventricular haemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. METHODS: 396 placentas and umbilical cords of neonates born at 22-32weeks of gestation were evaluated...
May 2013: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23012868/-a-case-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-0-in-japan
#17
Kentaro Okamoto, Kayoko Saito, Takatoshi Sato, Keiko Ishigaki, Makoto Funatsuka, Makiko Osawa
The patient was a 2-month-old female infant born at 41 weeks and 2 days of gestation presenting multiple arthrogryposis, severe muscle hypotonia and respiratory distress with difficulty in feeding. She suffered from repeated complications with aspiration pneumonia. On admission to our hospital, she exhibited fasciculation and absence of deep tendon reflexes. Examination of the motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) revealed no muscle contraction. Deletions of the SMN and NAIP genes were noted. Based on severe clinical course and disease development in utero, she was given a diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 0 (very severe type)...
September 2012: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22973041/impaired-surfactant-production-by-alveolar-epithelial-cells-in-a-scid-hu-lung-mouse-model-of-congenital-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#18
Ekaterina Maidji, Galina Kosikova, Pheroze Joshi, Cheryl A Stoddart
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects and life-threatening lung-associated diseases in premature infants and immunocompromised children. Although the fetal lung is a major target organ of the virus, HCMV lung pathogenesis has remained unexplored, possibly as a result of extreme host range restriction. To overcome this hurdle, we generated a SCID-hu lung mouse model that closely recapitulates the discrete stages of human lung development in utero. Human fetal lung tissue was implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (CB17-scid) mice and inoculated by direct injection with the VR1814 clinical isolate of HCMV...
December 2012: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22858279/management-of-giant-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformations-requiring-pneumonectomy
#19
Offir Ben-Ishay, Grace A Nicksa, Jay M Wilson, Terry L Buchmiller
BACKGROUND: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs sporadically throughout fetal development. CPAM is usually a lobar process, but involvement of an entire lung is exceedingly rare. We present a small series of patients with multilobar CPAM who, to the best of our knowledge, are the first reported cases of giant CPAMs treated with pneumonectomy at birth. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, 93 medical records were reviewed for infants 0 to 12 months with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) from 1990 to 2011...
October 2012: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21853647/meconium-aspiration-syndrome-do-we-know
#20
REVIEW
Murat Yurdakök
Meconium is a common finding in amniotic fluid and placental specimens, particularly in the term or post-term pregnancy. The most important consequence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and at least 5% of infants born through MSAF develop MAS. MAS continues to be a threat to many newborns throughout the world, with a case fatality rate of 5% (as much as 40%), in addition to short- and long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental sequelae. The exact pathophysiology of meconium passage into the amniotic fluid and consequences of meconium aspiration are unknown...
March 2011: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
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