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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236362/implementation-of-repeat-hiv-testing-during-pregnancy-in-southwestern-kenya-progress-and-missed-opportunities
#1
Anna J Rogers, Eliud Akama, Elly Weke, Justin Blackburn, George Owino, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Patrick Oyaro, Zachary A Kwena, Craig R Cohen, Janet M Turan
INTRODUCTION: Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236358/in-vivo-imaging-the-motility-of-monocyte-macrophage-during-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#2
Rui Shi, Wei Feng, Chao Zhang, Tingting Yu, Zhan Fan, Zheng Liu, Zhihong Zhang, Dan Zhu
Diabetes, as a chronic metabolic disease, can impair the immune function of monocytes/macrophages (MMs). However, it is unclear how MMs immune response to inflammation with the development of diabetes, and whether immune response around the inflammatory foci depends on the depth in tissue. Footpad provides a classical physiological site for monitoring cellular behavior during inflammation, but limited to the superficial dermis due to the strong scattering of footpad. Herein, we used confocal microscopy to monitor the motility of MMs in deeper tissue around inflammatory foci with the development of type 1 diabetic (T1D) mice through a swithable footpad skin optical clearing window...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236342/longitudinal-assessment-of-rabbit-renal-fibrosis-induced-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-using-two-dimensional-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#3
Jing-Gang Zhang, Zhao-Yu Xing, Ting-Ting Zha, Xiao-Juan Tian, Ya-Nan Du, Jie Chen, Wei Xing
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that two-dimensional-susceptibility weighted imaging (2D-SWI) could serve as a useful biomarker for differentiating the grade of liver fibrosis. PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of 2D-SWI in the dynamic quantification of renal fibrosis in a rabbit model. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal study. ANIMAL MODEL: Twenty-Four New Zealand White Rabbits including control group (n = 4); and renal fibrosis group (n = 20), by means of a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236339/physical-activity-level-among-children-recovering-from-severe-acute-malnutrition
#4
Esther Babirekere-Iriso, Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter, Hanifa Namusoke, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim F Michaelsen, Søren Brage, Ken D Stark, Lotte Lauritzen, André Briend, Henrik Friis, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. Using hip-mounted tri-axial accelerometers, we measured physical activity expressed as counts per minute (cpm) during the last three days of hospital treatment...
December 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236334/post-transfusional-changes-in-serum-hepcidin-and-iron-parameters-in-preterm-infants
#5
Fotini Stripeli, John Kapetanakis, Dimitris Gourgiotis, Antonis Drakatos, Maria Tsolia, Lydia Kossiva
BACKGROUND: Packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfusions are common in preterm neonates. Hepcidin acts as a negative feedback iron regulator. Iron parameters such as immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and high light scatter reticulocytes (HLR) are used to clarify iron metabolism. Very little is known about the regulation of hepcidin in the preterms as most of reports evaluated the prohepcidin. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum hepcidin and established hematological parameters in preterms after the transfusion...
December 13, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236329/predicting-the-bioavailability-of-sediment-bound-uranium-to-the-freshwater-midge-chironomus-dilutus-using-physicochemical-properties
#6
Sarah E Crawford, Stephen Lofts, Karsten Liber
Assessment of uranium (U)-contaminated sediment is often hindered by the inability to accurately account for the physicochemical properties of sediment that modify U bioavailability. The goal of this research was to determine whether sediment-associated U bioavailability could be predicted over a wide range of conditions and sediment properties using simple regressions and a geochemical speciation model, the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM7). Data from U-contaminated field sediment bioaccumulation tests, along with previously published bioaccumulation studies with U-spiked field and formulated sediments were used to examine the models...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236302/recovery-of-hepatitis-c-specific-t-cell-responses-after-rituximab-therapy-in-hepatitis-c-mixed-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis
#7
Poonam Mathur, Benjamin Emmanuel, Michael Sneller, Xiaozhen Zhang, Bhawna Poonia, Shyamasundaran Kottilil
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mixed cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is associated with monoclonal B cell expansion in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. B cell depletion therapy using rituximab, a CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been successful in achieving remission from symptomatic disease. This study investigated whether B cell depletion therapy has an impact on activation of HCV-specific T cell phenotype and function. METHODS: Nineteen patients with Hepatitis C mixed cryoglobulinemic vasculitis were treated with 4 cycles of rituximab (375mg/m2 ) and variables were measured 6 months after therapy...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236281/preoperative-evaluation-and-intraoperative-protection-of-the-facial-nerve-in-congenital-aural-atresia
#8
