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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822341/mullins-effect-in-polyethylene-and-its-dependency-on-crystal-content-a-network-alteration-model
#2
M Makki, G Ayoub, H Abdul-Hameed, F Zaïri, B Mansoor, M Naït-Abdelaziz, M Ouederni
This contribution is focused on the Mullins effect in polyethylene. An ultra-low-density polyethylene with 0.15 crystal content, a low-density polyethylene with 0.3 crystal content and a high-density polyethylene with 0.72 crystal content are subjected to cyclic stretching over a large strain range. Experimental observations are first reported to examine how the crystal content influences the Mullins effect in polyethylene. It is found that the cyclic stretching is characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amounts depends on the crystal content and the applied strain...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822325/are-there-regional-tendencies-toward-controversial-screening-practices-a-study-of-prostate-and-breast-cancer-screening-in-a-medicare-population
#3
Eric Raffin, Tracy Onega, Julie Bynum, Andrea Austin, Donald Carmichael, Kristen Bronner, Philip Goodney, Elias S Hyams
INTRODUCTION: Prostate and breast cancer screening in older patients continue to be controversial. Balancing the desire for early detection with avoidance of over-diagnosis has led to competing and contradictory guidelines for both practices. Despite similarities, it is not known how these screening practices are related at the regional level. In this study, we examined how screening PSA and mammography are related within healthcare regions, and, to better understand what may be driving these practices, whether they are associated with local intensity of care...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822323/discriminative-clustering-on-manifold-for-adaptive-transductive-classification
#4
Zhao Zhang, Lei Jia, Min Zhang, Bing Li, Li Zhang, Fanzhang Li
In this paper, we mainly propose a novel adaptive transductive label propagation approach by joint discriminative clustering on manifolds for representing and classifying high-dimensional data. Our framework seamlessly combines the unsupervised manifold learning, discriminative clustering and adaptive classification into a unified model. Also, our method incorporates the adaptive graph weight construction with label propagation. Specifically, our method is capable of propagating label information using adaptive weights over low-dimensional manifold features, which is different from most existing studies that usually predict the labels and construct the weights in the original Euclidean space...
August 1, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822322/caffeine-s-influence-on-gambling-behavior-and-other-types-of-impulsivity
#5
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. METHODS: Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
August 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822316/improved-middle-ear-soft-tissue-visualization-using-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-imaging
#6
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822290/freeze-dryable-lipid-vesicles-with-size-tunability-and-high-encapsulation-efficiency-prepared-by-the-multiple-emulsification-solvent-evaporation-method
#7
Akihiko Suzuki, Takashi Kuroiwa, Kaname Horikoshi, Akihiko Kanazawa, Sosaku Ichikawa
We investigated the extent of potential applicability of our recently developed method for preparing lipid vesicles [T. Kuroiwa et al., J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 93 (2016) 421], designated as the multiple emulsification-solvent evaporation method, with the intention of controlling the vesicle diameter and achieving high entrapment efficiency for water-soluble compounds. Using this method, the diameter of lipid vesicles could be varied by selecting the methods for preparing the primary water-in-oil emulsion, which contained water droplets as templates for the internal water phases of lipid vesicles...
August 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822289/assessing-differences-between-ostwald-ripening-and-coalescence-by-rheology-laser-diffraction-and-multiple-light-scattering
#8
J Santos, N Calero, L A Trujillo-Cayado, M C Garcia, J Muñoz
This contribution deals with the study of the influence of surfactant ratio, namely triblock copolymer (Pluronic PE9400) to polyoxyethylene glycerol fatty acid ester (Levenol C201), on the stability of emulsions formulated with a mixture of two biosolvents (N,N Dimethyl Decanamide and D-limonene), which find applications as carriers of agrochemicals. Emulsions containing Pluronic, regardless of the concentration studied, underwent Ostwald ripening while coalescence controlled the destabilization process of emulsions containing Levenol C201 as the only emulsifier...
