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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822322/caffeine-s-influence-on-gambling-behavior-and-other-types-of-impulsivity
#1
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. METHODS: Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
August 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822316/improved-middle-ear-soft-tissue-visualization-using-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-imaging
#2
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822005/a-supply-model-for-nurse-workforce-projection-in-malaysia
#3
Zuraida Abal Abas, Mohamad Raziff Ramli, Mohamad Ishak Desa, Nordin Saleh, Ainul Nadziha Hanafiah, Nuraini Aziz, Zaheera Zainal Abidin, Abdul Samad Shibghatullah, Ahmad Fadzli Nizam Abdul Rahman, Haslinda Musa
The paper aims to provide an insight into the significance of having a simulation model to forecast the supply of registered nurses for health workforce planning policy using System Dynamics. A model is highly in demand to predict the workforce demand for nurses in the future, which it supports for complete development of a needs-based nurse workforce projection using Malaysia as a case study. The supply model consists of three sub-models to forecast the number of registered nurses for the next 15 years: training model, population model and Full Time Equivalent (FTE) model...
August 18, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821588/accumulation-of-deleterious-mutations-during-bacterial-range-expansions
#4
Lars Bosshard, Isabelle Dupanloup, Olivier Tenaillon, Rémy Bruggmann, Martin Ackermann, Stephan Peischl, Laurent Excoffier
Recent theory predicts that the fitness of pioneer populations can decline when species expand their range, due to high rates of genetic drift on wave fronts making selection less efficient at purging deleterious variants. To test these predictions, we studied the fate of mutator bacteria expanding their range for 1650 generations on agar plates. In agreement with theory, we find that growth abilities of strains with a high mutation rate (HMR lines) decreased significantly over time, unlike strains with a lower mutation rate (LMR lines) that present 3-4 times fewer mutations...
August 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820901/using-local-ecological-knowledge-to-monitor-threatened-mekong-megafauna-in-lao-pdr
#5
Thomas N E Gray, Amphone Phommachak, Kongseng Vannachomchan, Francois Guegan
Pressures on freshwater biodiversity in Southeast Asia are accelerating yet the status and conservation needs of many of the region's threatened fish species are unclear. This impacts the ability to implement conservation activities and to understand the effects of infrastructure developments and other hydrological changes. We used Local Ecological Knowledge from fishing communities on the Mekong River in the Siphandone waterscape, Lao PDR to estimate mean and mode last capture dates of eight rare or culturally significant fish species in order to provide conservation monitoring baselines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820796/provider-approachability-an-all-staff-survey-approach-to-creating-a-culture-of-safety
#6
Mark E Deyo-Svendsen, Karl B Palmer, Jill K Albright, Michael R Phillips, Keith A Schilling, Matthew E Cabrera Svendsen
OBJECTIVES: A culture-of-safety survey of our hospital staff revealed fear-based reluctance to question those in authority. We aimed to examine provider approachability (words and actions that promote trust and reduce or eliminate fear of interaction). METHODS: Providers and staff completed an anonymous facility-wide survey (survey 1) regarding perceptions of provider approachability. Results were safely communicated to providers, and improvement resources were offered...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820406/-results-of-preparation-and-implementation-of-ivf-program-in-patients-with-thrombophilia-and-history-of-failed-ivf
#7
G Abrahamyan
The problem of infertility and reproductive losses maintains its urgency, as well as medical and social significance. Frequency of infertility in overall population, according to the data from different authors, varies from 9 to 18 per cent. Methods of aided reproductive technologies (ART) opened a new era in the field of correction of infertile marriage. As a result, more and more couples choose to solve this problem by means of aided reproductive technologies (ART): in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820153/learning-curve-of-femtosecond-laser-assisted-cataract-surgery-experience-of-surgeons-new-to-femtosecond-laser-platform
#8
Josephine Susai Christy, Manas Nath, Fredrick Mouttapa, Rengaraj Venkatesh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the learning curve in the initial 100 cases of cataract surgery performed using femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) by experienced cataract surgeons without prior experience in femtosecond laser platform. METHODS: This study was conducted at tertiary care eye hospital, South India. This was a prospective interventional study. The first 100 consecutive eyes undergoing FLACS were studied to understand docking time, number of docking attempts, problems encountered during docking, and complications attributable to docking...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819920/-no-country-for-old-men-huxley-s-brave-new-world-and-the-value-of-old-age
