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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441605/biological-effects-and-medical-applications-of-infrared-radiation
#1
Shang-Ru Tsai, Michael R Hamblin
Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441568/neuromodulation-the-fevered-mind-of-the-worm
#2
Niels Ringstad
A landmark study has revealed that an interleukin-17-like signaling system modulates a neural circuit that controls the aggregation behavior of nematodes.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#3
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440001/treating-low-back-pain-with-combined-cerebral-and-peripheral-electrical-stimulation-a-randomized-double-blind-factorial-clinical-trial
#4
F A Hazime, A F Baptista, D G de Freitas, R L Monteiro, R L Maretto, R H Hasue, S M A João
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that chronic low back pain is associated with plastic changes in the brain that can be modified by neuromodulation strategies. This study investigated the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined simultaneously with peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) for pain relief, disability and global perception in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP were randomized to receive 12 sessions on nonconsecutive days of anodal tDCS (primary motor cortex, M1), 100 Hz sensory PES (lumbar spine), tDCS + PES or sham tDCS + PES...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437824/-neuromodulation-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-what-is-useful
#5
Volker Tronnier
Neuromodulatory techniques have replaced the earlier performed neurolesional procedures to treat chronic pain syndromes with only a few exceptions. Nevertheless these procedures are invasive with respective risks and complications and therefore conservative physical, psychological pharmacological as well as interventional treatments should be performed first. Because this therapy is costly, the indication has to be proven carefully with a strict patient selection and also the long-term results have to be considered...
April 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436038/direct-current-stimulation-boosts-synaptic-gain-and-cooperativity-in-vitro
#6
Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
KEY POINTS: Direct current stimulation (DCS) polarity specifically modulates synaptic efficacy during a continuous train of presynaptic inputs, despite synaptic depression. DCS polarizes afferent axons and postsynaptic neurons, boosting cooperativity between synaptic inputs. Polarization of afferent neurons in upstream brain regions may modulate activity in the target brain region during transcranial DCS (tDCS). A statistical theory of coincident activity predicts that the diffuse and weak profile of current flow can be advantageous in enhancing connectivity between co-active brain regions...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434992/promising-techniques-to-illuminate-neuromodulatory-control-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-sleeping-and-waking-states
#7
REVIEW
Takeshi Kanda, Kaoru Ohyama, Hiroki Muramoto, Nami Kitajima, Hiroshi Sekiya
Sleep, a common event in daily life, has clear benefits for brain function, but what goes on in the brain when we sleep remains unclear. Sleep was long regarded as a silent state of the brain because the brain seemingly lacks interaction with the surroundings during sleep. Since the discovery of electrical activities in the brain at rest, electrophysiological methods have revealed novel concepts in sleep research. During sleep, the brain generates oscillatory activities that represent characteristic states of sleep...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434991/the-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-by-mesolimbic-dopamine-systems
#8
REVIEW
Yo Oishi, Michael Lazarus
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivational behaviors. Recent findings indicate that the VTA and NAc are also involved in sleep/wake regulation - the topic of this review. First, we present an overview of the growing evidence from rodent studies revealing a wake-regulatory role of VTA dopamine neurons. We also discuss brain areas and their neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that may regulate the activity of wake-promoting VTA dopamine neurons...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433830/spasticity-management-the-current-state-of-transcranial-neuromodulation
#9
REVIEW
Antonino Leo, Antonino Naro, Francesco Molonia, Provvidenza Tomasello, Ileana Saccà, Alessia Bramanti, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Angelo Quartarone, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
This narrative review aims to provide an objective view of the non-invasive neuromodulation (NINM) protocols available for treating spasticity, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). On the basis of the relevant randomized controlled trials, we infer that NINM is more effective in reducing spasticity when combined with the conventional therapies than used as a stand-alone treatment. However, the magnitude of NINM aftereffects depends significantly on the applied hemisphere and the underlying pathology...
April 19, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430976/acute-and-chronic-noradrenergic-effects-on-cortical-excitability-in-healthy-humans
#10
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
Background: Noradrenaline is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggested that acute application of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI) enhances cortical excitability in the human brain. However, other, such like clinical effects, usually require prolonged NRI treatment, which might go along with different physiological effects...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430535/transcranial-focused-ultrasound-a-new-tool-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation
#11
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430035/noninvasive-neuromodulation-and-thalamic-mapping-with-low-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#12
Robert F Dallapiazza, Kelsie F Timbie, Stephen Holmberg, Jeremy Gatesman, M Beatriz Lopes, Richard J Price, G Wilson Miller, W Jeffrey Elias
OBJECTIVE Ultrasound can be precisely focused through the intact human skull to target deep regions of the brain for stereotactic ablations. Acoustic energy at much lower intensities is capable of both exciting and inhibiting neural tissues without causing tissue heating or damage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for neuromodulation and selective mapping in the thalamus of a large-brain animal. METHODS Ten Yorkshire swine ( Sus scrofa domesticus) were used in this study...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429130/long-term-outcome-of-sacral-neuromodulation-for-chronic-refractory-constipation
#13
Yasuko Maeda, Michael A Kamm, Carolynne J Vaizey, Klaus E Matzel, Claes Johansson, Harald Rosen, Cornelius G Baeten, Søren Laurberg
PURPOSE: Sacral neuromodulation has been reported as a treatment for severe idiopathic constipation. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of sacral neuromodulation by following patients who participated in a prospective, open-label, multicentre study up to 5 years. METHODS: Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months. Symptoms and quality of life were assessed using bowel diary, the Cleveland Clinic constipation score and the Short Form-36 quality-of-life scale...
