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Problem-based education

Andrea K Newman, Shweta Kapoor, Beverly E Thorn
Background: Chronic pain is a serious health problem with high rates of health care utilization (HCU). Many patients become stymied in a perpetual cycle of unsuccessful attempts to find relief from suffering through frequent health care visits. Especially within low-income populations, the burdens of health care services are especially unpleasant due to significant financial costs, barriers to transportation, and high levels of stress. This study aimed to examine factors associated with HCU for chronic pain in low-income settings...
June 13, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity is a major public health problem associated with an increased risk of several psychiatric and physical conditions. This study investigated the association between leisure time physical activity (PA) and incident use of prescription tranquilizers in a regionally representative and prospective cohort. METHODS: A total of 4043 men and women (mean age: 61.3 years; 57% women) from the Tromsø Study were followed for six years. Leisure time PA was captured at baseline...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Michaela Wagner-Menghin, Alexander Hirsch, Peter Pokieser
The problems and symptoms of patients are at the heart of medicine and pertinent to information, communication, and education. Patients present their problems to health professionals looking for relief and a cure, while institutions collect data about symptoms of patients and the way health professionals treated them to support society's care providers in administrating and managing care. The information on the problems of patients and the way health professionals treated them, which is gathered and stored in patient files, is valuable as educational material in the field of medicine...
June 13, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Edgar Galindo, Adelinda A Candeias, Heldemerina S Pires, Luísa Grácio, Marcus Stück
This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST) was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Joshua DeSipio, John Gaughan, Susan Perlis, Sangita Phadtare
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the need to integrate formal knowledge with clinical experience in the pre-clinical years since the initial years of medical education play an important role in shaping the attitudes of medical students towards medicine and support the development of clinical reasoning. In this study, we describe approaches that involve real patients and patient-simulation-based methodologies to teach gastroenterology to second year medical students. Our goals were to (i) demonstrate bio-psychosocial aspects of clinical practice, (ii) demonstrate commonality of gastrointestinal ailments, and (iii) help understand complex gastroenterology concepts...
June 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Luke J Potgieter, Mirijam Gaertner, Patrick J O'Farrell, David M Richardson
Many alien plant species are introduced to urban areas to create, augment or restore ecosystem services (ES). However, many of these species spread beyond original plantings, sometimes causing negative effects on existing ES or creating novel ecosystem disservices (EDS). An understanding of the perceptions of urban residents regarding invasive alien plants (IAPs) and the ES and EDS they provide is needed for the effective prioritisation of IAP management efforts in cities. Using the city of Cape Town, South Africa as a case study, we conducted questionnaire-based surveys (online and face-to-face) to determine the perceptions of urban residents regarding IAPs and their capacity to provide ES and EDS...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Georgie Bell, Harriet Hiscock, Sherryn Tobin, Fallon Cook, Valerie Sung
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether infants with colic that resolved before 6 months of age have poorer medium-term outcomes than infants without colic. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study of 2 prospective, community-based cohorts of children aged 2-3 years in Melbourne, Australia: children from the Baby Biotics study, with previously diagnosed Wessel criteria of colic without problem crying at 6 months (True Colic Cohort), vs children from the Baby Business trial, without problem crying at 1, 4, and 6 months (No Colic Cohort)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Margherita Malanchini, Emily Smith-Woolley, Ziada Ayorech, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Eero Vuoksimaa, Tellervo Korhonen, Meike Bartels, Toos C E M van Beijsterveldt, Richard J Rose, Sebastian Lundström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Jaakko Kaprio, Paul Lichtenstein, Dorret I Boomsma, Robert Plomin
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to offspring's externalizing problems. It has been argued that socio-demographic factors (e.g. maternal age and education), co-occurring environmental risk factors, or pleiotropic genetic effects may account for the association between MSDP and later outcomes. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the association between MSDP and a single harmonized component of externalizing: aggressive behaviour, measured throughout childhood and adolescence...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jinshuo Li, Steve Parrott, Michael Sweeting, Andrew Farmer, Jamie Ross, Charlotte Dack, Kingshuk Pal, Lucy Yardley, Maria Barnard, Mohammed Hudda, Ghadah Alkhaldi, Elizabeth Murray
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common long-term conditions, and costs health services approximately 10% of their total budget. Active self-management by patients improves outcomes and reduces health service costs. While the existing evidence suggested that uptake of self-management education was low, the development of internet-based technology might improve the situation. OBJECTIVE: To establish the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based self-management program for people with type 2 diabetes (HeLP-Diabetes) compared to usual care...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Anthony Amalba, Francis A Abantanga, Albert J J A Scherpbier, W N K A van Mook
BACKGROUND: An unequal distribution of health personnel, leading to unfavourable differences in health status between urban and rural populations, is a serious cause for concern globally. Part of the solution to this problem lies in attracting medical doctors to rural, remote communities, which presents a real challenge. The present study therefore explored the factors that influence medical doctors' decision to practise in rural Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on questionnaires...