August 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822259/ambient-air-pollution-temperature-and-kawasaki-disease-in-shanghai-china
#9
Zhijing Lin, Xia Meng, Renjie Chen, Guoying Huang, Xiaojing Ma, Jingjing Chen, Min Huang, Meirong Huang, Yonghao Gui, Chen Chu, Fang Liu, Haidong Kan
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a kind of pediatric vasculitis of unknown etiology which mainly affects the development of coronary artery aneurysms. Few studies have explored the potential environmental risk factors on KD incidence. We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the associations between air pollution and temperature and KD in Shanghai, China. We collected daily-hospitalized KD patients that were admitted in major pediatric specialty hospitals located in the urban areas of Shanghai from 2001 to 2010...
August 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822258/photochemical-oxidation-of-dimethylsulphide-to-dimethylsulphoxide-in-estuarine-and-coastal-waters
#10
Günther Uher, J Julian Pillans, Angela D Hatton, Robert C Upstill-Goddard
Dimethylsulphide (DMS) photo-oxidation and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) photoproduction were estimated in 26 laboratory irradiations of coastal samples from NE England (Tyne estuary) and W Scotland (Loch Linnhe and River Nant at Taynuilt). Pseudo-first order rate constants of DMS photo-oxidation (0.038 h(-1) to 0.345 h(-1)) and DMSO photo-production (0.017 h(-1) to 0.283 h(-1)) varied by one order of magnitude and were lowest in the coastal North Sea. Estuarine samples (salinity S < 30) had a mean DMSO yield of 96 ± 16% (n = 14), consistent with 1:1 M conversion via photosensitised oxidation by singlet oxygen...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822257/performance-of-a-monolith-biotrickling-filter-treating-high-concentrations-of-h2s-from-mimic-biogas-and-elemental-sulfur-plugging-control-using-pigging
#11
Xintong Qiu, Marc A Deshusses
A novel biotrickling filter using a 3D-printed honeycomb-monolith as its filter bed has been proposed and studied in this work and a solution to bed-clogging problems using pigging was demonstrated. The inlet H2S concentration in the mimic biogas was controlled around 1000 ppmv and the empty bed gas residence time (EBRT) was 41 s corresponding to a loading rate of 127 g S-H2S m(-3) h(-1). The influence of different H2S/O2 ratios on the removal performance and fate of sulfur end-products was investigated...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822231/preoperative-halo-gravity-traction-for-severe-thoracic-kyphoscoliosis-patients-from-tibet-radiographic-correction-pulmonary-function-improvement-nursing-and-complications
#12
Xiaojin Li, Liwen Zeng, Xiaoyin Li, Xuexia Chen, Caixia Ke
BACKGROUND This study investigated the outcomes of preoperative HGT as an adjunct treatment for severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis, its role in radiographic correction, and pulmonary function improvement, together with nursing strategy and incidence of complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eleven patients with a mean age of 18.8 years were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: patients with severe kyphoscoliosis (coronal Cobb angle and kyphosis angle ≥80°); duration of HGT ≥8 weeks; patients undergoing HGT for at least 12 h per day; traction weight no less than 40% of body weight; and patients not receiving physical therapies...
August 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822225/altered-thymocyte-and-t-cell-development-in-neonatal-mice-with-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury
#13
Sowmya Angusamy, Tamer Mansour, Mohammed Abdulmageed, Rachel Han, Brian C Schutte, John LaPres, Jack R Harkema, Said A Omar
BACKGROUND: The adaptive immune system of neonates is relatively underdeveloped. The thymus is an essential organ for adaptive T cell development and might be affected during the natural course of oxygen induced lung injury. The effect of prolonged hyperoxia on the thymus, thymocyte and T cell development, and its proliferation has not been studied extensively. METHODS: Neonatal mice were exposed to 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) or room air (normoxia) up to 28 days. Flow cytometry using surface markers were used to assay for thymocyte development and proliferation...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822199/-progress-on-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-with-ethnodrugs
#14
Xiu-Ping Zhou, Lu Han, Yun-Yun Ye, Rui-Zhou Wang, Yue-Ming Zhang, Chang-Cai Bai
Rheumatoid arthritis(RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, belonging to the "Arthromyodynia (Bi Zheng)" category in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the ethnomedicine has a unique understanding of RA, with a long-term clinical experience accumulation and significant efficacy in the treatment of RA, and it has now become one of the important means in treatment of RA. On the basis of literature research, the understanding of RA and commonly used Tibetan medicine, Mongolian medicine, Hui medicine and other herbs and preparations were reviewed in this paper, with the aim of providing a reference for its clinical treatment of RA and research and development of innovative drugs...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822178/-study-on-associated-plants-and-spatial-distribution-pattern-of-dipsacus-asperoides-populations