April 20, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428223/glutamatergic-mechanisms-involved-in-bladder-overactivity-and-pudendal-neuromodulation-in-cats
#14
Jamie Uy, Michelle Yu, Xuewen Jiang, Cameron Jones, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
The involvement of ionotropic glutamate receptors in bladder overactivity and pudendal neuromodulation was determined in α-chloralose anesthetized cats by intravenously administering MK801 (a NMDA receptor antagonist) or CP465022 (an AMPA receptor antagonist). Infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) into the bladder produced bladder overactivity. In the first group of 5 cats, bladder capacity was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 55.3±10.0% of saline control by AA irritation. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) significantly (p<0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426872/importance-and-difficulties-of-pursuing-rtms-research-in-acute-stroke
#15
James R Carey, Diane M Chappuis, Marsha J Finkelstein, Kate L Frost, Lynette K Leuty, Allison L McNulty, Lars I E Oddsson, Erin M Seifert, Teresa J Kimberley
Although much research has been done on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic stroke, only sparse research has been done in acute stroke despite the particularly rich potential for neuroplasticity in this stage. We attempted a preliminary clinical trial in one active, high-quality inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) in the -United States. But after enrolling only 4 patients in the grant period, the study was stopped because of low enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to offer a perspective describing the important physiologic rationale for including rTMS in the early phase of stroke, the reasons for our poor patient enrollment in our attempted study, and recommendations to help future studies succeed...
March 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425471/nonspecific-synaptic-plasticity-improves-the-recognition-of-sparse-patterns-degraded-by-local-noise
#16
Karen Safaryan, Reinoud Maex, Neil Davey, Rod Adams, Volker Steuber
Many forms of synaptic plasticity require the local production of volatile or rapidly diffusing substances such as nitric oxide. The nonspecific plasticity these neuromodulators may induce at neighboring non-active synapses is thought to be detrimental for the specificity of memory storage. We show here that memory retrieval may benefit from this non-specific plasticity when the applied sparse binary input patterns are degraded by local noise. Simulations of a biophysically realistic model of a cerebellar Purkinje cell in a pattern recognition task show that, in the absence of noise, leakage of plasticity to adjacent synapses degrades the recognition of sparse static patterns...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425137/three-dimensional-printing-an-aid-to-epidural-access-for-neuromodulation
#17
Murray G Taverner, John P Monagle
OBJECTIVE: The case report details to use of three-dimensional (3D) printing as an aid to neuromodulation. METHODS: A patient is described in whom previous attempts at spinal neuromodulation had failed due to lack of epidural or intrathecal access, and the use of a 3D printed model allowed for improved planning and ultimately, success. RESULTS: Successful spinal cord stimulation was achieved with the plan developed by access to a 3D model of the patient's spine...
April 20, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422795/trial-design-and-endpoint-evaluation-in-clinical-studies-addressing-chronic-back-pain
#18
Peter Staats
STUDY DESIGN: A review of the literature evaluating clinical trials of chronic back pain. OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in assessing the quality of clinical trial data to make the most informed treatment decisions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic pain is a tremendous public health issue, affecting close to 100 million adults in the United States, and costs the American people billions of dollars. One traditional treatment approach, the long-term use of opiate medications, has recently come under intense scrutiny for problems with complications, diversion, abuse, addiction and lack of efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422708/a-brief-essay-on-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Alberto Raggi, Domenica Tasca, Raffaele Ferri
Current pharmacological therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not modify its course and are not always beneficial. Therefore, the optimization of quality of life represents the best possible outcome achievable in all stages of the disease. Cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation represents the main therapeutic approach for this purpose, also in order to mitigate indirectly the burden of distress of family caregivers. The aim of this mini-review is to go through this theme by discussing cognitive activation, virtual reality and neuromodulation techniques...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421851/global-and-multi-focal-changes-in-cerebral-blood-flow-during-subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Asim M Mubeen, Babak Ardekani, Michele Tagliati, Ron Alterman, Vijay Dhawan, David Eidelberg, John J Sidtis
Electrical stimulation of subthalamic nuclei (STN) is a widely used therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). While deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN alters the neurophysiological activity in basal ganglia, the therapeutic mechanism has not been established. A positron emission tomography (PET) study of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during speech production in PD subjects treated with STN-DBS found significant increases in global (whole-brain) CBF.(1) That study utilized a series of whole-slice regions of interest to obtain global CBF values...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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