June 8, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Meghan E Morean, Nancy Darling, Jessie Smit, Jolie DeFeis, Maya Wergeles, Dana Kurzer-Yashin, Kaitlyn Custer
Sexual misconduct occurs with disproportionate frequency on college campuses, and alcohol is involved in most sexual assaults. Importantly, collegiate athletes are at risk for both heavy drinking and sexual misconduct. Thus, the current study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, 2.5-hr, peer-facilitated, interactive, group-based bystander intervention program for student athletes that integrated information on sexual misconduct and risky drinking (Preventing and Responding to Sexual Misconduct [PRSM]). In all, 205 athletes completed 25-min surveys immediately before and after the training, and 76 (of 94 invited) completed a 3-month follow-up...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Karen D Könings, Nynke de Jong, Christa Lohrmann, Linas Sumskas, Tony Smith, Stephen J O'Connor, Ingrid A E Spanjers, Jeroen J G Van Merriënboer, Katarzyna Czabanowska
Background: Public health leaders are confronted with complex problems, and developing effective leadership competencies is essential. The teaching of leadership is still not common in public health training programs around the world. A reconceptualization of professional training is needed and can benefit from innovative educational approaches. Our aim was to explore learners' perceptions of the effectiveness and appeal of a public health leadership course using problem-based, blended learning methods that used virtual learning environment technologies...
2018: Public Health Reviews
Tahereh Molkara, Farideh Akhlaghi, Mohammad Arash Ramezani, Roshanak Salari, Veda Vakili, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Mohammad Reza Fayyazi Bordbar, Ahmad Ghorbani, Malihe Motavasselian
Background: Globally, female sexual dysfunction is a serious concern based on negative family and social consequences, high side effects of medications and lack of effective treatment. Thus, the evaluation of treatment approach for this problem is an important priority for healthcare systems. Sexual life and its related disorders are considered the main aspects of a healthy lifestyle in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Objective: The present study aimed to determine and compare the effects of food products containing Daucus carota, TPM-based training program, and a combination of these two interventions on the improvement of female sexual dysfunction...
April 2018: Electronic Physician
Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe, Devani Sakunthala Dissanayake, Gihan Sajiwa Abeywardena
Background: Even though the concept of burnout has been widely explored across the globe, the evidence base on burnout among high school students in the South Asian context is scanty. Against the backdrop of ever-increasing educational demands and expectations, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 872 grade thirteen students in 15 government schools in an educational zone, Kegalle district, Sri Lanka selected by a stratified cluster sampling technique...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Chanjin Zheng, Chun Wang
Cognitive diagnosis has emerged as a new generation of testing theory for educational assessment after the item response theory (IRT). One distinct feature of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) is that they assume the latent trait to be discrete instead of continuous as in IRT. From this perspective, cognitive diagnosis bears a close resemblance to searching problems in computer science and, similarly, item selection problem in cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) can be considered as a dynamic searching problem...
October 2017: Applied Psychological Measurement
David A Shaye, Travis Tollefson, Irfan Shah, Gopal Krishnan, Damir Matic, Marcelo Figari, Thiam Chye Lim, Sunil Aniruth, Warren Schubert
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a significant contributor to global disease, and low-income countries disproportionately shoulder this burden. Education and training are critical components in the effort to address the surgical workforce shortage. Educators can tailor training to a diverse background of health professionals in low-resource settings using competency-based curricula. We present a process for the development of a competency-based curriculum for low-resource settings in the context of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma education...
June 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Seyed Saied Mazloomi-Mahmoodabad, Seyed Alireza Afshani, Nahid Ardian, Ali Vaezi, Seyed Ali Asghar Refahi
AIM: The present study sought to explore the experiences of participants in divorce process according to the theory of planned behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted using content analysis method. In this research, 27 participants involved in the divorce process were selected. The data were coded, and the qualitative content analysis was performed. RESULTS: Based on four constructs of the theory of planned behaviour, the subcategories of instrumental attitude were "Divorce as the last solution" and "Divorce as damage for individuals and society"...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Khwima E Mkalira Msiska, Andrew Kumitawa, Benjamin Kumwenda
Background: In Malawi, paper-based medical record-keeping has been observed to exacerbate challenges related to accessing patient records and patient tracking. Despite the introduction of electronic medical record (EMR) systems in 2001, paper-based records continue to be in use. Some health workers prefer paper-based records to EMRs. This study assessed factors that affect the use of EMRs in Malawi, particularly at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu Central Hospitals. It further investigated the reasons why paper-based records are still in use despite the numerous associated disadvantages...
September 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Anne H Salonen, Jukka Kontto, Riku Perhoniemi, Hannu Alho, Sari Castrén
BACKGROUND: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. METHODS: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE)...
June 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
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