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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335208/the-influence-of-fluorination-on-nano-scale-phase-separation-and-photovoltaic-performance-of-small-molecular-pc71bm-blends
#1
Zhen Lu, Wen Liu, Jingjing Li, Tao Fang, Wanning Li, Jicheng Zhang, Feng Feng, Wenhua Li
To investigate the fluorination influence on the photovoltaic performance of small molecular based organic solar cells (OSCs), six small molecules based on 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT), and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as core and fluorinated phenyl (DFP) and triphenyl amine (TPA) as different terminal units (DFP-BT-DFP, DFP-BT-TPA, TPA-BT-TPA, DFP-DPP-DFP, DFP-DPP-TPA, and TPA-DPP-TPA) were synthesized. With one or two fluorinated phenyl as the end group(s), HOMO level of BT and DPP based small molecular donors were gradually decreased, inducing high open circuit voltage for fluorinated phenyl based OSCs...
April 21, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322148/effects-of-exogenous-salicylic-acid-on-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-and-the-expression-of-key-genes-in-the-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes
#2
Peng-Fei Cao, Chen-Gao Wu, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322045/9-73-efficiency-nonfullerene-all-organic-small-molecule-solar-cells-with-absorption-complementary-donor-and-acceptor
#3
Haijun Bin, Yankang Yang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Long Ye, Masoud Ghasemi, Shanshan Chen, Yindong Zhang, Chunfeng Zhang, Chenkai Sun, Ling-Wei Xue, Changduk Yang, Harald Ade, Yongfang Li
In the last two years, polymer solar cells (PSCs) developed quickly with n-type organic semiconductor (n-OSs) as acceptor. In contrast, the research progress of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) with organic small molecule as donor and the n-OS as acceptor lags behind. Here, we synthesized a D-A structured medium bandgap organic small molecule H11 with bithienyl-benzodithiophene (BDT) as central donor unit and fluorobenzotriazole as acceptor unit, and achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319491/breaking-down-the-objective-structured-clinical-examination-an-evaluation-of-the-helping-babies-breathe-osces
#4
Teresa L Seto, Meredith E Tabangin, Kathryn K Taylor, Srirama Josyula, Juan Carlos Vasquez, Beena D Kamath-Rayne
INTRODUCTION: Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) is a simulation-based neonatal resuscitation curriculum designed for low-resource settings. At the completion of the workshop, learners complete the following four assessments: a multiple-choice question (MCQ) test, bag-mask ventilation (BMV) checklist, and two objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Objective structured clinical examinations are clinical performance assessments that evaluate learners' skills in simulated scenarios...
March 18, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298084/small-molecule-acceptor-based-on-the-heptacyclic-benzodi-cyclopentadithiophene-unit-for-highly-efficient-nonfullerene-organic-solar-cells
#5
Bin Kan, Huanran Feng, Xiangjian Wan, Feng Liu, Xin Ke, Yanbo Wang, Yunchuang Wang, Hongtao Zhang, Chenxi Li, Jianhui Hou, Yongsheng Chen
A new nonfullerene small molecule with acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure, namely, NFBDT, based on a heptacyclic benzodi(cyclopentadithiophene) (FBDT) unit using benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as the core unit, was designed and synthesized. Its absorption ability, energy levels, thermal stability, as well as photovoltaic performances were fully investigated. NFBDT exhibits a low optical bandgap of 1.56 eV resulting in wide and efficient absorption that covered the range from 600 to 800 nm, and suitable energy levels as an electron acceptor...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295734/single-junction-binary-blend-nonfullerene-polymer-solar-cells-with-12-1-efficiency
#6
Fuwen Zhao, Shuixing Dai, Yang Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Jiayu Wang, Li Jiang, Qidan Ling, Zhixiang Wei, Wei Ma, Wei You, Chunru Wang, Xiaowei Zhan
A new fluorinated nonfullerene acceptor, ITIC-Th1, has been designed and synthesized by introducing fluorine (F) atoms onto the end-capping group 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC). On the one hand, incorporation of F would improve intramolecular interaction, enhance the push-pull effect between the donor unit indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene and the acceptor unit IC due to electron-withdrawing effect of F, and finally adjust energy levels and reduce bandgap, which is beneficial to light harvesting and enhancing short-circuit current density (JSC )...
March 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295706/highly-efficient-organic-solar-cells-consisting-of-double-bulk-heterojunction-layers
#7
Jiang Huang, Hanyu Wang, Kangrong Yan, Xiaohua Zhang, Hongzheng Chen, Chang-Zhi Li, Junsheng Yu
An organic solar cell (OSCs) containing double bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layers, namely, double-BHJ OSCs is constructed via stamp transferring of low bandgap BHJ atop of mediate bandgap active layers. Such devices allow a large gain in photocurrent to be obtained due to enhanced photoharvest, without suffering much from the fill factor drop usually seen in thick-layer-based devices. Overall, double-BHJ OSC with optimal ≈50 nm near-infrared PDPP3T:PC71 BM layer atop of ≈200 nm PTB7-Th:PC71 BM BHJ results in high power conversion efficiencies over 12%...