#9
Maren Linett
This article inserts Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) into a bioethical conversation about the value of old age and old people. Exploring literary treatments of bioethical questions can supplement conversations within bioethics proper, helping to reveal our existing assumptions and clear the way for more considered views; indeed, as Peter Swirski has argued, literary texts can serve as thought experiments that illuminate the ramifications of philosophical ideas. This essay examines the novel's representation of a society without old people in conjunction with ideas about aging and life narratives put forward by philosophers and bioethicists such as Ezekiel Emanuel, Gilbert Meilaender, and Alasdair MacIntyre...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819434/identification-of-transcription-factor-yy1-as-a-regulator-of-a-prostate-cancer-specific-pathway-using-proteomic-analysis
#10
Arum Park, Jiyeong Lee, Sora Mun, Doo Jin Kim, Byung Heun Cha, Kyong Tae Moon, Tag Keun Yoo, Hee-Gyoo Kang
Prostate-specific antigen, a biomarker used to diagnose prostate cancer, exhibits poor sensitivity. Although previous studies have focused on identifying a new diagnostic biomarker, the molecules or networks identified in these studies are also present in other cancers, making it difficult to detect prostate cancer specifically. A unique characteristic of the prostate gland is the increased mitochondrial energy metabolism when normal prostate cells progress to cancer cells. Thus, we attempted to find a prostate cancer-specific signature present in this unique environment...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818961/an-analogy-between-socioeconomic-deprivation-level-and-loss-of-health-from-adverse-effects-of-medical-treatment-in-england
#11
Raimundas Lunevicius, Juanita A Haagsma
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to show whether and how levels, trends and patterns obtained from estimates of premature deaths from adverse effects (AEs) of medical treatment depended on the deprivation level in England over the 24-year period, 1990-2013. We provide a report to inform decision-making strategies to reduce the burden of disease arising from AEs of medical treatment in the most deprived areas of the country. METHODS: Comparative analysis was driven by a single cause-of-injury category-AEs of medical treatment-from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study...
August 17, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818611/teasing-as-a-risk-factor-for-abnormal-eating-behaviours-a-prospective-study-in-an-adolescent-population
#12
Javier Plumed, Natalia Gimeno, María Barberá, Elías Ruiz, Llanos Conesa, Luis Miguel Rojo-Bofill, Lorenzo Livianos, Luis Rojo
INTRODUCTION: There are discrepancies in the literature about the role of teasing in the onset of eating pathology. This article aims to establish the influence of teasing in abnormal eating behaviors and attitudes in the adolescent population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a two-year prospective study conducted in 7,167 adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In a first assessment, teasing about weight and teasing about abilities were measured by means of the POTS...
August 14, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818400/characterization-of-the-constitutive-behavior-of-municipal-solid-waste-considering-particle-compressibility
#13
Xilin Lü, Xinle Zhai, Maosong Huang
This paper presents a characterization of the mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) under consolidated drained and undrained triaxial conditions. The constitutive model was established based on a deviatoric hardening plasticity model. A power form function and incremental hyperbolic form function were proposed to describe the shear strength and the hardening role of MSW. The stress ratio that corresponds to the zero dilatancy was not fixed but depended on mean stress, making the Rowe's rule be able to describe the stress-dilatancy of MSW...
August 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818276/the-role-of-incremental-parsing-in-syntactically-conditioned-word-learning
#14
Jeffrey Lidz, Aaron Steven White, Rebecca Baier
In a series of three experiments, we use children's noun learning as a probe into their syntactic knowledge as well as their ability to deploy this knowledge, investigating how the predictions children make about upcoming syntactic structure change as their knowledge changes. In the first two experiments, we show that children display a developmental change in their ability to use a noun's syntactic environment as a cue to its meaning. We argue that this pattern arises from children's reliance on their knowledge of verbs' subcategorization frame frequencies to guide parsing, coupled with an inability to revise incremental parsing decisions...
