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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783200/blood-lead-and-cadmium-levels-in-preschool-children-and-associated-risk-factors-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#1
Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio, Júlia Prestes da Rocha Silva, Agnes Soares da Silva, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Regina Alves Cardoso
In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783095/initiating-buprenorphine-treatment-prior-to-versus-after-release-from-prison-arrest-outcomes
#2
Michael S Gordon, Thomas R Blue, Kathryn Couvillion, Robert P Schwartz, Kevin E O'Grady, Terrence T Fitzgerald, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: This secondary analysis of a randomized trial examines the association between initiation of buprenorphine treatment prior to, versus post-release, and rearrests during the 12-months following release. METHODS: Official rearrest data (N = 199) for the 12-months post-release were examined. Four outcomes were measured: (1) rearrested (yes/no), (2) time to rearrest, (3) number of rearrests, and (4) severity of charges (less severe vs. severe). RESULTS: A minority (43...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782995/efficacy-of-antipsychotics-in-dementia-depended-on-the-definition-of-patients-and-outcomes-a-meta-epidemiological-study
#3
REVIEW
C H W Smeets, S U Zuidema, T A Hulshof, M Smalbrugge, D L Gerritsen, R T C M Koopmans, H J Luijendijk
OBJECTIVE: Postulating that efficacy of antipsychotics for agitation and psychosis in dementia is best estimated in trials among patients with these symptoms and with symptom-specific outcomes, we investigated whether clinically broader definitions affected the pooled efficacy. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Trials were searched in multiple databases and categorized according to patient population (agitated, psychotic, mixed) and outcome scale (agitation, psychosis, generic)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782970/underlying-neural-alpha-frequency-patterns-associated-with-intra-hemispheric-inhibition-during-an-interhemispheric-transfer-task
#4
Stephanie L Simon-Dack, Brian Kraus, Zachary Walter, Shelby Smith, Chelsea Cadle
Interhemispheric transfer measured via differences in right- or left-handed motoric responses to lateralized visual stimuli, known as the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD), is one way of identifying patterns of processing that are vital for understanding the transfer of neural signals. Examination of interhemispheric transfer by means of the CUD is not entirely explained by simple measures of response time. Multiple processes contribute to wide variability observed in CUD reaction times. Prior research has suggested that intra-hemispheric inhibitory processes may be involved in regulation of speed of transfer...
May 18, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782961/baclofen-induced-encephalopathy-in-overdose-modeling-of-the-electroencephalographic-effect-concentration-relationships-and-contribution-of-tolerance-in-the-rat
#5
Magali Chartier, Isabelle Malissin, Salma Tannous, Laurence Labat, Patricia Risède, Bruno Mégarbane, Lucie Chevillard
Baclofen, a γ-amino-butyric acid type-B receptor agonist with exponentially increased use at high-dose to facilitate abstinence in chronic alcoholics, is responsible for increasing poisonings. Baclofen overdose may induce severe encephalopathy and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Whether prior prolonged baclofen treatment may influence the severity of baclofen-induced encephalopathy in overdose has not been established. We designed a rat study to characterize baclofen-induced encephalopathy, correlate its severity with plasma concentrations and investigate the contribution of tolerance...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782960/the-acute-and-residual-effects-of-escalating-analgesic-range-doses-of-ketamine-on-driving-performance-a-simulator-study
#6
Amie C Hayley, Maja Green, Luke A Downey, Con K K Stough, Michael Keane, Brook Shiferaw, Panagiota Kostakis, Yahya Shehabi
Ketamine hydrochloride elicits potent psychotomimetic and neurobehavioural effects which make it incompatible with driving; however, the direct effect on driving performance is yet to be assessed. Using an open label, within-subjects protocol, 15 males and 5 females (mean age = 30.8 years) were administered three fixed, stepwise increasing sub-anaesthetic doses of intravenous (IV) ketamine solution [(i) 8 mg/h IV infusion plus 30 mg bolus, (ii) 12 mg/h IV infusion and (iii) 20 mg/h infusion]. Whole blood ketamine and norketamine concentrations were determined at each treatment step and at 2 h post-infusion...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782933/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analyses-identify-high-genetic-heterogeneity-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-genotype-p-6-strains-circulating-in-africa
#7
Martin M Nyaga, Yi Tan, Mapaseka L Seheri, Rebecca A Halpin, Asmik Akopov, Karla M Stucker, Nadia B Fedorova, Susmita Shrivastava, A Duncan Steele, Jason M Mwenda, Brett E Pickett, Suman R Das, M Jeffery Mphahlele
Rotavirus A (RVA) exhibits a wide genotype diversity globally. Little is known about the genetic composition of genotype P[6] from Africa. This study investigated possible evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic diversity of genotype P[6] VP4 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses on 167 P[6] VP4 full-length sequences were conducted, which included six porcine-origin sequences. Of the 167 sequences, 57 were newly acquired through whole genome sequencing as part of this study. The other 110 sequences were all publicly-available global P[6] VP4 full-length sequences downloaded from GenBank...
