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Yu Xiong, Bo Wu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Zheng Zhao, Ping Deng, Ming Lin, Benzhong Tang, Beng S Ong
A novel, star-shaped electron acceptor, DMTPA-PDI3, derived from a planar dimethylmethylene-bridged triphenylamine core with three acetylene-linked perylene diimide (PDI) units is developed as a nonfullerene acceptor for organic solar cells (OSCs). DMTPA-PDI3 manifests significantly reduced intramolecular twisting, enabling sufficient system-wide π-electron delocalization leading to broadened spectral absorption and raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level. As a result, higher and more balanced hole and electron transport properties are observed...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Seokhyun Yoon, Si Joon Kim, Harrison S Kim, Joon-Suh Park, Il Ki Han, Jae Woong Jung, Minwoo Park
Interface engineering is considered the key to improving the device performance and stability of solar cells. In particular, TiO2 nanostructures, when used as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), led to excellent power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 20%. They effectively transferred charge carriers from the perovskite and suppressed charge recombination at the interfaces. However, the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 on the perovskite can significantly degrade the device performance under ultraviolet illumination...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
Xiaopeng Xu, Zhaozhao Bi, Wei Ma, Zishuai Wang, Wallace C H Choy, Wenlin Wu, Guangjun Zhang, Ying Li, Qiang Peng
In this work, highly efficient ternary-blend organic solar cells (TB-OSCs) are reported based on a low-bandgap copolymer of PTB7-Th, a medium-bandgap copolymer of PBDB-T, and a wide-bandgap small molecule of SFBRCN. The ternary-blend layer exhibits a good complementary absorption in the range of 300-800 nm, in which PTB7-Th and PBDB-T have excellent miscibility with each other and a desirable phase separation with SFBRCN. In such devices, there exist multiple energy transfer pathways from PBDB-T to PTB7-Th, and from SFBRCN to the above two polymer donors...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Mary Ellen J Goldhamer, Amy Cohen, Michelle Brooks, Eric A Macklin, John Patrick T Co, Debra Weinstein
INTRODUCTION: There is limited information about whether OSCE during GME orientation can identify trainee communication deficits before these become evident via clinical performance evaluations. METHODS: Ninety-seven interns matriculating to eight residency programs in six specialties at four hospitals participated in a nine-station communication skills OSCE. Ratings were based on the "Kalamazoo, adapted" communication skills checklist. Possible association with intern performance evaluations was assessed by repeated-measures logistic regression and ROC curves were generated...
October 18, 2017: Medical Teacher
Thangavel Kanagasekaran, Hidekazu Shimotani, Ryota Shimizu, Taro Hitosugi, Katsumi Tanigaki
Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Maria Alcocer Alkureishi, Wei Wei Lee, Maureen Lyons, Kristen Wroblewski, Jeanne M Farnan, Vineet M Arora
INTRODUCTION: Electronic Health Record (EHR) use can enhance or weaken patient-provider communication. Despite EHR adoption, no validated tool exists to assess EHR communication skills. We aimed to develop and validate such a tool. METHODS: Electronic-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (e-CEX) is a 10-item-tool based on systematic literature review and pilot-testing. Second-year (MS2s) students participated in an EHR-use lecture and structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)...
October 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
Debra Pugh, Isabelle Desjardins, Kevin Eva
INTRODUCTION: Although several studies have explored the relationship between learning and written tests, little is understood about how performance-based examinations influence learning. The purpose of this study was to explore how a formative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) drives learning. METHODS: We administered surveys to residents (n = 35) at three time points to determine if and how an OSCE influenced their learning: before and immediately following the OSCE, and after the distribution of their results...
October 16, 2017: Medical Teacher
Kensaku Murano, Yuka W Iwasaki, Haruhiko Siomi
The assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) was recently established as a method to profile open chromatin, which overcomes the sample size limitations of the alternative methods DNase/MNase-seq. To investigate the role of Piwi in heterochromatin formation around transposable element loci, we have used ATAC-seq to examine chromatin accessibility at target transposable elements in a Drosophila cultured cell line, ovarian somatic cells (OSCs). In this chapter, we describe our method to profile open chromatin structure in OSCs using ATAC-seq...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yiwen Wang, Bo Wu, Zhenghui Wu, Zhaojue Lan, Yongfang Li, Maojie Zhang, Furong Zhu
We report our effort to unravel the origin of efficient operation of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs), based on a poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl) thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)](PTB7-Th):3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno [1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC) blend system. The effects of buildup of space charges, charge extraction, and bimolecular recombination processes on the performance and the stability of PTB7-Th:ITIC-based regular and reverse configuration OSCs are analyzed...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yantao Chen, Yingli Chu, Xiaohan Wu, Wei Ou-Yang, Jia Huang
All-inorganic lead halide perovskite quantum dots (IHP QDs) have great potentials in photodetectors. However, the photoresponsivity is limited by the low charge transport efficiency of the IHP QD layers. High-performance phototransistors based on IHP QDs hybridized with organic semiconductors (OSCs) are developed. The smooth surface of IHP QD layers ensures ordered packing of the OSC molecules above them. The OSCs significantly improve the transportation of the photoexcited charges, and the gate effect of the transistor structure significantly enhances the photoresponsivity while simultaneously maintaining high Iphoto /Idark ratio...
October 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Margaret Bearman, Rola Ajjawi
The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a ubiquitous part of medical education, although there is some debate about its value, particularly around possible impact on learning. Literature and research regarding the OSCE is most often situated within the psychometric or competency discourses of assessment. This paper describes an alternative approach: Actor-network-theory (ANT), a sociomaterial approach to understanding practice and learning. ANT provides a means to productively examine tensions and limitations of the OSCE, in part through extending research to include social relationships and physical objects...