Jie Li, Shouqin Zhao, Lin Yang, Yi Li, Xiaobo Ma, Danni Wang, Ran Ren, Ying Li
We conducted a prospective study to assess the value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in identifying facial nerve variations in patients with congenital aural atresia and to determine how they affect otologic reconstruction surgery. Our study population was made up of 65 patients (69 ears) aged 6 to 22 years (mean: 13.7) without regard to sex. They were classified into three groups according to their scores on the Jahrsdoerfer grading scale: 46 ears scored 8 or more, 18 had a score of 6 or 7, and 5 scored 5 or less...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236274/outcomes-of-adenotonsillectomy-in-severe-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
Karim El-Kersh, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Egambaram Senthilvel
We conducted a retrospective chart review to examine the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Our study population was made up of 85 patients-58 boys and 27 girls, aged 1 to 17 years (mean: 6.9 ± 4.4)-with severe OSA who had undergone adenotonsillectomy and pre- and postoperative attended polysomnography (PSG) over a 4-year period. Severe OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >10 events per hour of sleep. Patients who had an underlying genetic or craniofacial anomaly were excluded...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236273/prognosticating-hearing-outcome-in-patients-with-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-by-means-of-otoacoustic-emissions-and-auditory-brainstem-response
#10
Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy, Mohammad Taghi Ashtiani, Shahin Bastaninejad, Sasan Dabiri Satri, Sevil Nasirmohtaram, Nourullah Agha Ebrahimi
This is an analytic-descriptive study, parallel with a randomized, controlled trial performed at Amir'Alam Hospital, a tertiary referral center, with the aim of evaluating the correlation between otoacoustic emission (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) findings with hearing outcome after treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Sixty patients with idiopathic SSNHL who presented to the emergency services and otology clinics between 2012 and 2014, and whose symptoms had begun <10 days previously, enrolled in this study...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236271/changes-in-abnormal-muscle-tension-pattern-after-fiberoptic-injection-laryngoplasty
#11
Georges Ziade, Ghassan Haddad, Sarah Assaad, Maher Kasti, Abdul-Latif Hamdan
We performed a retrospective chart review to compare the presence and types of abnormal muscle tension patterns (MTPs) in patients who had been diagnosed with glottal insufficiency before and after fiberoptic injection laryngoplasty. The main cause of glottal insufficiency had been unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Our review included an analysis of the medical records and laryngeal videostroboscopic recordings of 16 patients-9 men and 7 women, aged 25 to 87 years (mean: 59). Stroboscopic frames were analyzed for the presence of one or more types of abnormal MTP...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236270/endoscopic-endonasal-management-of-recurrent-maxillary-mucoceles-using-biliary-t-tube-stenting
#12
Noritsugu Ono, Shin Ito, Hirotomo Homma, Hiroko Okada, Junko Murata, Katsuhisa Ikeda
Mucoceles of the paranasal sinus can be managed endoscopically with an extremely low recurrence rate. Frontal sinus mucoceles can sometimes be prevented from closing and reforming by stenting, which to the best of our knowledge has not yet been reported in the maxillary sinus. We describe the cases of 5 patients-3 men and 2 women, aged 47 to 75 years (mean: 59.6)-with a recurrent and intractable maxillary sinus mucocele that was managed with biliary T-tube stenting. The indications for stenting included recurrent episodes of mucocele with or without a lateral location with a relatively thick bony wall...
December 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236223/transit-and-lifespan-in-neutrophil-production-implications-for-drug-intervention
#13
Daniel Câmara De Souza, Morgan Craig, Tyler Cassidy, Jun Li, Fahima Nekka, Jacques Bélair, Antony R Humphries
A comparison of the transit compartment ordinary differential equation modelling approach to distributed and discrete delay differential equation models is studied by focusing on Quartino's extension to the Friberg transit compartment model of myelosuppression, widely relied upon in the pharmaceutical sciences to predict the neutrophil response after chemotherapy, and on a QSP delay differential equation model of granulopoiesis. An extension to the Quartino model is provided by considering a general number of transit compartments and introducing an extra parameter that allows for the decoupling of the maturation time from the production rate of cells...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236222/an-indirect-comparison-of-changes-in-the-impact-of-weight-on-quality-of-life-among-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-antihyperglycemic-agents-in-dual-therapy-with-metformin
#14
Shana B Traina, April Slee, Suzy Van Sanden, Joris Diels
INTRODUCTION: It is important to capture the patient experience with a diabetes treatment in clinical trials; however, use of instruments to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in diabetes trials is inconsistent and results may not be reported alongside primary efficacy data. In lieu of head-to-head data, indirect comparisons can be used to compare competing interventions. In this study, we used indirect comparison methods to assess differences in PRO score changes between canagliflozin and other antihyperglycemic agents as add-on to metformin...