May 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782915/new-insights-into-the-natural-course-of-knee-osteoarthritis-early-regulation-of-cytokines-and-growth-factors-with-emphasis-on-sex-dependent-angiogenesis-and-tissue-remodeling-a-pilot-study
#8
Kalle Kisand, Ann Tamm, Mare Lintrop, Agu Tamm
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify cytokine profiles associated with radiographic phenotypes of knee osteoarthritis (rKOA) with a focus on early stage of the disease. METHODS: The pilot population study involved 60 middle-aged patients (mean age 50±7.3y.). Standardized weight-bearing anteroposterior and axial radiographs were used to assess rKOA severity in tibiofemoral (TFJ) of patellofemoral joint (PFJ) by grading system (grades 0-3). Luminex (xMAP® ) technology was used to simultaneously assess 60 biomarkers...
May 18, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782597/low-dose-radiation-18f-fluoride-pet-ct-in-the-assessment-of-unilateral-condylar-hyperplasia-of-the-mandible-preliminary-results-of-a-single-centre-experience
#9
G M Lima, S Diodato, E Costabile, G Cicoria, S Civollani, C Marchetti, P L Guidalotti, C Pettinato, C Nanni, S Fanti
Background: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) of the mandible, or Hypercondylia, is a pathological condition that determines an abnormal growth of the affected condyle.Bone SPECT with Tc99m-diphosphonates is a successful tool in the diagnosis of UCH. EANM guidelines also suggest the use of 18F-NaF PET/CT, though it leads to a higher radiation exposure. Aim: As UCH patients are young, we aimed to develop a low dose 18F-Fluoride PET/CT protocol and compare it to a standard injected activity scan, to assess if the image quality remains unchanged...
2018: Eur J Hybrid Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782487/systematic-interrogation-of-diverse-omic-data-reveals-interpretable-robust-and-generalizable-transcriptomic-features-of-clinically-successful-therapeutic-targets
#10
Andrew D Rouillard, Mark R Hurle, Pankaj Agarwal
Target selection is the first and pivotal step in drug discovery. An incorrect choice may not manifest itself for many years after hundreds of millions of research dollars have been spent. We collected a set of 332 targets that succeeded or failed in phase III clinical trials, and explored whether Omic features describing the target genes could predict clinical success. We obtained features from the recently published comprehensive resource: Harmonizome. Nineteen features appeared to be significantly correlated with phase III clinical trial outcomes, but only 4 passed validation schemes that used bootstrapping or modified permutation tests to assess feature robustness and generalizability while accounting for target class selection bias...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782440/management-for-simultaneous-patella-tendon-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-ruptures-a-systematic-review-of-available-literature
#11
Alexander Handel Matthews, Ethan James Fraser, Benjamin Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Combined rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patella tendon (PT) is a rare injury pattern. Currently little evidence exists to help guide management decisions for these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus (EMBASE, MEDLINE) for all articles reporting on combined rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patella tendon (PT). The characteristic injury mechanisms, common presentation findings and outcomes of simultaneous and staged treatment strategies were determined to provide guidance for the management of this uncommon injury pattern...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782396/risk-factors-for-delays-in-adjuvant-chemotherapy-following-immediate-breast-reconstruction
#12
Oriana Cohen, Gretl Lam, Mihye Choi, Daniel Ceradini, Nolan Karp
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist that immediate breast reconstruction may delay adjuvant chemotherapy initiation, impacting oncologic outcomes. Here, we determine how post-operative complications impact chemotherapy timing, and identify factors associated with greater risk for delays. METHODS: Retrospective chart review identified patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction and adjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution from 2010 to 2015. Patients were analyzed based on occurrence of post-operative complications and time to chemotherapy...
May 15, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#13
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782280/-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-young-subjects-with-marfanoid-habitus
#14
E V Timofeev, E G Malev, E V Zemtsovskiy
BACKGROUND: In Marfan syndrome early impairment of left ventricular systolic function has been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function in young adults with Marfanoid habitus (MH) (includes arachnodactylia, dolichostenomelia, high palate, deformations of the thorax). METHODS: We studied 137 young subjects (mean age 21.3±1.5) - 58 male, 79 female. Transthoracic echocardiography (Vivid 7 Dimension, GE) was performed in 24 asymptomatic MH with excluded Marfan syndrome and 42 healthy control subjects...