October 12, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Bing Cao, Xiaoming He, Jason Sorge, Abeed Lalany, Kaveh Ahadi, Amir Afshar, Brian C Olsen, Tate C Hauger, Md Hosnay Mobarok, Peng Li, Kenneth C Cadien, Michael J Brett, Erik J Luber, Jillian M Buriak
Organic solar cells (OSCs) are a complex assembly of disparate materials, each with a precise function within the device. Typically, the electrodes are flat, and the device is fabricated through a layering approach of the interfacial layers and photoactive materials. This work explores the integration of high surface area transparent electrodes to investigate the possible role(s) a three-dimensional electrode could take within an OSC, with a BHJ composed of a donor-acceptor combination with a high degree of electron and hole mobility mismatch...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daoyuan Zheng, Mingxing Zhang, Guangjiu Zhao
Herein, the promotion effects of thionation and isomerization on the carrier mobility properties of naphthalene diimide and thionated naphthalene diimide crystals were investigated in detail based on the Marcus-Hush theory and quantum-chemical calculations. The thionation of NDIs will improve the charge mobility of both electrons and holes, which is similar to the thionation of PDIs. The compound P only behaves as an n-type organic semiconductor (OSC), whereas the three other thionation structures have higher mobility values and can behave as p-type OSCs...
October 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Joseph Nassif, Abdul-Karim Sleiman, Anwar H Nassar, Sima Naamani, Rana Sharara-Chami
Clinical breast examination (CBE) is traditionally taught to third-year medical students using a lecture and a tabletop breast model. The opportunity to clinically practice CBE depends on patient availability and willingness to be examined by students, especially in culturally sensitive environments. We propose the use of a hybrid simulation model consisting of a standardized patient (SP) wearing a silicone breast simulator jacket and hypothesize that this, compared to traditional teaching methods, would result in improved learning...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Yumi Enomoto, Yoshinori Tsurusaki, Noriaki Harada, Noriko Aida, Kenji Kurosawa
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) (MIM #300373) is a rare X-linked dominant bone dysplasia characterized by cranial sclerosis and linear striations in the long bones of females, and fetal or neonatal lethality in affected males.
October 9, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
Nicholas V Karayannis, Gwendolen A Jull, Michael K Nicholas, Paul W Hodges
OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of higher psychological risk features within movement-based subgroups for people with Low Back Pain (LBP) DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study SETTING: Participants were recruited from physiotherapy clinics and community advertisements. Measures were collected at a university outpatient-based physiotherapy clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 102 people seeking treatment for LBP INTERVENTIONS: Participants were subgrouped according to three classification schemes: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT), Treatment Based Classification (TBC) and O'Sullivan Classification (OSC)...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Yanyan Miao, Haixia Zhang, Yubin Pan, Jian Ren, Miaoman Ye, Fangfang Xia, Rui Huang, Zhuoheng Lin, Shuai Jiang, Ya Zhang, Zhou Songyang, Yan Zhang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to have a critical role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, therapeutic resistance or recurrence. Therefore, strategies designed to specifically target and eliminate CSCs have become one of the most promising and desirable ways for tumor treatment. Osteosarcoma stem cells (OSCs), the CSCs in osteosarcoma (OS), are critically associated with OS progression. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), including unmodified SWCNT (SWCNT-Raw) and SWCNT-COOH, have the ability to specifically inhibit the process of TGFβ1-induced OS cells dedifferentiation, prevent the stem cell phenotypes acquisition in OS cells and reduce the OSC viability under conditions which mimic the OS microenvironment...
September 26, 2017: Biomaterials
Rong Sun, Shan Liu, Zi-Zhong Tang, Tian-Run Zheng, Tao Wang, Hui Chen, Cheng-Lei Li, Qi Wu
Conyza blinii H.Lév. is a widely used medicinal herb in southwestern China. The main pharmacological components of C. blinii are a class of oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene glycosides known as conyzasaponins, which are thought to be synthesized from β-amyrin. However, no genes involved in the conyzasaponin pathway have previously been identified. Here, we identify an oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), a β-amyrin synthase, which mediates cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to yield β-amyrin. Ten OSC sequences were isolated from C...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Jie Gao, Ying Li, Qiwei Wang, Xiaojian Ma, Yan Zhang
Oxysophocarpine (OSC) has various pharmacological effects. This study was designed to investigate whether OSC confers protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced lung injury. Here, we found that OSC inhibited RSV replication and increased the viability of RSV-infected lung epithelial A549 cells. OSC suppressed the RSV-increased production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1] in A549 cells...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Yong Cui, Chenyi Yang, Huifeng Yao, Jie Zhu, Yuming Wang, Guoxiao Jia, Feng Gao, Jianhui Hou
Semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows. However, the development of semitransparent OSCs is lagging behind opaque OSCs. Here, an ultralow-bandgap nonfullerene acceptor, "IEICO-4Cl", is designed and synthesized, whose absorption spectrum is mainly located in the near-infrared region. When IEICO-4Cl is blended with different polymer donors (J52, PBDB-T, and PTB7-Th), the colors of the blend films can be tuned from purple to blue to cyan, respectively. Traditional OSCs with a nontransparent Al electrode fabricated by J52:IEICO-4Cl, PBDB-T:IEICO-4Cl, and PTB7-Th:IEICO-4Cl yield power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 9...
October 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
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