March 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294269/%C3%AE-amyrin-biosynthesis-catalytic-mechanism-and-substrate-recognition
#8
REVIEW
Tsutomu Hoshino
The enzymatic polycyclization reactions catalyzed by oxidosqualene (OXSQ) cyclases (OSCs) proceed with complete regio- and stereospecificity, leading to the formation of new C-C bonds and chiral centers and to the generation of diverse polycyclic sterols and triterpenoids. The diverse structural array is remarkable, and approximately 150 different carbon frameworks have been found. Detailed investigations on squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC) and lanosterol synthase (LaS) have been reported, but progress in the study of β-amyrin synthase, which is ubiquitously found in plants, has lagged in comparison...
March 15, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293815/selectivity-improvement-for-spectrofluorimetric-determination-of-oseltamivir-phosphate-in-human-plasma-and-in-the-presence-of-its-degradation-product
#9
Mahmoud A Omar, Sayed M Derayea, Islam M Mostafa
A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of oseltamivir phosphate (OSP). The proposed method is based on condensation reaction of the primary amino group of OSP with ninhydrin and phenylacetaldehyde in buffered medium (pH 6.5). The formed yellow fluorescent product exhibits excitation and emission maxima at 390 and 460 nm, respectively. The selectivity improvement of our proposed method is based on the water insolubility of the oseltamivir carboxylic acid (OSC) the active metabolite of OSP, which contains the same primary amino group as OSP but cannot, condensed with ninhydrin and phenylacetaldehyde reagents...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289297/pharmacy-student-anxiety-and-success-with-objective-structured-clinical-examinations
#10
Daniel S Longyhore
Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288866/distinct-response-properties-of-rat-prepositus-hypoglossi-nucleus-neurons-classified-on-the-basis-of-firing-patterns
#11
Yasuhiko Saito, Yuchio Yanagawa
Neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), which is involved in controlling horizontal gaze, show distinct firing patterns in response to depolarizing current pulses. Although the firing patterns are commonly used to classify neuron types, whether the classified PHN neurons show differences in voltage response properties when stimulated with various types of current inputs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the response properties of PHN neurons to various current stimuli using whole-cell recordings in rat brainstem slices...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284769/sustainable-resuscitation-ultrasound-education-in-a-low-resource-environment-the-kumasi-experience
#12
Chelsea A Tafoya, Matthew J Tafoya, Maxwell Osei-Ampofo, Rockefeller A Oteng, Torben K Becker
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care-ultrasound (POCUS) is an increasingly important tool for emergency physicians and has become a standard component of emergency medicine residency training in high-income countries. Cardiopulmonary ultrasound (CPUS) is emerging as an effective way to quickly and accurately assess patients who present to the emergency department with shock and dyspnea. Use of POCUS, including CPUS, is also becoming more prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, formal ultrasound training for emergency medicine resident physicians in these settings is not widely available...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281369/electronic-assessment-of-clinical-reasoning-in-clerkships-a-mixed-methods-comparison-of-long-menu-key-feature-problems-with-context-rich-single-best-answer-questions
#13
Sören Huwendiek, Friedrich Reichert, Cecilia Duncker, Bas A de Leng, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Arno M M Muijtjens, Hans-Martin Bosse, Martin Haag, Georg F Hoffmann, Burkhard Tönshoff, Diana Dolmans
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which item format would best suit the assessment of clinical reasoning: context-rich single best answer questions (crSBAs) or key-feature problems (KFPs). This study compared KFPs and crSBAs with respect to students' acceptance, their educational impact, and psychometric characteristics when used in a summative end-of-clinical-clerkship pediatric exam. METHODS: Fifth-year medical students (n = 377) took a computer-based exam that included 6-9 KFPs and 9-20 crSBAs which assessed their clinical reasoning skills, in addition to an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) that assessed their clinical skills...
March 10, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281332/tightly-bound-double-caged-60-fullerene-derivatives-with-enhanced-solubility-structural-features-and-application-in-solar-cells
#14
Victor A Brotsman, Vitaliy A Ioutsi, Alexey V Rybalchenko, Vitaliy Yu Markov, Nikita M Belov, Natalia S Lukonina, Sergey I Troyanov, Ilya N Ioffe, Vasiliy A Trukhanov, Galina K Galimova, Artur A Mannanov, Dmitry N Zubov, Erhard Kemnitz, Lev N Sidorov, Tatiana V Magdesieva, Dmitry Yu Paraschuk, Alexey A Goryunkov
A series of novel highly soluble double-caged [60]fullerene derivatives were prepared by means of lithium salt-assisted [2+3]-cycloaddition. The bispheric molecules feature rigid linking of the fullerene spheres via a four-membered cycle and a pyrrolizidine bridge with an ester function CO2R (R=n-decyl, n-octadecyl, benzyl, and n-butyl: compounds 1a-d, respectively), as demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed three closely overlapping pairs of reversible peaks due to consecutive one-electron reductions of fullerene cages, as well as an irreversible oxidation peak attributed to abstraction of an electron from the nitrogen lone electron pair...