December 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236217/the-association-between-medical-diagnosis-and-caregiver-burden-a-cross-sectional-study-of-recipients-of-informal-support-and-caregivers-from-the-general-population-study-good-aging-in-sk%C3%A3-ne-sweden
#15
Sölve Elmståhl, Beth Dahlrup, Henrik Ekström, Eva Nordell
BACKGROUND: Different kinds of chronic diseases might imply different dimensions of caregiver burden, not previously described among the caregivers to recipients from the general elder population. AIM: The main objective was to examine differences in burden between the 343 caregivers to persons with different diagnoses. METHODS: A group of elderly recipients of informal care (n = 343) from the general population study 'Good Aging in Skåne' (GÅS) Sweden, were divided into five diagnostic groups: dementia (n = 90), heart and lung diseases (n = 48), stroke (n = 62), fractures (n = 66), depression (n = 40) and the group "other", consisting of different diagnoses (n = 37) according to ICD-10...
December 13, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236216/long-term-outcomes-of-a%C3%A2-caucasian-cohort-presenting-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-or-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-caused-by-coronary-spasm
#16
W Vlastra, M Piek, M A van Lavieren, M E J C Hassell, B E Claessen, G W Wijntjens, T P van de Hoef, K D Sjauw, M A Beijk, R Delewi, J J Piek
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery spasm may be the underlying mechanism in up to 10% of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Asian individuals exhibit a 3-times greater incidence of spasm than Caucasians; this is likely due to different types of mechanisms. Consequently, solid data is limited about the long-term prognosis in Caucasian patients presenting with ACS and/or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by coronary spasm. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2015, thirty Caucasian patients with coronary artery spasm presenting with ACS (N = 29) and/or OHCA (N = 11) were enrolled in this prospective registry...
December 13, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236205/a-novel-fibrin-based-artificial-ovary-prototype-resembling-human-ovarian-tissue-in-terms-of-architecture-and-rigidity
#17
Maria Costanza Chiti, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans, Lucie Mortiaux, Flanco Zhuge, Emna Ouni, Parinaz Asiabi Kohneh Shahri, Evelyne Van Ruymbeke, Sophie-Demoustier Champagne, Jacques Donnez, Christiani Andrade Amorim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to optimize fibrin matrix composition in order to mimic human ovarian tissue architecture for human ovarian follicle encapsulation and grafting. METHODS: Ultrastructure of fresh human ovarian cortex in age-related women (n = 3) and different fibrin formulations (F12.5/T1, F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75), rheology of fibrin matrices and histology of isolated and encapsulated human ovarian follicles in these matrices. RESULTS: Fresh human ovarian cortex showed a highly fibrous and structurally inhomogeneous architecture in three age-related patients, but the mean ± SD of fiber thickness (61...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236204/the-burden-of-pure-anisometropic-amblyopia-a-cross-sectional-study-on-2800-iranians
#18
Siamak Akbarzadeh, Reihaneh Vahabi, Nooshin Bazzazi, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Samira Heydarian, Daniel F Fouladi
PURPOSE: To assess the proportion of pure anisometropic amblyopia in a sample Iranian (white) population. METHODS: A total of 2800 consecutive individuals who presented at a referral eye clinic for any reason were examined for the presence of pure anisometropic amblyopia. Anisometropia was reported when a spherical equivalent refraction difference of at least 1.0 D with or without a cylinder refraction difference of at least 1.0 D was present between the two eyes...
December 13, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236203/work-outcomes-in-patients-who-stay-at-work-despite-musculoskeletal-pain
#19
Andy Cochrane, Niamh M Higgins, Conor Rothwell, Jennifer Ashton, Roisin Breen, Oriel Corcoran, Oliver FitzGerald, Pamela Gallagher, Deirdre Desmond
Purpose To assess self-reported work impacts and associations between psychosocial risk factors and work impairment amongst workers seeking care for musculoskeletal pain while continuing to work. Methods Patients were recruited from Musculoskeletal Assessment Clinics at 5 hospitals across Ireland. Participants completed questionnaires including assessments of work impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire), work ability (single item from the Work Ability Index) and work performance (Work Role Functioning Questionnaire; WRFQ)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236200/electrophysiologic-features-of-protected-channels-in-late-postinfarction-patients-with-and-without-spontaneous-ventricular-tachycardia
#20
Sachin Nayyar, Lauren Wilson, Anand Ganesan, Thomas Sullivan, Pawel Kuklik, Glenn Young, Prashanthan Sanders, Kurt C Roberts-Thomson
PURPOSE: Protected channels of surviving myocytes in late postinfarction ventricular scar predispose to ventricular tachycardia (VT). However, only a few patients develop VT spontaneously. We studied differences in electric remodeling and protected channels in late postinfarction patients with and without spontaneous VT. METHODS: Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) with recurrent sustained monomorphic VT (n = 22) were compared with stable ICM patients without spontaneous VT (control group; n = 5)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
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