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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236362/implementation-of-repeat-hiv-testing-during-pregnancy-in-southwestern-kenya-progress-and-missed-opportunities
#1
Anna J Rogers, Eliud Akama, Elly Weke, Justin Blackburn, George Owino, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Patrick Oyaro, Zachary A Kwena, Craig R Cohen, Janet M Turan
INTRODUCTION: Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236281/preoperative-evaluation-and-intraoperative-protection-of-the-facial-nerve-in-congenital-aural-atresia
#2
Jie Li, Shouqin Zhao, Lin Yang, Yi Li, Xiaobo Ma, Danni Wang, Ran Ren, Ying Li
We conducted a prospective study to assess the value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in identifying facial nerve variations in patients with congenital aural atresia and to determine how they affect otologic reconstruction surgery. Our study population was made up of 65 patients (69 ears) aged 6 to 22 years (mean: 13.7) without regard to sex. They were classified into three groups according to their scores on the Jahrsdoerfer grading scale: 46 ears scored 8 or more, 18 had a score of 6 or 7, and 5 scored 5 or less...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235915/social-bots-human-like-by-means-of-human-control
#3
Christian Grimme, Mike Preuss, Lena Adam, Heike Trautmann
Social bots are currently regarded an influential but also somewhat mysterious factor in public discourse and opinion making. They are considered to be capable of massively distributing propaganda in social and online media, and their application is even suspected to be partly responsible for recent election results. Astonishingly, the term social bot is not well defined and different scientific disciplines use divergent definitions. This work starts with a balanced definition attempt, before providing an overview of how social bots actually work (taking the example of Twitter) and what their current technical limitations are...
December 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235739/assistance-of-medical-clowns-improves-the-physical-examinations-of-children-aged-2-6-years
#4
Noam Meiri, Amichi Ankri, Faten Ziadan, Itay Nahmias, Muriel Konopnicki, Zeev Schnapp, Omer Itzhak Sagi, Mohamad Hamad Saied, Giora Pillar
BACKGROUND: A good physical exam is necessary to help pediatricians make the correct diagnosis and can save unnecessary imaging or invasive procedures. Distraction by medical clowns may create the optimal conditions for a proper physical examination. METHODS: Children aged 2-6 years who required physical examination in the pediatric emergency department were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two groups: physical exam by a pediatrician in the presence of caregivers vs...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235616/-social-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#5
M E Tabernero, F Musich, F C Cossini, D G Politis
AIM: To study the presence of alterations in social cognition in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to compare the levels of involvement, and to analyze their relevance as a tool to distinguish between both demential profile. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For this purpose, 34 patients diagnosed with PDD, 21 men and 13 women, with an average age of 70 years and 8 years of education, and 26 patients diagnosed with bvFTD, 9 men and 17 women, with an average age of 68 years and 6 years of education, were assessed...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235296/-effect-of-astragaloside-%C3%A2-combined-with-panax-notoginseng-saponins-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-study-of-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#6
Jing-Xian Li, Xiao-Qian Yang, Biao Tang, Xiao-Dan Liu, Ying-Hong Tang, Chang-Qing Deng, Xiao-Ping Huang
The aim is to study the effect of astragaloside Ⅳ (AST Ⅳ) combined with Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to probe the synergistic mechanism through the pharmacokinetics of the four major components such as AST Ⅳ, ginsenoside Rg₁ (Rg₁), ginsenoside Rb₁ (Rb₁), notoginsenoside R₁ (R₁) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. Following the establishment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model in rats by modified suture method, neurological function score, cerebral infarction area and pathomorphology were used to evaluate the pharmacological effect that the combination of AST Ⅳ and PNS antagonized cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; the contents of AST Ⅳ, Rg₁, Rb₁, R₁ in rat plasma of different time points were determined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and pharmacokinetics changes of the main effective components were analyzed...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235201/assessment-of-bone-dimensions-in-the-anterior-maxilla-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-study
#7
Sandra AlTarawneh, Abeer AlHadidi, Ahmad As Hamdan, Murad Shaqman, Emad Habib
