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Chun Yeh, Ching-Heng Ting, Ming-Luen Doong, Chin-Wen Chi, Shou-Dong Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
PURPOSE: Urocortin 3 is a key neuromodulator in the regulation of stress, anxiety, food intake, gut motility, and energy homeostasis, while ghrelin elicits feeding behavior and enhances gastric emptying, adiposity, and positive energy balance. However, the interplays between urocortin 3 and ghrelin on food intake and gastric emptying remain uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the differential effects of central O-n-octanoylated ghrelin, des-Gln(14)-ghrelin, and urocortin 3 on food intake, as well as on charcoal nonnutrient semiliquid gastric emptying in conscious rats that were chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheters...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Oscar Prospéro-García, Octavio Amancio-Belmont, Alline L Becerril Meléndez, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Mónica Méndez-Díaz
Sleep is regulated by several brain structures, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a group of lipids with modulatory activity in the brain and bind mainly to cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, thereby modulating several brain functions, (memory, mood, food intake, pain perception). Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide belong to the N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) family, another type of active endogenous lipids. They bind to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α but not to CB1R, thereby modulating food satiety, inflammation and pain...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Angelo Alonzo, Scott Aaronson, Marom Bikson, Mustafa Husain, Sarah Lisanby, Donel Martin, Shawn M McClintock, William M McDonald, John O'Reardon, Zeinab Esmailpoor, Colleen Loo
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a new, non-invasive neuromodulation approach for treating depression that has shown promising efficacy. The aim of this trial was to conduct the first international, multicentre randomised controlled trial of tDCS as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. The study recruited 120 participants across 6 sites in the USA and Australia. Participants received active or sham tDCS (2.5mA, 20 sessions of 30min duration over 4weeks), followed by a 4-week open label active treatment phase and a 4-week taper phase...
October 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Michael A Bergen, Han Na Park, Ranjay Chakraborty, Erica G Landis, Curran Sidhu, Li He, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Purpose: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the prevention of excessive ocular elongation and myopia in various animal models. This study used retina-specific DA knockout mice to investigate the role of retinal DA in refractive development and susceptibility to experimental myopia. Methods: Measurements of refractive error, corneal curvature, and ocular biometrics were obtained as a function of age for both untreated and form-deprived (FD) groups of retina-specific tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (rTHKO) and control (Ctrl) mice...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
S Haas, C Brock, K Krogh, M Gram, L Lundby, A M Drewes, S Laurberg
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the effects of sacral nerve stimulation against fecal incontinence involve neuromodulation at spinal or supraspinal levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the afferent sensory pathways from the anorectum before and during sacral nerve stimulation. DESIGN: This is an explorative study. PATIENTS: Fifteen women with idiopathic fecal incontinence (mean age, 58 ± 12.2 years) were selected...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Michael Saul, Petra Majdak, Samuel Perez, Matthew Reilly, Theodore Garland, Justin S Rhodes
Though exercise is critical for health, many lack the motivation to exercise, and it is unclear how motivation might be increased. To uncover the molecular underpinnings of increased motivation for exercise, we analyzed the transcriptome of the striatum in four mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and four non-selected control lines. The striatum was dissected and RNA was extracted and sequenced from four individuals of each line. We found multiple genes and gene systems with strong relationships to both selection and running history over the previous 6 days...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Cristina Maccallini, Sako Mirzaie, Ettore Novellino, Adriano Mollica
The endocannabinoid system is activated by the binding of natural arachidonic acid derivatives (endogenous cannabinoids or endocannabinoids) as lipophilic messengers to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. The endocannabinoid system comprises also many hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the endocannabinoids cleavage, such as FAAH and MAGL. These two enzymes are possible therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs as indirect cannabinoid agonists. Recently a new family of endocannabinoid modulators was discovered; the lead of this family is the nonapeptide hemopressin produced from enzymatic cleavage of the α-chain of hemoglobin and acting as negative allosteric modulator of CB1...
October 7, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Roscoe O Brady, Neeraj Tandon, Grace A Masters, Allison Margolis, Bruce M Cohen, Matcheri Keshavan, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify how the activity of large-scale brain networks differs between mood states in bipolar disorder. The authors measured spontaneous brain activity in subjects with bipolar disorder in mania and euthymia and compared these states to a healthy comparison population. METHODS: 23 subjects with bipolar disorder type I in a manic episode, 24 euthymic bipolar I subjects, and 23 matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects underwent resting state fMRI scans...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Vivian B Neis, Luis E B Bettio, Morgana Moretti, Priscila B Rosa, Camille M Ribeiro, Andiara E Freitas, Filipe M Gonçalves, Rodrigo B Leal, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. We have previously demonstrated that it can induce a rapid increase in BDNF levels after acute administration, suggesting that agmatine may be a fast-acting antidepressant. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the effects of a single administration of agmatine in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a model of depression responsive only to chronic treatment with conventional antidepressants...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
David A Ginsberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Journal of Urology
Steven Siegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Journal of Urology
Leo Verhagen Metman, Gian Pal, Konstantin Slavin
Deep brain stimulation is now an established therapy for Parkinson's disease, and DBS continues to be refined. Well-established targets, such as the STN and GPi, have shown clear benefit in reducing motor complications in PD, and other more novel targets, such as PPN are being explored. Furthermore, there have been advances in imaging which allow for improved lead placement and also can reduce patient discomfort. The way electrical current is delivered through the DBS lead is also undergoing a transformation, allowing for more options regarding current shaping, steering, and new stimulation paradigms...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Prashant Singh, Braden Kuo
Nausea and vomiting result from continuous interactions among gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Despite being closely associated, central pathways of nausea and vomiting appear to be at least partly different and nausea is no longer considered only a penultimate step of vomiting. Although our understanding of central pathways of nausea has improved over the last one decade, it is still very basic. Afferent pathways from gastrointestinal tract via vagus, vestibular system, and chemoreceptor trigger zone project to nucleus tractus solitarius which, in turn, relays the signal to central pattern generator initiating multiple downstream pathways...
October 12, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, Vladimir Lamm, Victor Chang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of opioid, β-adrenergic, and metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors in sacral neuromodulation of bladder overactivity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) irritated the bladder and induced bladder overactivity. Electric stimulation (5 Hz, 0.2 ms, 0.16-0.7V) of S1 or S2 sacral dorsal roots inhibited the bladder overactivity. Naloxone, propranolol, or MTEP were given intravenously (i...
October 12, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Elena Esra Foditsch, Reinhold Zimmermann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a controlled approach for sacral neuromodulation (SNM) to improve both nerve targeting and tined lead placement, for which a new computed tomography (CT)-guided implantation technique was analyzed in minipigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included five female, adult Göttingen minipigs. In deep sedoanalgesia, the minipigs were placed in an extended prone position. Commercially available SNM materials were used (needle, introduction sheath, and quadripolar tined lead electrode)...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Xuewen Jiang, Thomas W Fuller, Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, we examined the role GABAA, glycine, and opioid receptors in sacral neuromodulation-induced inhibition of bladder overactivity elicited by intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA). AA irritation significantly (p<0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 59.5±4.8% of saline control. S1 or S2 dorsal root stimulation at threshold intensity for inducing reflex twitching of the anal sphincter or toe significantly (p<0.01) increased bladder capacity to 105.3±9.0% and 134...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Olujimi A Ajijola, David Hamon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Hannah Twarkowski, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24 h), and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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