2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782169/indium-catalysts-for-low-pressure-co-2-epoxide-ring-opening-copolymerization-evidence-for-a-mononuclear-mechanism
#15
Arnaud Thevenon, Anish Cyriac, Dominic Myers, Andrew J P White, Christopher B Durr, Charlotte K Williams
The alternating copolymerization of CO2 /epoxides is a useful means to incorporate high levels of carbon dioxide into polymers. The reaction is generally proposed to occur by bimetallic or bicomponent pathways. Here, the first indium catalysts are presented, which are proposed to operate by a distinct mononuclear pathway. The most active and selective catalysts are phosphasalen complexes, which feature ligands comprising two iminophosphoranes linked to sterically hindered ortho-phenolates. The catalysts are active at 1 bar pressure of carbon dioxide and are most effective without any cocatalyst...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782156/combining-high-throughput-sequencing-of-sedadna-and-traditional-palaeolimnological-techniques-to-infer-historical-trends-in-cyanobacterial-communities
#16
Timothy J Tse, Lorne E Doig, Song Tang, Xiaohui Zhang, Weimin Sun, Steve B Wiseman, Cindy Xin Feng, Hongling Liu, John P Giesy, Markus Hecker, Paul D Jones
Freshwaters worldwide are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic activities and changing climate. Unfortunately, many inland waters lack sufficient long-term monitoring to assess environmental trends. Analysis of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) is emerging as a means to reconstruct the past occurrence of microbial communities of inland waters. The purpose of this study was to assess a combination of high-throughput sequencing (16S rRNA) of sedaDNA and traditional palaeolimnological analyses to explore multidecadal relationships among cyanobacterial community composition, the potential for cyanotoxin production and palaeoenvironmental proxies...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782067/sublingual-immunotherapy-for-pediatric-allergic-conjunctivitis-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Jie Yang, Li Zhang, Zhixiang Zhao, Shiyu Liao
BACKGROUND: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common chronic condition, especially in children. Ocular symptoms are often overlooked during treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Pediatric ARC can be effectively treated using sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), which is a guideline-recommended safe treatment approach. However, the therapeutic efficacy of SLIT in terms of ameliorating eye symptoms has not been effectively evaluated. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of SLIT for infants, children, and adolescents (aged from 3 to 18 years) with AC or ARC...
May 21, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782061/improving-self-management-for-persons-with-parkinson-s-disease-through-education-focusing-on-management-of-daily-life-patients-and-relatives-experience-of-the-swedish-national-parkinson-school
#18
Carina Hellqvist, Nil Dizdar, Peter Hagell, Carina Berterö, Märta Sund Levander
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The two folded aim of this study was firstly to identify and describe experiences valuable for managing daily life after participation in the NPS self-management intervention. The second part was to explore the applicability of the Self- and family management framework by Grey and colleagues for persons with Parkinson's Disease and their relatives. BACKGROUND: The impact of PD is evident on the lives of both patients and relatives. The National Parkinson School (NPS) is a Swedish self-management program designed for patients and relatives, aiming at teaching strategies helpful for the ability of self-management, in order to promote life satisfaction...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782050/sequels-to-tattoo-removal-by-caustic-products
#19
K Hutton Carlsen, J Serup
BACKGROUND: Caustic products are used as affordable alternatives to laser removal of tattoos. OBJECTIVE: Describe a series of patients with sequels after tattoo removal by caustic products. METHODS: 11 patients with complications referred from 2013 to 2017 were studied. Objective findings, sequels, corrective treatments, cost and psychological aspects were obtained. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, score 10 extremely dissatisfied) was used to describe patient satisfaction with tattoos before and after removal...
May 21, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781974/prognostic-value-of-shape-descriptive-factors-for-the-progression-of-geographic-atrophy-secondary-to-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Maximilian Pfau, Moritz Lindner, Lukas Goerdt, Sarah Thiele, Jennifer Nadal, Matthias Schmid, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, SriniVas R Sadda, Frank G Holz, Monika Fleckenstein
PURPOSE: To systematically compare the prognostic value of multiple shape-descriptive factors in the natural course of the disease. METHODS: A total of 296 eyes of 201 patients (female patients 130; mean age: 72.2 ± 13.08 years) with a median follow-up of 2.38 years from 2 prospective, noninterventional natural history studies (Fundus-Autofluorescence-in-Age-related-Macular-Degeneration [clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00393692], Directional-Spread-in-Geographic-Atrophy [NCT02051998]) were included in the analysis...
May 16, 2018: Retina
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