PURPOSE: To evaluate labial and palatal bone thickness at the maxillary anterior teeth as well as distance from cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to bone crest using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements were obtained for maxillary anterior teeth of 120 subject CBCT volumes including thickness of labial and palatal plates of bone (coronal, middle, and apical thirds), and distance between CEJ and alveolar bone crest mid-labially, mesially, and distally...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234481/in-defense-of-pharmaceutically-enhancing-human-morality
#8
Evangelos D Protopapadakis
Purpose: I will discuss the prospect of pharmaceutically enhancing human morality and decision making in such a way as to eliminate morally unjustifiable choices and promote desirable ones. Background: Our species in the relatively short period since it has emerged has enormously advanced in knowledge, science, and technical progress. When it comes to moral development, the distance it has covered is almost negligible. What if we could medically accelerate our moral development? What if we could once and for all render our species totally immune to certain vices? Methodology: I will examine whether pharmaceutically intervening in human morality would compromise the autonomy of moral agents...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234237/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-r-sulfolactate-dehydrogenase-comc-from-the-rumen-methanogen-methanobrevibacter-millerae-sm9
#9
Yanli Zhang, Linley R Schofield, Carrie Sang, Debjit Dey, Ron S Ronimus
(R)-Sulfolactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.337), termed ComC, is a member of an NADH/NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of 2-hydroxyacids into their corresponding 2-oxoacids. The ComC reaction is reversible and in the biosynthetic direction causes the conversion of (R)-sulfolactate to sulfopyruvate in the production of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid). Coenzyme M is an essential cofactor required for the production of methane by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase complex...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234159/evolution-of-reproductive-parasites-with-direct-fitness-benefits
#10
Roman Zug, Peter Hammerstein
Maternally inherited symbionts such as Wolbachia have long been seen mainly as reproductive parasites, with deleterious effects on host fitness. It is becoming clear, however, that, frequently, these symbionts also have beneficial effects on host fitness, either along with reproductive parasitism or not. Using the examples of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and male-killing (MK), we here analyze the effect of direct fitness benefits on the evolution of reproductive parasites. By means of a simple theoretical framework, we synthesize and extend earlier modeling approaches for CI and MK, which usually ignore fitness benefits...
December 13, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233854/efficacy-of-educational-video-game-versus-traditional-educational-apps-at-improving-physician-decision-making-in-trauma-triage-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Deepika Mohan, Coreen Farris, Baruch Fischhoff, Matthew R Rosengart, Derek C Angus, Donald M Yealy, David J Wallace, Amber E Barnato
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Online intervention in national sample of emergency medicine physicians who make triage decisions at US hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 368 emergency medicine physicians primarily working at non-trauma centers...
December 12, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233596/a-prediction-model-for-lymph-node-metastasis-in-t1-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Jie Wu, Qi-Xun Chen, Di-Jian Shen, Qiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic resection is widely used for the treatment of T1 esophageal cancer, but it cannot be used to treat lymph node metastasis (LNM). This study aimed to develop a prediction model for LNM in patients with T1 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent surgery for esophageal cancer between January 2002 and June 2010 was retrospectively reviewed, and patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233120/prediction-of-5-year-overall-survival-in-cervical-cancer-patients-treated-with-radical-hysterectomy-using-computational-intelligence-methods
#13
Bogdan Obrzut, Maciej Kusy, Andrzej Semczuk, Marzanna Obrzut, Jacek Kluska
BACKGROUND: Computational intelligence methods, including non-linear classification algorithms, can be used in medical research and practice as a decision making tool. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of artificial intelligence models for 5-year overall survival prediction in patients with cervical cancer treated by radical hysterectomy. METHODS: The data set was collected from 102 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stage IA2-IIB, that underwent primary surgical treatment...