September 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817927/identification-of-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-from-metagenomic-libraries-using-pptase-complementation-in-a-streptomyces-host
#15
J Kipchirchir Bitok, Christophe Lemetre, Melinda A Ternei, Sean F Brady
The majority of environmental bacteria are not readily cultured in the lab, leaving the natural products they make inaccessible using culture-dependent discovery methods. Cloning and heterologous expression of DNA extracted from environmental samples (environmental DNA, eDNA) provides a means of circumventing this discovery bottleneck. To facilitate the identification of clones containing biosynthetic gene clusters, we developed a model heterologous expression reporter strain Streptomyces albus::bpsA ΔPPTase...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817410/fatty-infiltrate-of-the-lumbar-multifidus-muscles-predicts-return-to-play-in-young-athletes-with-extension-based-low-back-pain
#16
John Winslow, Andrew Getzin, Hilary Greenberger, Walter Silbert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of fatty infiltrate of the lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) for return to play in young athletes with extension-based low back pain (EB LBP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital-based sports medicine practice. PATIENTS: Sixty-two athletes, 61.3% female, and 38.7% male, mean age 14.8 years, with a primary complaint of EB LBP who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 46...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817227/patterns-of-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-initiating-second-line-therapy-after-metformin-monotherapy-retrospective-data-for-10-256-individuals-from-the-united-kingdom-and-germany
#17
Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas R Godec, Jesús Medina, Laura Garcia-Alvarez, Josh Hiller, Marilia B Gomes, Javier Cid-Ruzafa, Bernard Charbonnel, Peter Fenici, Niklas Hammar, Kiyoshi Hashigami, Mikhail Kosiborod, Antonio Nicolucci, Marina V Shestakova, Linong Ji, Stuart Pocock
AIM: To investigate determinants of change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 6 months after initiating uninterrupted second-line glucose-lowering therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study utilized retrospective data from 10 256 patients with T2DM who initiated second-line glucose-lowering therapy (switch from or add-on to metformin) between 2011 and 2014 in Germany and the UK. Effects of pre-specified patient characteristics on 6-month HbA1c changes were assessed using analysis of covariance...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817196/technical-note-quantitative-analysis-of-ivim-diffusion-mri-using-total-variation-and-huber-penalty-function
#18
Esha Baidya Kayal, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Kedar Khare, Jayendra Tiru Alampally, Sameer Bakhshi, Raju Sharma, Amit Mehndiratta
PURPOSE: Quantitative analysis in Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) imaging commonly uses voxel-wise estimation of the bi-exponential model, which might not be reliable for clinical interpretation. Improving model fitting performance and qualitative and quantitative parametric estimation, two novel methodologies are proposed here. METHODS: Five IVIM analyses methodologies: i) Bi-Exponential (BE) model, ii) Segmented BE method with 2-parameter fitting (BEseg-2), iii) Segmented BE method with 1-parameter fitting (BEseg-1), iv) BE with adaptive Total Variation Penalty function (BE+TV) and v) BE with adaptive Huber Penalty function (BE+HPF) were evaluated...
August 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816959/estimation-of-physiologic-ability-and-surgical-stress-e-pass-scoring-system-could-provide-preoperative-advice-on-whether-to-undergo-laparoscopic-surgery-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-a-high-physiological-risk
#19
Ao Zhang, Tingting Liu, Kaiyuan Zheng, Ningbo Liu, Fei Huang, Weidong Li, Tong Liu, Weihua Fu
Laparoscopic colorectal surgery had been widely used for colorectal cancer patient and showed a favorable outcome on the postoperative morbidity rate. We attempted to evaluate physiological status of patients by mean of Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) system and to analyze the difference variation of postoperative morbidity rate of open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in patients with different physiological status.In total 550 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery treatment were included...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816877/fractures-in-spinal-ankylosing-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-disease-and-injury-types-treatment-techniques-and-outcomes
#20
Tarush Rustagi, Doniel Drazin, Cumhur Oner, Jonathan York, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal ankylosing disorders encompass ankylosing spondylitis (AS), disseminated hyperostosis of the spine, and end-stage spondylosis. All these result in a stiffened and frequently deformed spinal column. This makes the spinal column highly susceptible to severe injuries that are commonly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Improved understanding of the underlying disease processes and clinical comorbidities may alter the poor injury related morbidity and mortality outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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