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nursing and drug abuse

Paola Ferri, Monica Silvestri, Cecilia Artoni, Rosaria Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the "Violent Incident Form" to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds, Fatima McKenzie, MacKenzie B Austgen, Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Marianne S Matthias, Adam T Hirsh
OBJECTIVE: Describe obstetrical providers' management of a hypothetical case on chronic pain in pregnancy and determine whether practices differ based on patient race. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a self-administered survey at a clinical conference. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six obstetrician-gynecologists and one nurse practitioner were surveyed. METHODS: A case-vignette described a pregnant patient presenting with worsening chronic lower back pain, requesting an opioid refill and increased dosage...
August 14, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Alix Zuleta-Alarcón, John C Coffman, Suren Soghomonyan, Thomas J Papadimos, Sergio D Bergese, Kenneth R Moran
PURPOSE: The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse among anesthesia care providers (ACPs) and to describe current approaches to screening, therapy, and rehabilitation of ACPs suffering from non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse. SOURCE: We first performed a search of all literature available on PubMed prior to April 11, 2016. The search was limited to articles published in Spanish and English, and the following key words were used: anesthesiology, anesthesia personnel, AND substance-related disorders...
July 28, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Bardia Moosavi, Carlos Torres, Gerard Jansen
History A 78-year-old woman presented to a community hospital after an unwitnessed fall at her nursing home. Initial head computed tomography (CT) performed in the emergency department showed vasogenic edema in the right temporal parietal region, which prompted her transfer to our institution for additional work-up. Further history taking revealed recurrent transient motor and sensory transient ischemic attack-like symptoms over the preceding weeks. She denied having a fever or night sweats. There was no history of infection, bleeding, immunodeficiency, intravenous drug use, alcohol or tobacco abuse, malignancy, or genetic disorders...
August 2016: Radiology
Filipa Alves da Costa, Catarina Periquito, Maria Clara Carneiro, Pedro Oliveira, Ana Isabel Fernandes, Patrícia Cavaco-Silva
UNLABELLED: Background Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are often found in high proportion among the elderly population. The STOPP criteria have been suggested to detect more PIMs in European elderly than the Beers criteria. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIMs and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) in a sample of Portuguese nursing homes residents. Setting Four elderly facilities in mainland Portugal Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was used...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jay Baruch
I could have been more understanding, especially when police brought a man I'll call Mr. Atkins to the emergency room for depression and suicidal ideation. But it was 3:00 a.m. and the ER was a carnival of disease and discontent, a parade of drunk drivers and folks who practiced conflict resolution with knives and bullets. A patient well known for her drug abuse wasn't done yelling at me for refusing to write her a narcotic script when a nurse tweaked at my elbow to please come speak with Mr. Atkins, who was making a case to walk out...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Robert H Howland
Distinguishing itself from other benzodiazepine drugs, oxazepam has an interesting pharmacological and clinical profile, including binding effects on the translocator protein (TSPO) and a relatively favorable safety and abuse liability profile. TSPO is found in the brain (where it is involved in neurosteroid synthesis), but is also expressed in the heart and other peripheral tissues. Oxazepam is potentially useful in the treatment of substance abuse, especially in conjunction with the cortisol synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, and can be considered an appropriate medication to use in the treatment of depression...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Robert H Howland
Benzodiazepine drugs are controversial because of safety and abuse liability concerns, although they have clinically relevant pharmacological differences. The current article reviews studies pertaining to the pharmacology, safety, and abuse liability of oxazepam. Compared to other benzodiazepine drugs, oxazepam has a favorable safety and abuse liability profile, which may be related to its pharmacology. Oxazepam is more slowly absorbed and enters the brain more slowly than other benzodiazepine drugs; it does not have active metabolites and does not accumulate with chronic dosing; its metabolism is not affected by age or by mild/moderate liver disease; and it is not prone to drug-drug interactions...
April 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
David Loreck, Nicole J Brandt, Bethany DiPaula
Opioid use disorder is a public health epidemic. There is increasing attention being given to opioid abuse and overdose in the United States. The overall use of illicit substances by older adults is on the rise and in part can be attributed to the aging of Baby Boomers. Furthermore, much attention is being given to prescription opioid drug overdose, but it is important to note that heroin-related deaths have also increased sharply. Heroin use is part of a larger substance abuse problem, with more than nine in 10 individuals who use heroin also using at least one other drug (e...
April 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Thelma E Tupasi, Anna Marie Celina G Garfin, Ekaterina V Kurbatova, Joan M Mangan, Ruth Orillaza-Chi, Leilani C Naval, Glenn I Balane, Ramon Basilio, Alexander Golubkov, Evelyn S Joson, Woo-Jin Lew, Vivian Lofranco, Mariquita Mantala, Stuart Pancho, Jesus N Sarol
To identify factors associated with loss to follow-up during treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in the Philippines, we conducted a case-control study of adult patients who began receiving treatment for rifampin-resistant TB during July 1-December 31, 2012. Among 91 case-patients (those lost to follow-up) and 182 control-patients (those who adhered to treatment), independent factors associated with loss to follow-up included patients' higher self-rating of the severity of vomiting as an adverse drug reaction and alcohol abuse...
