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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786465/trunk-stability-enabled-by-non-invasive-spinal-electrical-stimulation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Mrinal Rath, Albert H Vette, Shyamsundar Ramasubramaniam, Kun Li, Joel Burdick, Victor Reggie Edgerton, Yury Gerasimenko, Dimitry Sayenko
Electrical neuromodulation of spinal networks improves the control of movement of the paralyzed limbs after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the potential of non-invasive spinal stimulation to facilitate postural trunk control during sitting in humans with SCI has not been investigated. We hypothesized that transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the lumbosacral enlargement can improve trunk posture. Eight participants with non-progressive SCI, C3-T9, AIS A or C, performed different motor tasks during sitting...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#2
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784589/tolerability-and-blinding-of-4x1-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-hd-tdcs-at-two-and-three-milliamps
#3
Jaclyn Reckow, Annalise Rahman-Filipiak, Sarah Garcia, Stephen Schlaefflin, Oliver Calhoun, Alexandre F DaSilva, Marom Bikson, Benjamin M Hampstead
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an in-demand form of neuromodulation generally regarded as safe and well tolerated. However, few studies have examined the safety, tolerability, or blinding of High Definition (HD-) tDCS, especially in older adults and at stimulation intensities of 2 milliamps (mA) or greater. OBJECTIVE: We examined the rates of serious adverse events and common side effects to establish safety and tolerability, respectively, in HD-tDCS...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784588/brain-stimulation-patterns-emulating-endogenous-thalamocortical-input-to-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-reduce-nociception-in-mice
#4
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775567/characterization-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-system-in-the-neotropical-teleost-steindachneridion-parahybae-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-in-captivity
#5
Renato Massaaki Honji, Danilo Caneppele, Matias Pandolfi, Fabiana Laura Lo Nostro, Renata Guimarães Moreira
This study evaluated by immunohistochemical and western blot methods, the distribution of two distinct gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), corresponding to catfish GnRH (cfGnRH or GnRH1) and chicken-II GnRH (cGnRH-II or GnRH2), in Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, focusing these analyses on the reproductive cycle by semi-quantification of optical density (OD). Further, we found that the GnRH neuronal systems co-localized with their respective GnRH-associated peptides (GAPs). A group of neurons immunoreactive (ir) to GnRH1 were identified along the ventral region of the olfactory bulb (vOB) in the telencephalon (vTel) and in the main areas of the diencephalon (especially the medial basal hypothalamus, HBM), including fibers extending into the pituitary gland...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775065/maldi-imaging-analysis-of-neuropeptides-in-africanized-honeybee-apis-mellifera-brain-effect-of-aggressiveness
#6
Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Franciele Grego Esteves, Kenny Umino Sato, Osmar Malaspina, Mario Sérgio Palma
The aggressiveness in honeybees seems to be regulated by multiple genes, under the influence of different factors, such as polyethism of workers, environmental factors, and response to alarm pheromones, creating a series of behavioral responses. It is suspected that neuropeptides seem to be involved with the regulation of the aggressive behavior. The role of allatostatin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides in honeybee brain during the aggressive behavior is unknown; thus, worker honeybees were stimulated to attack and to sting leather targets hanged in front of the colonies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773501/what-is-new-in-neuromodulation-for-overactive-bladder
#7
REVIEW
Manuela Tutolo, Enrico Ammirati, Frank Van der Aa
We reviewed the available studies on efficacy and safety of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and sacral nerve modulation (SNM) for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms not responsive to conservative treatments. We limited our search to randomized trials, in English, with at least 20 adult patients, and 6 mo and 12 wk of follow-up for SNM and PTNS, respectively, published between January 1998 and December 2017. Therapeutic success ranges from 61% to 90% for SNM and from 54% to 79% for PTNS. Both techniques are effective and safe, with no life-threatening adverse effects...
May 14, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#8
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770647/neuromodulation-for-tinnitus-treatment-an-overview-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-techniques
#9
REVIEW
Nicole Peter, Tobias Kleinjung
Tinnitus is defined as a perception of sound without any external sound source. Chronic tinnitus is a frequent condition that can affect the quality of life. So far, no causal cure for tinnitus has been documented, and most pharmacologic and psychosomatic treatment modalities aim to diminish tinnitus' impact on the quality of life. Neuromodulation, a novel therapeutic modality, which aims at alternating nerve activity through a targeted delivery of a stimulus, has emerged as a potential option in tinnitus treatment...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770490/functional-magnetic-resonance-electrical-impedance-tomography-fmreit-sensitivity-analysis-using-an-active-bidomain-finite-element-model-of-neural-tissue
#10
Rosalind J Sadleir, Fanrui Fu, Munish Chauhan
PURPOSE: A direct method of imaging neural activity was simulated to determine typical signal sizes. METHODS: An active bidomain finite-element model was used to estimate approximate perturbations in MR phase data as a result of neural tissue activity, and when an external MR electrical impedance tomography imaging current was added to the region containing neural current sources. RESULTS: Modeling-predicted, activity-related conductivity changes should produce measurable differential phase signals in practical MR electrical impedance tomography experiments conducted at moderate resolution at noise levels typical of high field systems...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767318/strategies-for-effective-discontinuation-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
Judith Kim, John W Blackett, Daniela Jodorkovsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective for many conditions but are often overprescribed. Recent concerns about long-term risks have made patients re-evaluate their need to take PPIs chronically, though these population-based studies have methodological weaknesses. The goal of this review is to provide evidenced-based strategies for discontinuation of PPI therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Given that some patients experience rebound symptoms when abruptly stopping continuous PPI therapy due to its effect on hypergastrinemia, strategies focus on avoiding rebound...