March 9, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262016/poly-4-vinylpyridine-a-new-interface-layer-for-organic-solar-cells
#15
Anirudh Sharma, Renee Kroon, David A Lewis, Gunther G Andersson, Mats R Andersson
Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) was used as a cathode interface layer in inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated using poly[2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and PC71BM (phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) as the donor and acceptor materials, respectively. We successfully demonstrate that the work function of underlying indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode can be significantly reduced by ∼0.7 eV, after modification of the surface with a thin film of P4VP. Photoconversion efficiency of 4...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260055/mir-34a-is-downregulated-in-human-osteosarcoma-stem-like-cells-and-promotes-invasion-tumorigenic-ability-and-self-renewal-capacity
#16
Yonggen Zou, Yuanshuai Huang, Jiexiang Yang, Jian Wu, Cheng Luo
MicroRNA-34 (miR-34), in particular miR-34a, has a negative regulatory effect on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Notably, it is also a post‑transcriptional regulatory factor of (sex determining region Y)‑box 2 (Sox-2), which is required for osteosarcoma cell self‑renewal and tumorigenesis. As a direct regulator of Sox‑2, miR‑34a has been hypothesized to be greatly associated with the regulation of malignancies in osteosarcoma. To investigate the role of miR-34a in the malignancies of osteosarcoma, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression level of miR‑34a in osteospheres...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253870/intraosseous-access-can-be-taught-to-medical-students-using-the-four-step-approach
#17
Monika Afzali, Ask Daffy Kvisselgaard, Tobias Stenbjerg Lyngeraa, Sandra Viggers
BACKGROUND: The intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for vascular access when peripheral intravascular catheterization cannot be obtained. In Denmark the IO access is reported as infrequently trained and used. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if medical students can obtain competencies in IO access when taught by a modified Walker and Peyton's four-step approach. METHODS: Nineteen students attended a human cadaver course in emergency procedures...
March 2, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249642/preclinical-upar-targeted-multimodal-imaging-of-locoregional-oral-cancer
#18
M C Boonstra, P B A A Van Driel, S Keereweer, H A J M Prevoo, M A Stammes, V M Baart, C W G M Löwik, A P Mazar, C J H van de Velde, A L Vahrmeijer, C F M Sier
OBJECTIVES: Establishing adequate resection margins and lymphatic mapping are crucial for the prognosis of oral cancer patients. Novel targeted imaging modalities are needed, enabling pre- and intraoperative detection of tumour cells, in combination with improved post-surgical examination by the pathologist. The urokinase-receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in head and neck cancer, where it is associated with tumour progression and metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine suitability of uPAR for molecular imaging of oral cancer surgery, human head and neck tumours were sectioned and stained for uPAR to evaluate the expression pattern compared to normal mucosa...
March 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240547/size-tuning-of-wse2-flakes-for-high-efficiency-inverted-organic-solar-cells
#19
George Kakavelakis, Antonio Esau Del Rio Castillo, Vittorio Pellegrini, Alberto Ansaldo, Pavlos Tzourmpakis, Rosaria Brescia, Mirko Prato, Emmanuel Stratakis, Emmanuel Kymakis, Francesco Bonaccorso
The development of large-scale production methods of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, with on-demand control of the area and thickness, is mandatory to fulfill the potential applications of such materials for photovoltaics. Inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell (OSC), which exploits a polymer-fullerene binary blend as the active material, is one potentially important application area for 2D crystals. A large ongoing effort is indeed currently devoted to the introduction of 2D crystals in the binary blend to improve the charge transport properties...
March 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240026/thermal-gradient-during-vacuum-deposition-dramatically-enhances-charge-transport-in-organic-semiconductors-toward-high-performance-n-type-organic-field-effect-transistors
#20
Joo-Hyun Kim, Singu Han, Heejeong Jeong, Hayeong Jang, Seolhee Baek, Junbeom Hu, Myungkyun Lee, Byungwoo Choi, Hwa Sung Lee
A thermal gradient distribution was applied to a substrate during the growth of a vacuum-deposited n-type organic semiconductor (OSC) film prepared from N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboxyimide) (PDI-CN2), and the electrical performances of the films deployed in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were characterized. The temperature gradient at the surface was controlled by tilting the substrate, which varied the temperature one-dimensionally between the heated bottom substrate and the cooled upper substrate...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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