March 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Maria Mulka-Gierek, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Michał Florczak, Leszek Pączek, Marek Krawczyk, Krzysztof Mucha
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the reasons and the frequency of the use of over-the-counter (OTC) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or analgesics by liver transplant recipients (LTR). Patient awareness of possible drug-related side-effects was also assessed. BACKGROUND: NSAIDs and analgesics available without prescription belong to the most commonly used class of drugs. However, use of these drugs might be complicated by toxic adverse effects (AEs)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Adeline Nyamathi, Benissa E Salem, David Farabee, Elizabeth Hall, Sheldon Zhang, Mark Faucette, Doug Bond, Kartik Yadav
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 600 paroled men, homeless prior to incarceration, to assess varying levels of peer-coach and nurse-partnered interventions on re-arrest at 6 and 12 months. Findings revealed that positive predictors of re-arrest at 12 months included having received social support from drug users and non-drug users, as well as having used marijuana at least once a week prior to their most recent incarceration. In terms of protective factors, those who participated in a substance abuse program contract within a residential drug treatment program or spent 90 days or greater in a residential drug treatment program were less likely to have been re-arrested within 12 months...
February 5, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Iria Garrido-González, Rosendo Bugarín-González, Antonio Javier Machín-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. METHOD: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. RESULTS: 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89...
May 2016: Enfermería Clínica
Ken Inada
  Benzodiazepines (BZs) work by agonising gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-BZ-receptor complex and thereby produce sedation and anti-anxiety effects. BZs are commonly used in several clinical areas as hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs. However, these drugs once supplied by medical institutions often lead to abuse and dependence. Thus it is important for institutions to supply and manage BZs properly. At Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital educational activities about proper use of BZs are performed by not only medical doctors but also pharmacists...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Brittany Barker, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
While the link between educational attainment and future health and wellness is well understood, little investigation has considered the potential impacts of distinct forms of childhood maltreatment on high school completion. In the present study, the relationship between five categories of childhood maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and completion of high school education were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). From September 2005 to May 2013, data were collected for the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved young people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
December 28, 2015: Health & Social Care in the Community
Fernando Almeida, Diana Moreira, Helena Moura, Victor Mota
Individuals deemed Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) by the courts, under Article 20 of the Portuguese Criminal Code, have often committed very serious crimes. It is unreasonable to consider that these patients were usually kept without adequate supervision after the security measure had been declared extinct. They often decompensated after leaving the institution where they complied with the security measure, and/or relapsed to alcohol and drug abuse. Very often, severe repeated crime erupted again. Considering this, there was an urgent need to keep a follow-up assessment of these patients in order to prevent them from relapsing in crime...
February 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mark L Metersky, Christopher R Frei, Eric M Mortensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are at high risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Factors discriminating infection with MDR Gram-negative (MDR-GN) organism from infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are not well understood and patients are often treated for both organisms. This study was performed to determine risk factors predicting pneumonia due to Pseudomonas versus MRSA. METHODS: Veterans age ≥65 hospitalized with HCAP between 2002 and 2012 were identified from the Veterans Affairs administrative databases...
January 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Robert H Howland
Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in the United States, and most deaths are related to prescription drugs. A substantial proportion of these deaths involve opioid or benzodiazepine drugs, and many overdoses include a combination of both drug classes. Buprenorphine/naloxone has an unusual pharmacology that distinguishes it from other opioid drugs. Animal and human studies have found that buprenorphine is associated with a ceiling to its cardio-respiratory depressant effect at higher doses, such that it may have a wider safety margin compared to other opioid drugs...
December 2015: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Peter R Lewis, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Todd Matthew Felix
Although drugs can be an essential and lifesaving component of the care of adult patients, their use frequently is accompanied by adverse effects and life-threatening adverse drug reactions that can result in significant disability and mortality. The potential for drug-related severe morbidity and mortality is compounded during periods of hospitalization, when high-risk drugs such as anticoagulants or insulin are used, and when care in an intensive care unit is required. Patient factors in adults that can increase the risk of drug harms include immunosuppression, cognitive impairment, depression, alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders, chronic kidney disease, hepatic dysfunction, coagulopathies, limited English proficiency, institutional/nursing home care, and underinsurance or lack of insurance...
September 2015: FP Essentials
Anna B Flynn, Mathea Falco, Sophia Hocini
IMPORTANCE: Lack of robust program evaluation has hindered the effectiveness of school-based drug abuse prevention curricula overall. Independently evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of universal, middle school-based drug abuse prevention curricula are the most useful indicators of whether such programs are effective or ineffective. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review identifying independently evaluated RCTs of universal, middle school-based drug abuse prevention curricula; extract data on study quality and substance use outcomes; and assess evidence of program effectiveness...
November 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
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