December 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232754/-measurement-of-the-strength-of-human-musculus-orbicularis-oculi-using-video-analysis
#14
Anita Koschmieder, Phillip Pisowocki, Carmen Zietz, Rainer Bader, Oliver Stachs, Anselm Jünemann
Introduction Current methods to measure the of strength of the musculus orbicularis oculi are limited by high proneness to examiner error or by their complex and impracticable set-ups. Our aim was to develop a simple and practicable method to measure eye lid power via video analysis. Methods 50 healthy subjects were included. A deformable single use lid speculum was used. Forced maximum lid closure was recorded via a video slit lamp. Analysis of the video data was performed with open source tracking software...
December 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231145/learning-from-multiple-classifier-systems-perspectives-for-improving-decision-making-of-qsar-models-in-medicinal-chemistry
#15
Hai V Pham-The, Nguyen-Hai Nam, Doan-Viet Nga, Dang Thanh Hai, Karel Dieguez-Santana, Yovani Marrero-Poncee, Juan A Castillo-Garit, Gerardo M Casanola-Martin, Huong Le-Thi-Thu
Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of data on chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models...
December 11, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230598/multi-view-approach-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-hypertension-using-transthoracic-echocardiography
#16
Matthias Schneider, Anna Maria Pistritto, Christian Gerges, Mario Gerges, Christina Binder, Irene Lang, Gerald Maurer, Thomas Binder, Georg Goliasch
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with severe morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography plays an essential role in the screening of PH. The quality of the acquired continuous wave Doppler signal is the major limitation of the method and can greatly affect the accuracy of estimated pulmonary pressures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical need to image from multiple ultrasound windows in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. We prospectively evaluated 65 patients (43% male, mean age 67...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230475/improving-decisions-about-transport-to-the-emergency-department-for-assisted-living-residents-who-fall
#17
Jefferson G Williams, Michael W Bachman, Michael D Lyons, Benjamin B Currie, Lawrence H Brown, A Wooten Jones, Jose G Cabanas, Alan K Kronhaus, J Brent Myers
Background: Residents of assisted living facilities who fall may not be seriously ill or injured, but policies often require immediate transport to an emergency department regardless of the patient's condition. Objective: To determine whether unnecessary transport can be avoided. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: One large county with a single system of emergency medical services. Participants: Convenience sample of residents in 22 assisted living facilities served by 1 group of primary care physicians...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230354/ecomorphological-inferences-in-early-vertebrates-reconstructing-dunkleosteus-terrelli-arthrodira-placodermi-caudal-fin-from-palaeoecological-data
#18
Humberto G Ferrón, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Héctor Botella
Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230350/spatially-graded-hydrogels-for-preclinical-testing-of-glioblastoma-anticancer-therapeutics
#19
S Pedron, H Polishetty, A M Pritchard, B P Mahadik, J N Sarkaria, B A C Harley
While preclinical models such as orthotopic tumors generated in mice from patient-derived specimens are widely used to predict sensitivity or therapeutic interventions for cancer, such xenografts can be slow, require extensive infrastructure, and can make in situ assessment difficult. Such concerns are heightened in highly aggressive cancers, such as glioblastoma (GBM), that display genetic diversity and short mean survival. Biomimetic biomaterial technologies offer an approach to create ex vivo models that reflect biophysical features of the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
September 2017: MRS Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229823/sex-determination-of-human-remains-from-peptides-in-tooth-enamel
#20
Nicolas Andre Stewart, Raquel Fernanda Gerlach, Rebecca L Gowland, Kurt J Gron, Janet Montgomery
The assignment of biological sex to archaeological human skeletons is a fundamental requirement for the reconstruction of the human past. It is conventionally and routinely performed on adults using metric analysis and morphological traits arising from postpubertal sexual dimorphism. A maximum accuracy of ∼95% is possible if both the cranium and os coxae are present and intact, but this is seldom achievable for all skeletons. Furthermore, for infants and juveniles, there are no reliable morphological methods for sex determination without resorting to DNA analysis, which requires good DNA survival and is time-consuming...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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