#15
Da-Xia Chen, Si-Rong Yi, Xue Zhang, Yuan Pan, Guang-Lin Cui, Long-Yun Li, Ze Zhang
In order to understand the associated species and the population distribution pattern, the investigation of 32 sample plotsfrom the main natural distribution area in Dipsacus asperoides community was carried by quadrat method .The results showed that there were 156 species, which belong to 131 genera and 60 families. There were more species in the two dominant families, Asteraceae and Rosaceae. There were many types of associated, but most appeared at a low frequency. The vegetation type were mostly herbaceous and shrub species, which accounted for 77...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822148/-dna-barcoding-identification-of-endangered-medicinal-plants-of-orchidaceae
#16
Huan Tang, Li Xiang, Xi-Wen Li, Wei Sun, Mei-Na Wang, Yun-Feng Huang, Meng Ye
In this study, DNA barcoding was used to validate the traditional morphological classification of medicinal plants of Orchidaceae. The 163 samples of 135 species belong to 49 genera which have been confirmed by morphological identification were collected. Candidate sequences, including matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 sequences, were amplified, bidirectionally sequenced, and assembled. All the sequences were blasted to GenBank database at NCBI, then analyzed using Neighbor-joining tree method by MEGA 7.0. The results showed that the DNAs of 163 samples were successfully extracted...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822140/optical-fiber-bragg-grating-instrumented-silicone-liner-for-interface-pressure-measurement-within-prosthetic-sockets-of-lower-limb-amputees
#17
Ebrahim Al-Fakih, Nooranida Arifin, Gholamhossein Pirouzi, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, Hanie Nadia Shasmin, Noor Azuan Abu Osman
This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-instrumented prosthetic silicone liner that provides cushioning for the residual limb and can successfully measure interface pressures inside prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees in a simple and practical means of sensing. The liner is made of two silicone layers between which 12 FBG sensors were embedded at locations of clinical interest. The sensors were then calibrated using a custom calibration platform that mimics a real-life situation. Afterward, a custom gait simulating machine was built to test the liner performance during an amputee's simulated gait...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822125/in-vitro-alkylation-methods-for-assessing-the-protein-redox-state
#18
Flavien Zannini, Jérémy Couturier, Olivier Keech, Nicolas Rouhier
Cysteines are important residues for protein structure, function, and regulation. Owing to their modified reactivity, some cysteines can undergo very diverse redox posttranslational modifications, including the reversible formation of disulfide bonds, a widespread protein regulatory process as well exemplified in plant chloroplasts for Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes. Both core- and peripheral-photorespiratory enzymes possess conserved cysteines, some of which have been identified as being subject to oxidative modifications...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822124/measurement-of-enzyme-activities
#19
Hermann Bauwe
The determination of enzyme activities in organ or organellar extracts is an important means of investigating metabolic networks and allows testing the success of enzyme-targeted genetic engineering. It also delivers information on intrinsic enzyme parameters such as kinetic properties or impact of effector molecules. This chapter provides protocols on how to assess activities of the enzymes of the core photorespiratory pathway, from 2-phosphoglycolate phosphatase to glycerate 3-kinase.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822102/effect-of-a-patient-specific-minimum-activity-in-stress-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-using-czt-spect-prognostic-value-radiation-dose-and-scan-outcome
#20
J D van Dijk, N M Borren, M Mouden, J A van Dalen, J P Ottervanger, P L Jager
BACKGROUND: SPECT Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is associated with a relatively high radiation burden and decreasing image quality in heavy patients. Patient-specific low-activity protocols (PLAPs) are suggested but follow-up data is lacking. Our aim was to compare the use of a standard fixed-activity protocol (FAP) with a PLAP in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-SPECT MPI. METHODS: We retrospectively included 1255 consecutive patients who underwent CZT-SPECT stress-optional rest MPI...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
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