May 16, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765342/mind-control-how-parasites-manipulate-cognitive-functions-in-their-insect-hosts
#12
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764702/a-novel-neuromodulation-technique-for-the-rehabilitation-of-balance-and-gait-a-case-study
#13
L Eduardo Cofré Lizama, Andisheh Bastani, Maya G Panisset, Katharine Drummond, Fary Khan, Mary P Galea
Cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) through the tongue has been proposed as an adjuvant intervention to improve efficacy of rehabilitation. However, CN-NINM effects have only been explored in multiple sclerosis and stroke populations. In this report we used CN-NINM during a 2-week (2 × 1.5 h sessions daily) physiotherapy program for the rehabilitation of a 57 y/o woman presenting with balance and gait impairments after a surgical resection of a fourth ventricular ependymoma. Clinical and instrumented balance and gait assessments showed improved performance in all tests and without adverse effects This study shows the beneficial effects and feasibility of combined physiotherapy and CN-NINM in this patient...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763654/obturator-neuromodulation-with-laparoscopic-placement-of-an-obturator-lead-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-opioid-dependent-chronic-pelvic-pain-due-to-obturator-neuralgia
#14
Richard P Marvel
Chronic pelvic pain(CPP) is a common condition in women that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Some of the most severe forms of CPP are related to peripheral nerve injuries causing persistent neuropathic pain. This is a case of a young woman with severe opioid dependent chronic pelvic and right groin pain due to obturator neuralgia. She had failed a multitude of treatments including multiple medications, manual physical therapy, nerve blocks, surgical neurolysis and spinal cord stimulation without significant benefit...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763645/agmatine-potentiates-neuroprotective-effects-of-subthreshold-concentrations-of-ketamine-via-mtor-s6-kinase-signaling-pathway
#15
Mauren K Tavares, Suellen Dos Reis, Nicolle Platt, Isabella A Heinrich, Ingrid A V Wolin, Rodrigo B Leal, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Andiara E Freitas
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most robust neurobiological findings in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) over the last 40 years. The persistent increase in glucocorticoids levels induces morphological and anatomical changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Ketamine represents a major advance for the treatment of MDD, however the psychotomimetic effects of this compound limit its widespread use. Agmatine is a neuromodulator that has been shown to be a putative novel and well-tolerated antidepressant/augmenter drug...
May 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759718/vagal-neuromodulation-for-atrial-arrhythmias
#16
EDITORIAL
Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759711/cardio-neuromodulation-the-right-sided-approach
#17
Philippe Debruyne, William Wijns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759265/sleep-wake-neurochemistry
#18
REVIEW
Sebastian C Holst, Hans-Peter Landolt
The regulated alternations between wakefulness and sleep states reflect complex behavioral processes, orchestrated by distinct neurochemical changes in brain parenchyma. No single neurotransmitter or neuromodulator controls the sleep-wake states in isolation. Rather, fine-tuned interactions within organized neuronal circuits regulate waking and sleep states and drive their transitions. Structural or functional dysregulation and medications interfering with these ensembles can lead to sleep-wake disorders and exert wanted or unwanted pharmacological actions on sleep-wake states...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754753/a-genetically-encoded-biosensor-reveals-location-bias-of-opioid-drug-action
#19
Miriam Stoeber, Damien Jullié, Braden T Lobingier, Toon Laeremans, Jan Steyaert, Peter W Schiller, Aashish Manglik, Mark von Zastrow
Opioid receptors (ORs) precisely modulate behavior when activated by native peptide ligands but distort behaviors to produce pathology when activated by non-peptide drugs. A fundamental question is how drugs differ from peptides in their actions on target neurons. Here, we show that drugs differ in the subcellular location at which they activate ORs. We develop a genetically encoded biosensor that directly detects ligand-induced activation of ORs and uncover a real-time map of the spatiotemporal organization of OR activation in living neurons...
May 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754751/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-are-driven-by-excitatory-input-and-delayed-rectification-with-dopamine-modulation
#20
Yan-Feng Zhang, John N J Reynolds, Stephanie J Cragg
Cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) of the striatum pause their firing in response to salient stimuli and conditioned stimuli after learning. Several different mechanisms for pause generation have been proposed, but a unifying basis has not previously emerged. Here, using in vivo and ex vivo recordings in rat and mouse brain and a computational model, we show that ChI pauses are driven by withdrawal of excitatory inputs to striatum and result from a delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr ) in concert with local neuromodulation...
May 3, 2018: Neuron
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